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necessary for it to look for a supply of water to foreign sources, nature has kindly placed those sources within its reach.
From these Reports it appears, that there are within twentytwo miles of Boston, about twenty ponds or lakes, or lochs, as they would be called on the other side of the Atlantic, and two rivers, the water of any of which would be preferable to that obtained within the city. By a comparison of these amongst themselves in the points of purity, elevation, and distance, the selection is confined to four, viz. Spot Pond in Stoneham, Mystic Pond in Medford, Long Pond in Natick, and Charles River. Though the Reports differ in their conclusions, yet they all recommend some one or more of these four sources.
The first Report, made in 1825 by Mr. Treadwell, is confined to Spot Pond and Charles River. But as these were more fully examined by the Commissioners in 1837, of whom Mr. Treadwell was one, no further remark need be made on this Report.
Mr. Loammi Baldwin's Report, made in 1834, after an examination of all the sources, concludes in favor of Long Pond, connected with two smaller ones, the water to be brought " by an aqueduct, without the use of pipes” to a reservoir in Roxbury, and thence into the city, at an estimated cost of $ 750,000, exclusive of that of distribution through the city.
Mr. Eddy, whose commission was limited to the survey of the ponds "emptying into Mystic Pond," and two others, and to an examination of “the cost of introduction of the waters of Spot and Mystic Ponds,” reported in 1836 a plan for uniting the waters of these two ponds in a reservoir on Bunker Hill in Charlestown, at an expense, exclusive of that of distribution, of $ 606,877.76.
In 1837 the whole subject was committed for inquiry to three Commissioners, Messrs. Daniel Treadwell, James F. Baldwin, and Nathan Hale; and their Report is the last of the series. From this report, which appears to be full and accurate upon the whole matter, we have gathered the details which we subjoin.
As to the quantity requisite for the city, the Commissioners, by an estimate of the supply in London and Philadelphia, assign twenty-eight and a half wine gallons to each inhabitant; and taking the present population at eighty thousand, and providing for its probable increase, they think it necessary to provide “ for an immediate supply of one million six hundred thousand gallons daily, to be extended in five years to two million five hundred thousand, and at the end of ten years to three million gallons daily." They then proceed to the sources.
1. Spot Pond is situated at a distance of ten miles and seven
tenths of a mile from the city, on the shortest route by which it would be advisable to lay a pipe.” Its surface is one hundred and forty-three feet and one hundredth above tide water, and it contains two hundred and eighty-three acres. In purity its water is unexceptionable; it being, as stated in Mr. Eddy's Report, in this respect, “ to Croton River water in New York as three to one, and to London water as seven to one.” This pond could, therefore, be brought to the city in an iron pipe, without artificial raising. But the estimated quantity which it will yield, though never less than one million six hundred thousand, yet never exceeding two million six hundred thousand gallons a day, it cannot alone be depended upon for a supply. For this reason, no separate estimate of the cost of bringing in this alone is made. Its advantages, however, in other respects are so great, that it is deemed advisable to use it in connexion with another afterwards named.
2. Long Pond is distant from the city, on the line surveyed for an aqueduct, twenty miles and one thousand and forty-three feet. It is one hundred and twenty-three feet and fifty-two hundredths above the level of full tide, and is three or four miles in length. Its water in quality is inserior to that of Spot Pond, but is not in this respect “in any considerable degree exceptionable.” The supply from it would unquestionably be ample, as it is estimated to furnish eight million seven hundred and forty-three thousand, six hundred and eighty gallons daily. In consequence of its distance and limited elevation, iron pipes would be too expensive; and if this pond should be used, a close brick aqueduct laid in hydraulic cement is recommended. The estimated cost of a supply from this source, to the reservoir in the city, exclusive of the expense of distribution, is $ 1,118,294.
3. Mystic Pond is nine miles from Boston on the proposed line of pipe. Its surface is nearly on a level with the sea at high water, and it contains two hundred and twenty-eight acres. The flow from this pond is constant and abundant, and its water is more pure than that of Long Pond, and less pure
than that of Spot Pond. Its purity is stated in Mr. Eddy's Report to be “to that of Croton River as two to one, and to London water as nine to two.” In consequence of its low position, the water of this pond, if resorted to, must be forced through iron pipes by pumps driven by steam power. A plan of doing this is stated, at an estimated cost to the reservoir in the city, exclusive of that of distribution, of $ 869,860.
4. Charles River, taken above the lower dam in Watertown, would furnish an ample supply of water, of a quality inferior to that of either of the three other sources, but still pure enough
for all purposes. As in the preceding case, however, the water, if used, must be pumped up either by steam power alone, or by that united with water power.
The estimated cost of a supply from this source to the reservoir in the city is $ 771,318.
Upon these facts and estimates, a majority of the Commissioners, Messrs. Treadwell and Hale, are in favor of a union of Spot and Mystic Ponds, of bringing the water of the former by iis natural flow, to a reservoir on Walnut Tree Hill in Medford, of forcing from the latter, by steam power, into the same reservoir, enough to supply any deficiency in the other source, and then of bringing the whole to the reservoir in the city by its natural flow, through an iron pipe. The estimated cost of this plan is $ 850,006.
