with all necessaries and proper utensils, for three years; after which time, they were to grant to each workman sufficient land for his support, and grain for seed. The Company also stipulated to colonize the land embraced in their charter, with six thousand emigrants, before the year 1643, and to provide each settlement with three priests, whom they were to support for fifteen years ; after which time the cleared land was to be granted to the catholic clergy for the maintenance of the church.

Certain prerogatives were at the same time reserved to the King. Among these, were religious supremacy, homage as sovereign of the country, the right of nominating the commandants of forts, and the officers of justice, and on each succession to the throne the acknowledgment of a crown of gold weighing eight marks. The Company was invested with the right of conferring titles of distinction, some of which were required to be confirmed by the King. The right to traffic in pestry, and to engage in other commerce, except the cod and whale fishery,

was another privilege granted in the charter. The King of France also presented the Company with two ships of war, in consideration that the value should be refunded, if they failed to send fifteen hundred emigrants into the colonies, within the first ten years. The descendants of Frenchmen inhabiting Canada, and all savages who should be converted to the Catholic faith, were permitted to enjoy the same privileges as natural born subjects; and all artificers sent out by the Company, who had spent six years in the French colonies, were allowed to return and settle in any trading town of France. The charter granting these privileges was designed to strengthen the power of France, in the territory which she claimed in this country, while the views of the grantees were chiefly directed to the profits of the fur trade.

M. Champlain was soon appointed Governor. For the first few years, however, the colony, from various causes connected with its remoteness from the parent government, trackless wilderness, and surrounded by hostile savages, was on the point of breaking down. Ships had been sent out from France with supplies ; but these were captured by an English squadron, under David Kertk. The depredations of the Iroquois also tended to cripple the energies of the colonists, until the year 1629, when they had reached the extreme point of distress. At this juncture, Kerik's force appeared

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before Quebec, and compelled Champlain to surrender that fortress, and all Canada, to the English crown. terms of Kerik's capitulation induced most of the French emigrants to remain ; and, in 1632, the country was restored to France by the treaty of St. Germain.

Immediately on this event, vigorous efforts were made to advance the colonization of the country. Champlain, who had been reappointed Governor, soon sailed with a squadron provided with the necessary supplies and armaments, and arrived in Canada, where he found many of the former colonists. The colonial system was better organized, and measures were adopted to reconcile existing differences, springing from the unsettled character of the emigrants, and to prevent the importation of any but individuals of fair character. In 1635, a college of the order of Jesuits was founded at Quebec, under the direction of the Marquis de Gamache ; and this institution was of some advantage in improving the morals of the people, which had fallen into a deplorable state of licentiousness. During that year the colony suffered a great misfortune in the death of Champlain. He was a man of energetic character, and clear judgment. He had embarked in the enterprise of colonization with a stout heart, and ardent zeal. A brave officer, and a scientific seaman, his keen forecast discerned, in the magnificent resources of the Northwest, the elements of a mighty empire of which he hoped to be the founder. By his explorations of the country, be had contributed valuable knowledge of its resources, and had not only encountered the savages with signal success, but by his counsels, had strengthened the arms of the desponding. * On the death of Champlain, M. Montmagny was appointed governor. Although he entered into the views of his predecessor, Montmagny did not possess the ripe experience and practical knowledge requisite to carry out the projects of Champlain, and the successful prosecution of the fur trade was the only token of energy under his administration.

About this time a number of religious institutions were established in Canada, ostensibly for the conversion of the Indians, but doubtless as a part of the state machinery to strengthen the French colonial power. In 1636 a Catholic

* In one of his first expeditions he discovered the lake which bears his VOL. XLVI. - NO. 99.



The action of the waves is continually producing changes along all the coasts, the interposed beds of tuff and cinders are washed away, and the compact beds of lava being left unsupported, fall. The shores are strewed with huge blocks and fragments of all sizes.

Did not the geological structure of the islands furnish abundant evidence of volcanic action, we find it on record in the islands, and in one of the earliest works, that eruptions and earthquakes have occurred at various times, as well within the recollection of living witnesses as at earlier periods.

