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ment, and with a full knowledge of its difficulties. Though it
has occupied no inconsiderable portion of the attention ai dhe
profession in England, we are not aware that it has called out
any discussion, which, for general completeness, can compare
with the present. Mr. Johnes's treatise on this subject is one
of the most interesting works on law-reform which has appeared

,
and is written in a style which shows the scholar

, as well as the lawyer ; but the view, which he has presented, though in greater space, has not the thorough character of Mr. Cushing's tract

6. – An Introduction to the Latin Language. By SAMUEL

WILLARD, A. A. S., Author of "The Franklin Primer,"
The Popular Reader,” &c. Boston. Hilliard, Gras,
& Co. 1835. 12mo. pp. 226.

It gives us pleasure to recommend this Latin Grammar to all
who are desirous of introducing their pupils to the Latin lur-
guage in a pleasant as well as a thorough manner. We saj
pleasant, not because we believe in the magic power of those
gay toys by which learning and philosophy are to be insinuated
into the young mind, almost without its being conscious of it;
but because we do think it important, that the first steps in any
department of learning should not be the most difficult. A child
should certainly be taught that he cannot become a good scholar
without labor; but it is not necessary that he should be fright-
ened at the outset, in order to his perception of this wholesome
truth. We tell him, when we conduct him to the hill-side, that
it is "laborious indeed at the first ascent"; he may be sure that
he cannot fold his arms, and be carried to the summit in a car-
riage, or a rail-way car; but he may thank those, who, like Dr.
Willard, have cut steps in the green turf

, here and there, to
assist the young and the feeble. We think, then, that the ele
ments of a language or a science should be conveyed in as
agrecable a manner as is consistent with a good understanding
of them. The love of the pursuit will by degrees bring a lore of
the labor necessary to farther progress ; but, unless children find
some pleasure in the beginning of the race, they will not run

vigorously; they must be enticed at first, as Sir Philip Sid.
ney says savage nations must be, otherwise "great promises of
much knowledge will little persuade them that know not the
fruits of knowledge."
Those of our readers

, who, in their early days, committed to
memory the Latin Grammar from beginning to end

, Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody," before they began w

praxes.

practise upon it in translation, have probably som of the unpleasant process, and will remember wha the heart accompanied their first attempts to put 1 into a Latin sentence, when they began to constr heads full of the rules of syntax, and the forms cases ;

– all well remembered, but remembered mass, because they had not put them in practice w learning them. The children of the present day n any thing of these troubles, if they begin the study Willard's “Introduction," and follow his direction

It is divided into three parts, not including the the end of the book. Part First contains the princip of grammar, arranged in short sections. Part Seco praxes, or exercises in translating and parsing, ar tions to correspond with the first ; and Part Third illustrations of these praxes. The arrangement of rules is of course essentially different from that of in general use. Instead of beginning with nou through all the declensions, next taking up one after another, and exhausting it, and then procee all the rules of syntax in a mass, as is the comm pupil is taught, in the first section of this little wor] the first declension of nouns, - those of the indica the first conjugation of verbs, and of the indicat the irregular verb sum,

and a few rules of synta responding section in the second part, which is to connexion with the first, consists of Latin senter the forms and rules already learned are exemplifithing carefully excluded which might involve a m knowledge of the grammar of the language. Th tion leads the pupil a little farther on ; the second is an illustration of it; and so on, till he has bec for extracts from the classics, which form the m

The author happily describes his plan i and modest Preface.

“The principles and forms of grammar, once famili application, are infallible and prompt interpreters of sentence; or, to vary the figure, they are so many ap to the sense. Of these keys the Latin language re hundreds, if not thousands, to open the numberless apa treasury and cabinet. The old method (that of bani of the grammar at first] puts the whole at once into th tyro, and requires him at every moment to guess out may be suited to his present purpose. In the opposi instructer keeps the keys in his own hand, and often 1 to stand a long time idle at the door for want of some for him. In the method proposed, the teacher will gi

on

number of these keys at a time, to apply by his own has learned the ready application of all. The last, v to the gradual process, in which the principles geometry are taught and applied, will be found hope, in the following pages." -- pp. 3, 4.

