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dents from the colleges, half soldiers, half demagogues, sent to stir up the spirits of the ignorant peasantry. Attacked in their sleep, in the dark, by a whole Hungarian regiment, with horse and artillery, surprised, drowsy, in disorder, they fought for two hours with severe loss to their enemies. Several of them died the death of the brave. A large number surrendered, and, with a rope round their necks, were led to Placentia, to which place Maria Louisa had received orders to repair with the remains of her court.
The people of Parma were awoke from their happy dream by the news of the breach of the non-intervention. But they were not dismayed. Eight young men set out in disguise with postchaises, went across a portion of disputed territory, and, by a daring camisado, laid hands on the person of the bishop of Guastallo, an Austrian prelate, the confessor of Maria Louisa, and one of her favorites ; and from the heart of bis diocese, from the quiet of his palace, they drove him in triumph to Parma, where he was surrounded with guards, and kept as a hostage. He was compelled to write a letter to the Duchess, in which he assured her on the part of the rebels, that the touching of a hair of the head of one of her prisoners, would be the signal for him to ascend the gallows. Maria Louisa, out of kindness to her spiritual director, set her captives at liberty, and bis Eminence was accordingly dismissed. He took his flight beyond the Alps, not stopping until he saw himself among his friends at home, whence he could never be induced to return.
The provisional governments ruled with wisdom and moderation, but answered very timidly to the enthusiastic confidence of the young. They saw how hopeless any resistance to Austria must prove. They made all efforts to persuade the most resolute, that the days of chivalry were over ; and it was now a proof of patriotism to submit
, to yield to an unconquerable fortune, and wait for better days.
On the 20th of March, at break of day, a thick, close column of eight hundred Austrian infantry appeared at the eastern, and six thousand at the western gate. The most obstinate champions had been dragged by main force, by their parents and friends, from the gates where they had sworn to fight to the last, and the Austrians entered undisturbed.
It is not our purpose to follow the deseat of the revolution of 1831 in the other states of Central Italy. The fate of Parma
was with little variety that of Modena, and of the different provinces of the Papal state. The events were so rapid, and succeeded each other so quietly, that the world took no notice of them ; and Austria made a mystery of the subject, as if she had been ashamed of her triumph.
Maria Louisa returned to her metropolis, to her silent and sullen metropolis. Shops and windows were shut up; at the theatre some of her courtiers raised the cry, “ Long live Maria Louisa ; " but the theatre was still as death. She confined herself to her palace, surrounded by Austrians, and proceeded against the rebels. None could be arrested but those who refused to fly. They were dragged before a regular tribunal, and judged according to the laws of the country. They underwent a long inquisition, but no crime could be proved against them. No witness could be found to testify, no judge to pronounce a conviction ; the witnesses and judges were Italians. Maria Louisa proclaimed an amnesty, in which she excepted only twenty-one individuals, against whom she entertained a personal antipathy. Rome and Modena proscribed their subjects by thousands.
Meanwhile, schooled by misfortune, the Duchess limited the number of her servants, gave up travelling and building, and sold part of her jewels. Private and public chagrins preyed upon her mind. One of her favorite ministers was stabbed in broad daylight in one of the most populous squares. Her Austrians had daily quarrels with her Italians. Earthquake, famine, and cholera, successively ravaged her states. The people murmured, as if she had been guilty of all public calamities.
She was called to Vienna, after a short lapse of time, to see her first-born pine slowly, and die in her arms. A few years afterwards, she received the last breath of the Emperor, her father. Her health, undermined by the long indulgence of a disorderly life, was now shaken by the repeated strokes of adversity. She had lived too fast ; she had soon reached her end. We know but little of the particulars of her death. According to the staternent of the newspaper in which we read it, she appeared to have died at peace with Heaven, and pardoned by her subjects. The Italian motto is,
“Oltre il rogo non vive ira nemica."
Hizouman, ART. V. – 1. British America. By John McGREGOR,
Esq. In two volumes. William Blackwood, Edinburgh,
and T. Cadell, Strand, London. 1833. 2. Narrative of an Expedition through the Upper Missis
sippi to Itasca Lake, the actual Source of this River, embracing an Exploratory Trip through the St. Croix and Burntwood Rivers, in 1832. Under the Direction of Henry R. Schoolcraft. New York. Harper and Brothers. 1834.
We do not propose to institute an examination of the works whose titles we have prefixed to this paper. Mr. Schoolcraft's book is confined mainly to topographical observations, and sketches of Indian character and languages. The work of Mr. McGregor, which is all that good paper and the English press could have made it, embraces a full account of the history and resources of the British possessions in North America. We shall avail ourselves of its aid, in throwing together some facts, relating to the history of Canada.
