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what the Latin language cannot do, the English can ; i. e. what the writers of Hebrew-Latin dictionaries have not done and could not do, he has done in his Hebrew-English dictionary. But, even conceding that he has done his work well, it would not establish the implication which he intended to make. There are
some points, in respect to which the English tongue certainly approaches nearer to the Hebrew than the Latin. On the other hand, there are other things in which the Latin idiom can express the peculiar power of the Hebrew more briefly and energetically than the English. There are others still, which neither Latin nor English can express; and all that remains for the translator is, periphrasis, or approximation to an expression of the meaning of the original by circumlocutory explanation. Every Hebrew student must surely know all this. It is a matter which falls within his daily experience and observation. Yet Mr. Roy's statement would imply, that what the Latin cannot do, the English can ; and that, in his Lexicon, no failures to express fully and exactly the original Hebrew are to be met with.
The author, a little farther on, expresses his hope of a favorable reception of his work on the part of the public, on the ground, that “it is the first and only original English and Hebrew lexicon ever published in the United States.” We had supposed, however, that the Lexicon of Mr. Gibbs, not to mention others, although professing to be compiled from the works of Gesenius, still contained as much fruit of his own proper study and investigation as most works of the like kind are wont to do at the present day, certainly very much more than Mr. Roy's. But the modesty of the author prevented him from stating all which he had done. Mr. Roy does not seem to be under any bondage from such ties as those of authors like Mr. Gibbs ;
Our author next proceeds to state sixteen grounds on which his Lexicon deserves the preference above all others which have been published. We shall follow him, step by step, in regard to his principal grounds, and subject them to examination. Our readers, however, must not be alarmed at such a promise on our part. We engage to be as brief as any justice to the subject will permit, and on most of the heads to occupy but very little of the reader's tirne. We commence with Mr. Roy's leading particular :
(1) “ It is more correct and complete in its definitions, and
contains several thousand more words, than Hebrew lexicons in general.” – p. vi.
As these are fundamental qualities of a good lexicon, we shall find indulgence here, we hope, to be somewhat particular in our examination.
It will be seen, at once, however, by every reader who understands the nature of this subject, that we can do nothing more, in a review like the present, than to select a few specimens, and then leave him to judge by analogy.
We begin then with the first verbal root which occurs, viz. 72x. In Kal this has two meanings, to lose one's self, or to become lost, with particular reference to losing one's self by wandering out of the right path, or in a desert place, etc. As connected with this a secondary and more frequent sense is, to perish, pereo, interco. A third meaning, somewhat less certain, is, to become unhappy or wretched ; and this must be considered rather as a tropical than a literal sense of the word.
These several meanings exhaust the senses of the word in its first conjugation. Some slight variations these receive, from the objects with which the verb stands connected in different passages.
The first of these senses, however, our author does not give, unless he means that the reader shall suppose it to be implied in No. 2, went astray, departed from God. Now, as we read this “definition,” (to use Mr. Roy's phrase,) we can receive no other impression from it, than that 72$ means, to go astray from God, to depart from God. But the word is applied in the Scriptures, to sheep wandering away from their pasture or owner, Ps. cxix. 176, Jer. 1. 6, Ezek. xxxiv. 4, 16. Are we then to suppose that the sheep have departed from God? Or are we, as Gesenius has done, to understand that wander is generic in its meaning, and may be taken in a literal or a tropical sense, as the exigency of the case may demand ?
The secondary meaning, to perish, our author places first, thus showing that he does not understand how to distinguish the natural order of meanings according to their obvious philological sequency
But we have a third meaning, as given by Mr. Roy ; viz. to become vain, empty, desolate, destitute. Now it is possible, we admit, to make out of the meaning perish, something kindred to becoming desolate or destitute ; but in what tolerable No. 99.
tented with their condition, than those who are scrambling among the bushes at the bottom of the mountain. The fact seems to be, as Scott himself intimates more than once, that the joy is in the chase ; whether in the prose or the poetry of life.
But it is high time to terminate our lucubrations; which, however imperfect and unsatisfactory, have already run to a length that must trespass on the patience of the reader. We rise from the perusal of these delightful volumes, with the same sort of melancholy feeling with which we wake from a pleasant dream. The concluding volume, of which such ominous presage is given in the last sentence of the fifth, has not yet reached us, but we know enough to anticipate the sad catastrophe it is to unfold, of the drama. In those which we have seen, however, we have beheld a succession of interesting characters come upon the scene, - and pass away to their long home. “Bright eyes now closed in dust, gay voices for ever silenced," seem to haunt us, too, as we write. The imagination reverts to Abbotsford, -the romantic and once brilliant Abbotsford, - the magical creation of his hands. We see its balls radiant with the hospitality of his benevolent heart ; thronged with pilgrims from every land, assembled to pay homage at the shrine of genius ; echoing to the blithe music of those festal holidays, when young and old met to renew the usages of the good old times.