The execution of this book is admirable. Tea the author for having used so clear and so simpl pression, as to make oral explanations almost un arrange and select the praxis upon each section, from it every word involving a principle not yet learner, and yet to present a series of neat senter then of elegant and interesting extracts from cla quired an amount of care and labor which can ciated by those who enjoy the benefit of them; nating mind and good taste are visible througho

There are some faults in the mechanical book. For instance, the Latin words introduc sentences are not indicated by italics, nor in guished from their neighbours, the vernaculars this occasions less confusion and inconvenience ers, than we might at first suppose. A Latin w or a person unacquainted with the language, i English ones by its side, (though in the same ty tenance of a stranger is unlike the “old famili family; and though they may be “ dressed all a crape over their faces,” his

eye

has an instinctis tinguishing the unknown from the familiar, an much puzzled and embarrassed as we might fea

We cannot dismiss the work without mentio suitableness for fireside instruction; as parents long ceased to attend to the study of Latin, wil this volume, find a pleasant refreshment of their and be sure of laying, in the minds of their cl foundation for farther attainments.

7.- Annual Report of the Board of Truste

chusetts General Hospital for the Year James Loring. 1838. 8vo. pp. 30.

This Report presents a gratifying view of t usefulness of each department of the Hospit creditable, that gentlemen busily engaged, as Trustees, in the active concerns of life, should to devote their time and attention with so much

548

Report on the Massachusetts Hospital

. Ascil

,

number of these keys at a time, to apply by his own ingenuity

, til be has learned the ready application of all. The last, which corresponds to the gradual process, in which the principles of arithmetic and geometry are taught and applied, will be found exemplified, as I hope, in the following pages." -- pp. 3, 4.

The execution of this book is admirable. Teachers will thank the author for having used so clear and so simple a mode of etpression, as to make oral explanations almost unnecessary.

То arrange and select the praxis upon each section, so as to exclude from it every word involving a principle not yet explained to the learner, and yet to present a series of neat sentences at first

, and then of elegant and interesting extracts from classic authors

, reu quired an amount of care and labor which can hardly be appre ciated by those who enjoy the benefit of them; and a discriminating mind and good taste are visible throughout the work.

There are some faults in the mechanical details of the book. For instance, the Latin words introduced into English sentences are not indicated by italics, nor in any way

distinguished from their neighbours, the vernaculars; but we believe this occasions less confusion and inconvenience to young learners, than we might at first suppose. A Latin word, to a or a person unacquainted with the language, is as unlike the English ones by its side, (though in the same type,) as the countenance of a stranger is unlike the "old familiar faces” of his family; and though they may be " dressed all alike, with black crape over their faces,his eye has an instinctive power of disa tinguishing the unknown from the familiar, and he is not » much puzzled and embarrassed as we might fear he would be

. We cannot dismiss the work without mentioning its peculiar suitableness for fireside instruction ; as parents, who may have

a child

,

to the care of a public institution. That they have d with ability and wisdom, is evinced by the prosperous of the charity. Much of this prosperity is doubtless the unwearied assiduity of the successive Boards of The monthly meetings of the Board, with the week committees, since they have never degenerated into form, not only serve the purpose of transacting the business, but are a constant incitement to every one with the institution, to perform his duty with the like fa

The Massachusetts General Hospital embraces t ments, distinct from each other, but under the man the same Board of Trustees, and supported by the sa fund ; the Hospital for the sick and wounded, in B the McLean Asylum for the Insane, in Charlestown. Report of the Superintendent of the Hospital it appea whole number of patients admitted during the year 440; 213 of whom were free patients, and 25 more E but a part of the time. To those who are regarded tients, the institution may justly be considered as only in a somewhat lower degree, a work of cha independently of all the outlay of capital, the weekly board &c. to much the greater part, is much less weekly cost. The number discharged during the yea 358 of whom are reported as “ well,” “ much relieved lieved ” ; only 32 died. The “ Analysis of patients," their several trades and employments, would furnish some general reflections, but we must refrain from off at present.