Mr. Baldwin, on the other hand, is in favor of Long Pond as a source, and of bringing the water by a brick aqueduct, first to a reservoir on Corey's Hill in Brookline, and thence by an iron main to the same reservoir in the city, as in the other plan. The cost of this, as before stated, is.estimated at $1,118,294. The two Commissioners are determined in their choice by the fact, that their plan, whilst it furnishes as ample and certain a supply of as pure if not purer water, is less expensive than the other ; whilst Mr. Baldwin prefers the Long Pond source, though the most expensive, as it requires no pumping, and because he thinks the quantity more sure of being adequate to the future wants of the city, and the quality more likely to continue pure, than that of Mystic Pond.
The Commissioners also report a plan for distributing the water through the city, which is the same, whatever source of supply is resorted to. They provide for two reservoirs in different parts of the city, and then for iron mains from them, with service pipes on each side, with stop-cocks and fire plugs, making an aggregate of about sixty-five miles of iron pipe; and the whole cost of distribution is estimated at $ 657,554.
From these facts it is apparent, that by either of the two plans, the desired supply of pure water to the city of Boston is within the easy reach of the citizens. We commend the prudence which has been so long and carefully gathering the necessary information, and we trust ere long to be able to praise the enterprise which shall complete the work.
An Inqui'y into the Present State of the Remedial Law
of Massachusetts ; with suggestions for its Reform. By L. S. Cushing. [Republished from the American Jurist for July, 1837.] Hilliard, Gray, & Co. 1837. 8vo.
This is a learned, bold, and well-written tract. The reforms which it advocates are searching ; but they are sustained by reasons, which it is easier to question than to answer. Mr. Cushing recommends nothing less than the amalgamation of the two systems of law and equity, and the construction or revival from the two of a sort of tertium quid, in the language of the chemists, which shall have the great advantage of unity and consistency. Unprofessional readers may not be aware that our jurisprudence, in addition to the vast body of statutes, is composed of what is called the Common Law, being the usages which have been handed down from the early days of English history, and authenticated from time to time by decisions of the courts, and also of what is called Equity or Chancery, the latter system being of later origin than the other, and intended to supply its deficiencies. Chancery is, in short, the complement of the common law. It has grown up gradually with the necessities of society; and, by correcting the rigor of the ancient law, modifying many of its principles, and giving the citizen new remedies, it has kept our jurisprudence constantly adapted, like the Lesbian rule of antiquity, to the changing surface of society. The system of Equity, however, like the common law, depends upon usage, and was the natural offspring of the progress of civilization. Now it can hardly be questioned that our system would be preferable to what it is now, if it were divested of its present Janus-face, and made to assume but one counte
All that we mean to say, is, that one complete and comprehensive system of law, in which there is a prevailing unity, and where all the remedies harmonize, would be preferable to one like that we now live under, where courts proceed in different ways, and apply different remedies, according to the respective systems which they administer. The difficulty is in bringing about such a restoration. No greater change could be suggested. Though we do not see our way clear to any speedy accomplishment of it, yet we are not unwilling to look it in the face, and calmly estimate its importance, and the manner in which it may be best effected. And here the present tract will render important service. The subject is handled by Mr. Cushing with unsurpassed clearness, both of style and argument, and with a full knowledge of its difficultie has occupied no inconsiderable portion of the profession in England, we are not aware that it any discussion, which, for general completeness with the present. Mr. Johnes's treatise on this of the most interesting works on law-reform whic and is written in a style which shows the scholar lawyer ; but the view, which he has presented, th space, has not the thorough character of Mr. Cus
6.- An Introduction to the Latin Language
Willard, A. A. S., Author of "The Fr “The Popular Reader," &c. Boston. & Co. 1835. 12mo. pp. 226.
It gives us pleasure to recommend this Latin who are desirous of introducing their pupils to guage in a pleasant as well as a thorough ma pleasant, not because we believe in the magic gay toys by which learning and philosophy are into the young mind, almost without its being but because we do think it important, that the f department of learning should not be the most d should certainly be taught that he cannot becom without labor; but it is not necessary that he s ened at the outset, in order to his perception of truth. We tell him, when we conduct him to t it is “laborious indeed at the first ascent”; he he cannot fold his arms, and be carried to the s riage, or a rail-way car; but he may thank thos Willard, have cut steps in the green turf, her assist the young and the feeble. We think, th ments of a language or a science should be agrecable a manner as is consistent with a goo of them. The love of the pursuit will by degree the labor necessary to farther progress; but, un some pleasure in the beginning of the race, t on vigorously; they must be enticed at first, a ney says savage nations must be, otherwise << much knowledge will little persuade them th fruits of knowledge."
Those of our readers, who, in their early da memory the Latin Grammar from beginning to phy, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody," befor