When, as long ago as the sixteenth century, the principal monarchs of Europe turned their attention to the new-found world in the West, the precious metals, which were supposed to abound in the northern parts of this continent, as well as in Mexico, Peru, and Brazil, were the objects which first stimulated their enterprise. When, however, no gold, silver, or gems were discovered in the soil, the dominion of the country became an aim of national ambition, and adventurers of great perseverance and hardihood were found willing to prosecute their schemes for that end. Ever since its discovery, this particular region of the country has been the theatre of striking vicissitudes, which have been set forth in a prominent light, in the works of Hakluyt, Hennepin, La Hontan, Charlevoix, and succeeding writers, who have advanced into the northwestern wilderness, for their own purposes, or those of their King.
Our first account of this region dates from the second voyage of Jacques Cartier, eighty-five years before the Pilgrims of New England landed on Plymouth Rock. At the solicitation of Chabot, who was then Admiral of France, Cartier, then a master mariner of St. Malo, received a commission of discovery from Francis the First, the French King, for the pur
The first edition of the “ Minstrelsy," consisting of eight hundred copies, went off, as Lockhart tells us, in less than a year ; and the poet, on the publication of a second, received five hundred pounds sterling from Longman, — an enormous price for such a commodity, but the best bargain, probably, that the bookseller ever made, as the subsequent sale has since extended to twenty thousand copies. Scott was not in great haste to follow up his success.
It was three years later, before he took the field as an independent author, in a poem which at once placed him among the great original writers of his country. The “ Lay of the Last Minstrel,” a complete expansion of the ancient ballad into an epic form, was published in 1805. It was opening a new creation the realm of fancy. It seemed as if the author had transfused into his page the strong delineations of the Homeric pencil, the rude, but generous gallantry of a primitive period, softened by the more airy and magical inventions of Italian romance,* and conveyed in tones of natural melody, such as had not been heard since the strains of Burns. The book speedily found that unprecedented circulation, which all his subsequent compositions attained. Other writers had addressed themselves to a more peculiar and limited feeling ; to a narrower, and generally a more select, audience. But Scott was found to combine all the qualities of interest for every order. He drew from the pure springs, which gush forth in every heart.
His narrative chained every reader's attention by the stirring variety of its incidents, while the fine touches of sentiment with which it abounded, like wild flowers, springing up spontaneously around, were full of freshness and beauty, that made one wonder others should not have stooped to gather them before.
The success of the “ Lay" determined the course of its author's future life. Notwithstanding his punctual attention to
* “ Mettendo lo Turpin, lo metto anch'io,” says Ariosto, playfully, when he tells a particularly tough story.
“I cannot tell how the truth may be,
I say the tale as 't was said to me, says the author of the “ Lay," on a similar occasion. The resemblance might be traced much farther than mere forms of expression, to the Italian, who, like
" the Ariosto of the North, Sung ladye-love, and war, romance, and knightly worth.”
his profession, his utmost profits for any one year of the ten he had been in practice had not exceeded two hundred and thirty pounds ; and of late they had sensibly declined. Latterly, indeed, he had coquetted somewhat too openly with the Muse for his professional reputation. Themis has always been found a stern and jealous mistress, chary of dispensing her golden favors to those who are seduced into a Airtation with her more volatile sister.
Scott, however, soon found himself in a situation that made him independent of her favors. His income from the two offices to which he was promoted, of Sheriff of Selkirk, and Clerk of the Court of Sessions, was so ample, combined with what fell to him by inheritance and marriage, that he was left at liberty freely to consult his own tastes. Amid the seductions of poetry, however, he never shrunk from his burdensome professional duties; and he submitted to all their drudgery with unflinching constancy, when the labors of his pen made the emoluments almost beneath consideration.
He never relished the idea of being divorced from active life by the solitary occupations of a recluse. And his official functions, however severely they taxed his time, may be said to have, in some degree, compensated him by the new scenes of life which they were constantly disclosing, - the very materials of those fictions, on which his fame and his fortune were to be built.
Scott's situation was, on the whole, eminently propitious to literary pursuits. He was married, and passed the better portion of the year in the country, where the quiet pleasures of his fireside circle, and a keen relish for rural sports, relieved his mind and invigorated both health and spirits. In early life, it seems, he had been crossed in love ; and, like Dante and Byron, to whom in this respect he is often compared, he has more than once, according to his biographer, shadowed forth in his verses the object of his unfortunate passion. He does not appear to have taken it so seriously, however, nor to have shown the morbid sensibility in relation to it, discovered by both Byron and Dante, the former of whom perhaps found his cara sposa so much too cold, as the latter certainly did his too hot, for his own temperament, as to seek relief from the present in the poetical visions of the past.
Scott's next great poem was his " Marmion,” transcending,