“These were its charms, – but all these charms are fled." Its courts are desolate, or trodden only by the foot of the stranger. The stranger sits under the shadows of the trees which his hand planted. The spell of the enchanter is dissolved. His wand is broken. And the mighty Minstrel himself now sleeps in the bosom of the peaceful scenes, embellished by his taste, and which his genius bas made immortal.
ART. VII. - Documentary History of the American Revolu
tion. Published in Conformity to an Act of Congress. By Matthew St. CLAIR CLARKE and PETER FORCE. Fourth Series. pp. 1886.
DOCUMENTARY history is to our merchants no unaccustomed thing. The careful man of business keeps a record of every transaction. Not a penny is received or expended, without a memorial ; not an ounce of sugar, not a grain of coffee is imported, but the history is preserved of the harbour where it was freighted, of the ship in which it sailed, of the port where it came to hand; and should a millionaire who has kept his files of papers amuse himself with considering the sources of bis wealth, he might trace it back to its feeblest springs ; might know what sums he had derived from lending, and what from profits in exchanges; might follow his operations not merely into the bank or the counting-house, but to those primary elements of increase, the workshop and the field.
Or look at the navigation of the country, where already a larger public interest exists. There is not a ship built upon any portion of our seacoast, on any little river, or inlet, but its name, and age, and character, and owners, are made the subject of registry ; and not a share in a sloop can change its proprietor without becoming chronicled.
If we turn to the great agricultural interest, the case is the same. The history of the ownership of every foot of land is carefully preserved ; and, with the exception of a very few litigated cases, every farm and every building in the country can be traced back to its earliest occupant and its builder.
Thus careful are we of every thing which relates to our material interests. Books are kept by double entry, that not a cent may stray into the obscure limits of conjectural reasoning; ships are registered in public offices; and deeds of lands and wills are saved from seizure or loss by becoming a matter of public record. The muse of history is charged with keeping the number of fishing smacks that go out for cod or herring, and will be denounced as false to her trust, if a cornfield changes owners without a deed and a copy of it.
Let us not then be indifferent to a documentary history of our freedom. “ If noble thoughts have risen din men's souls, and filled them with an enthusiasm which would not rest, till it had infused their conceptions into the fundamental legislation of the country, let us trace those conceptions to the statesmen in whose minds they sprung up, and to the moving causes which called them into being. When the farmers and mechanics of New England rushed to Bunker's Hill, and bade defiance to all the means, which monarchy and feudalism, and the European commercial aristocracy, could bring against them, they have a right that we should be curious to investigate the causes of so strange an event ; that we should trace their activity to their farms and firesides, to the hum of village politics, to the aspirings of the great agricultural class, to the doings of their modest, unpretending committees, to the resoluteness of their uncelebrated Hampdens, to the vigorous daring of their rural captains. Let us look really into the life of the country ; let us know, of a very truth, how the great deeds which make our land the hope of the nations, were generated and matured. History has hitherto haunted the recesses of palaces, has pryed into the mysteries of cabinets, has studied the jealousies of king's wives and king's mistresses ; let us send her now into the country to study man in his simplicity, to seek the earliest and humblest expressions of natural principles and feelings. Our freedom in the days of our struggle was safe ; for it had struck deep; let us know into what soil its roots have penetrated, and how deeply and how widely they extend.
New England people, especially those of Massachusetts and Connecticut, have always been a documentary people. Here we have our records that go back to the meetings of our fathers at Mr. Cradock's in London ; and our first governor kept a faithful diary of the great events, of which he in part comprehended the greatness.
Excellent WINTHROP! In him, a yielding gentleness of temper was secured against weakness by deep but tranquil enthusiasm. Lavish of fortune and health in the public service, and, for the welfare of Massachusetts, cheerfully encountering poverty and premature age, his lenient benevolence could temper, if not subdue, the bigotry of his times. An honest royalist, averse to pure democracy, yet firm in his regard for existing popular liberties ; in England a conformist, yet loving “gospel purity ” even to Independency, in America mildly aristocratic, advocating a govern