The Asylum for the Insane admitted, during th patients; and 105 were discharged. Of these, 72 a recovered,”

," and 13 as “much improved,” and “ It is worthy of observation, that the term “cured," monly appears conspicuously in similar reports, is n either of these. The medical officers in both institu to have modestly abstained from claiming the favorab tion of so many cases as the fruit of their labors, tho not be doubted that it might be so claimed with as m as in most similar instances. We like these terms are glad to see them introduced by so high autho young practitioner may be excused for ascribing to h scription the cure of the patient. But a little experie sufficient to teach him, that other agencies besides hi much to do with the result; and he soon learns to re much more consonant to his real share in the matter, the man recovered, than that he was cured.

No. 99.

as

long ceased to attend to the study of Latin, will, in the use of this volume, find a pleasant refreshinent of their own knowledge, and be sure of laying, in the minds of their children, a sound foundation for farther attainments.

7. Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of the Massa

chusetts General Hospital for the Year 1837. Boston. James Loring. 1838. 8vo. pp. 30.

VOL. XLVI.

70

This Report presents a gratifying view of the condition and usefulness of each department of the Hospital

. It is highly creditable, that gentlemen busily engaged, as are most of the Trustees, in the active concerns of life, should be found willing to devote their time and attention with so much fidelity and zeal

man.

two chapters on the different kinds of food, for

We are thus prepared for the discussion or the disorders of digestion."

A description of dyspepsy, by a history of perhaps necessary to the completeness of a trea and may in many cases be useful. But we wou invalids to meditate on their own symptoms, an with the book, to find out whether they are dys) they have any doubts on this subject, they had their physician at once, and let him draw out of and put them upon its remedy. Few men, e practised physicians, have command enough phantasies, to weigh correctly the value of the tions, or even to distinguish in all cases betwe physical, and those which have only a lighter a existence.

No such qualification is needed in regard which follow, on the causes of dyspepsy. The sense, and abound in salutary cautions. The s considered in detail, and with a sufficient degre copy a part of the remarks on " The abuse of 2 Dr. Sweetser regards as a frequent cause of th

" The injudicious use of medicine is doubtless t. little injury to the human constitution. As all acti to disturb the natural movements of life, they are n ed to before inquiring whether the end will warran other words, whether the evil they are designed t serious, than what they themselves will probably in be remembered, too, that nature of herself is fully removal of trifling and incidental difficulties; or i only negative aid, that is, the avoidance of all im proper diet, exposure, &c. to her recuperative effort

“Few habits are more adverse to the welfare o than that of applying to medicine for every slight di: necessity for it growing with its use, it is oftentime the very evils it is intended to remedy. Thus, if disturbance of the stomach and bowels, we call in emetics, cathartics, or stimulants, those organs, acc so speak, to depend on foreign aid, will in a measu themselves of their own energies under embarrassi ical as well as the moral powers should be educ degree of self-dependence. But active medicines in a more positive manner, operating as local irritan various sympathetic derangements in the system.

“ There has ever existed a class of nervous vi whom a pain, or an ache, or the least ailment can ha the pill-box or essence-bottle is called into requis quite amusing, often, to hear them expressing their

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two chapters on the different kinds of food, for animals and for man. We are thus prepared for the discussion of " Dyspepsia or the disorders of digestion.” A description of dyspepsy, by, a history of its symptoms

, is perhaps necessary to the completeness of a treatise of this son, and may

in

many cases be useful. But we would hardly adrise invalids 10 meditate on their own symptoms, and compare them with the book, to find out whether they are dyspeptic or not

. If they have any doubts on this subject

, they had better send for their physician at once, and let him draw out of them their case,

its remedy. Few men, even of the most practised physicians, have command enough ofer their ovz phantasies, to weigh correctly the value of their morbid seostions, or even to distinguish in all cases between such as are physical, and those which have only a lighter and more fugitire

their health can be so poor, when they are constar quantities of medicine.