The first earthquake of which we have been able to find any record was on the 25th of October, in the year 1522, when five thousand persons were destroyed. It occurred at daylight, and was particularly violent in the district of Fanaes da Ajuda and Maia, on the north coast of St. Michael's. It extended to a considerable distance, nearly destroying the large city and port of Villa Franca. A large part of the town was laid in ruins, and the Franciscan convent and other buildings were overwhelmed by a torrent of ashes and mud which has since become consolidated into a compact tuffa. Although the destruction of this place is now always attributed, by the present inhabitants, to an earthquake, it is beyond doubt that an eruption took place, of which we find traces in the compact lava covering the tuff and running out into the sea, forming indeed a wall with points here and there appearing above water, and resembling somewhat a coral reef, in front of the town. There is also in front of the town an island of tuff in distinct strata, dipping towards the interior in the form of a washing basin.*

In 1563, on the 25th of June, the whole island of St. Michael's was convulsed with an earthquake, which was most seriously felt in the neighbourhood of Ribeira Grande. An eruption appears to have taken place near the centre of the island; and the bill formed, which has now the name of Mount Vultur, exhibits abundant evidence of this event. The lava flowed in a current chiefly to the West, and covered Cabuco with porous lava; a tract which still remains uncultivated. At this time a large crater, called Lagoa do Fogo (or Lake of fire), twelve and a balf fathoms deep, was formed.

An eruption also occurred on the 2d of September, 1630,

See a plate and description of this island in Daubeny on Volcanoes, copied from Dr. Webster's work.

ber of the settlers on the Island of Montreal, and kept Quebec in a continual state of alarm. While the colony was in this condition, the governor requested to be recalled on account of ill health, and in 1661, he was succeeded by the Baron d’Avangour, a man of the most inflexible energy of character. On his accession, the governor presented to the French King such favorable views of the country, as to induce him to order into the colony four hundred troops, with the necessary supplies. It was doubtless this reinforcement which saved them from entire destruction. They were placed in a condition to practise agriculture to some extent, which had before been neglected through fear of the savages, as well as from other causes, which we shall hereafter exhibit.

The “Company of New France," having failed in the object of its charter, at length surrendered it to the crown, and in 1664 its privileges were transferred to the Company of the West Indies.” The whole policy of the French colony in Canada had in fact been injudiciously framed. They had no clearly defined system of jurisprudence, and were rent into factions composed of the parties of the Governor, the Bishop, and the Jesuits, who were each anxious to undermine the power of the others. The morals of the colony were loose, a great portion of the emigrants having been furnished by the most idle and corrupt classes in France. A council was, however, soon constituted, for the administration of its affairs, consisting of the Governor-General, the Intendant-General, the Bishop, and some others, who were removable at the will of the governor. The Superior of the Jesuits presided at this council, when sitting as a court of justice. Forts were erected on the principal highways of trade, in order to keep the Iroquois in check; and in 1668, the affairs of the colony seemed to be established on a firm basis. It had received accessions by reinforcements which arrived from the West Indies ; and a number of officers, to whom had been granted lands with the rights of seigneurs, settled in Canada, with their families. The morals of the people were not improved by the introduction of about three hundred women of licentious character, who were sent out by the French government. These, however, were soon disposed of in marriage.

The Count de Frontenac, a nobleman of distinguished family, and of the most arbitrary but vigorous character, was soon

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invested with the administration of Canada. He made extraordinary efforts to develope the resources of the country, and to build up the French colonial establishments. At that period, the territory along the Lakes Erie, Huron, Michigan, and Superior, was explored; a portion of the Hurons was settled at Michilimackinac, by Father Marquette ; and a part of the Iroquois, who had been converted to the Catholic faith, were established at St. Louis, near Montreal. A council of the principal chiefs in that quarter was also held at the Falls of St. Mary, which resulted in a stipulation that the French should occupy that post; and a cross was erected there bearing the arms of France.

Expeditions for discovery were also despatched about this time for the remote west. In 1672, M. Falon, a former Intendant-General, who had done important service to the French government by extending its power to the distant points of Canada, understood, from reports of the Indians, that a great river, called by them Michi-sépée, flowed in a southerly direction through the extreme western wilderness. To ascertain this point, he employed M. Joliet, a citizen of Quebec, and Father Marquette, who had travelled into the Indian country, and as a missionary was qualified to gain the confidence of the savages. They proceeded to Lake Michigan, crossed the country to the River Wisconsin, and descended it until they reached the Mississippi. Floating down the stream in a canoe, they soon arrived at some Indian villages of the Illinois tribe, and were treated with hospitality by the savages. They then passed over to Arkansas. Having become convinced that the Mississippi fowed into the Gulf of Mexico, they were obliged, from the exhausted state of their stock, to return. They ascended the Mississippi to its confluence with the Illinois, then paddled up that stream, and crossed over to Michigan. Here they separated. Joliet returned to Quebec, and Marquette remained among the Indians.

In 1678, Robert de la Salle, accompanied by the Chevalier Tonti, arrived at Quebec. He had previously resided in Canada, where he had cultivated a friendship with M. de Frontenac. He also soon embarked in the enterprise of discovery. Accompanied by Father Louis Hennepin, a Flemish Recollet, and M. Tonti, he employed a part of his time in exploring the country, establishing friendly relations with

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