Some persons are in the daily practice of overburd ach, and then swallowing medicinal tinctures or pills unnatural load. Hence it is, that we so commonly s advertised for sale.” — pp. 253 - 255.

Equally judicious, in our view, in general, are for the treatment of dyspepsy, with which the wo ded. In the same vein of good sense and sound author deprecates the habitual resort to active med cure, as well as for the prevention of the disea well as there, he recommends chiefly a reliance regulation of the diet, and a proper managemen men; attention to exercise, the state of the mind, regard to all these and many other particulars, he directions. He does not of course mean to say, t no cases of dyspepsy that occasionally demand in remedies. But such cases require the prescription cian, and therefore do not come within the scope work.

and put

them upon

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existence.

No such qualification is needed in regard to the chapters
which follow, on the causes of dyspepsy. They are full of good
sense, and abound in salutary cautions. The several causes are
considered in detail, and with a sufficient degree of fulnes. We
copy a part of the remarks on The abuse of medicine," which
Dr. Sweetser regards as a frequent cause of the disease.

The injudicious use of medicine is doubtless the occasion of no
little injury to the human constitution. As all active medicines tend
to disturb the natural movements of life, they are never to be resort
ed to before inquiring whether the end will warrant the means
other words, whether the evil they are designed to oppose is more
serious, than what they themselves will probably induce. Let it erer
be remembered, too, that nature of herself is fully adequate to the
removal of trifling and incidental difficulties ; or requiring at least
only negative aid, that is, the avoidance of all impediments

, as in-
proper diet, exposure, &c. to her recuperative efforts.

"Few habits are more adverse to the welfare of the constitution,
than that of applying to medicine for every slight disorder; since

, the
necessity for it growing with its use, it is oftentimes contributing to
the very evils it is intended to remedy. Thus, if for every triting
disturbance of the stomach and bowels, we call in the assistance of
emetics, cathartics, or stimulants, those organs, accustomed, if I may
so speak, to depend on foreign aid, will in å measure cease to arail
themselves of their own energies under embarrassments

. The phys-
ical as well as the moral powers should be educated to a certain
degree of self-dependence. But active medicines are also injurious
in a more positive manner, operating as local irritants, and to produce
various sympathetic derangements in the system.
There has erer existed a class of nervous valetudinarians

, in
whom a pain, or an ache, or the least ailment can hardly exist

, unless the pill-box or essence-bottle is called into requisition

. And it is

4.- 1. Report made to the Mayor and Alderm

of Boston, on the Subject of Supplying tl of that City with Water. By DANIEL

Boston. 1925. pp. 32. 2. Report on the Subject of Introducing Pu

the City of Boston. By Loammi Baldwi

Engineer. Boston. 1834. pp. 78. 3. Report on the Introduction of Soft IVater

of Boston. By R. H. Eddy, Civil Engin

1836. 4. Report of the Commissioners appointed un

of the City Council of March 16th, 1837 Plan for Supplying the City of Boston wi ter. Boston. 1837.

pp. 40.

pp. 95.

The city of Boston, under the necessity which of things must sooner or later come upon every c town, of looking abroad for a supply of pure and s been for the last thirteen years causing investi made upon this important subject. The Reports embody the results of those inquiries. We are g looking into them, to perceive, that whilst the sit metropolis, on a small peninsula, is such as to i No. 99.

69

VOL. LXVI.

quite amusing, often, to hear them expressing their astonishment that

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