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practise upon it in translation, have probably some recollection of the unpleasant process, and will remember what a sinking of the heart accompanied their first attempts to put light and order into a Latin sentence, when they began to construe, with their heads full of the rules of syntax, and the forms of tenses and cases ; - all well remembered, but remembered as a consused mass, because they had not put them in practice while they were learning them. The children of the present day need not know any thing of these troubles, if they begin the study of Latin with Willard's "Introduction," and follow his directions in using it.

It is divided into three parts, not including the Vocabulary at the end of the book. Part First contains the principles and forms of grammar, arranged in short sections. Part Second consists of praxes, or exercises in translating and parsing, arranged in sections to correspond with the first; and Part Third, of notes and illustrations of these praxes. The arrangement of the forms and rules is of course essentially different from that of the Grammars in general use. Instead of beginning with nouns, and going through all the declensions, next taking up one part of speech after another, and exhausting it, and then proceeding to learn all the rules of syntax in a mass, as is the common mode, the pupil is taught, in the first section of this little work, the forms of the first declension of nouns, – those of the indicative present of the first conjugation of verbs, and of the indicative present of the irregular verb sum, — and a few rules of syntax. The corresponding section in the second part, which is to be studied in connexion with the first, consists of Latin sentences in which the forms and rules already learned are exemplified, and every thing carefully excluded which might involve a more extended knowledge of the grammar of the language. The second section leads the pupil a little farther on ; the second of the praxes is an illustration of it; and so on, till he has become prepared for extracts from the classics, which form the more advanced praxes. The author happily describes his plan in his sensible and modest Preface.

“ The principles and forms of grammar, once familiar in word and application, are infallible and prompt interpreters of every correct sentence; or, to vary the figure, they are so many appropriate keys to the sense. Of these keys the Latin language requires several hundreds, if not thousands, to open the numberless apartments of her treasury and cabinet. The old method (that of banishing the study of the grammar at first] puts the whole at once into the hands of the tyro, and requires him at every moment to guess out the one, which may be suited to his present purpose. In the opposite method, the instructer keeps the keys in his own hand, and often leaves the pupil to stand a long time idle at the door for want of some one to open it for him. In the method proposed, the teacher will give him a small number of these keys at a time, to apply by his own ingenuity, till he has learned the ready application of all. The last, which corresponds to the gradual process, in which the principles of arithmetic and geometry are taught and applied, will be found exemplified, as I hope, in the following pages.” — pp. 3, 4.

The execution of this book is admirable. Teachers will thank the author for having used so clear and so simple a mode of expression, as to make oral explanations almost unnecessary. To arrange and select the praxis upon each section, so as to exclude from it every word involving a principle not yet explained to the learner, and yet to present a series of neat sentences at first, and then of elegant and interesting extracts from classic authors, required an amount of care and labor which can hardly be appreciated by those who enjoy the benefit of them; and a discriminating mind and good taste are visible throughout the work. There are

some faults in the mechanical details of the book. For instance, the Latin words introduced into English sentences are not indicated by italics, nor in any way distinguished from their neighbours, the vernaculars; but we believe this occasions less confusion and inconvenience to young learners, than we might at first suppose. A Latin word, to a child, or a person unacquainted with the language, is as unlike the English ones by its side, (though in the same type,) as the countenance of a stranger is unlike the “old familiar faces" of his family; and though they may be “ dressed all alike, with black crape over their faces,” his eye has an instinctive power of distinguishing the unknown from the familiar, and he is not so much puzzled and embarrassed as we might fear he would be.

We cannot dismiss the work without mentioning its peculiar suitableness for fireside instruction; as parents, who may have long ceased to attend to the study of Latin, will, in the use of this volume, find a pleasant refreshment of their own knowledge, and be sure of laying, in the minds of their children, a sound foundation for farther attainments.

7. — Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of the Massa

chusetts General Hospital for the Year 1837. Boston.

James Loring. 1838. 8vo. pp. 30. This Report presents a gratifying view of the condition and usefulness of each department of the Hospital. It is highly creditable, that gentlemen busily engaged, as are most of the Trustees, the active concerns of life, should be found willing to devote their time and attention with so much fidelity and zeal

548 Report on the Massachusetts Hospital

. April

, number of these keys at a time, to apply by his own ingenuity

, til he has learned the ready application of all. The last

, which corresponds to the gradual process, in which the principles of arithmetic and geometry are taught and applied, will be found exemplified, as I hope, in the following pages." —- pp. 3, 4.

The execution of this book is admirable. Teachers will thank the author for having used so clear and so simple a mode of expression, as to make oral explanations almost unnecessary. To arrange and select the praxis upon each section, so as to exclude from it every word involving a principle not yet explained to the learner, and yet to present a series of neat sentences at first

, and then of elegant and interesting extracts from classic authors, to quired an amount of care and labor which can hardly be appreciated by those who enjoy the benefit of them; and a discriminating mind and good taste are visible throughout the work.

There are some faults in the mechanical details of the book. For instance, the Latin words introduced into English sentences are not indicated by italics, nor in any way

distin guished from their neighbours, the vernaculars ; but we believe this occasions less confusion and inconvenience to young

learn-
ers, than we might at first

suppose.
A Latin word

, to a child

, or a person unacquainted with the language, is as unlike the English ones by its side, (though in the same type,) as the coun:

> tenance of a stranger is unlike the "old familiar faces" of his family; and though they may be “ dressed all alike, with black crape over their faces,” his eye has an instinctive poiver of disa tinguishing the unknown from the familiar, and he is not so much puzzled and embarrassed as we might fear he would be

. We cannot dismiss the work without mentioning its peculiar suitableness for fireside instruction; as parents, who may have long ceased to attend to the study of Latin, will

, in the use of this volume, find a pleasant refreshment of their own knowledge, and be sure of laying, in the minds of their children, a sound foundation for farther attainments,

1838.] Massachusetts General Hospital-
to the care of a public institution. That they ha
with ability and wisdom, is evinced by the prospe
of the charity. Much of this prosperity is doub
the unwearied assiduity of the successive Board
The monthly meetings of the Board, with the w
committees, since they have never degenerated i
form, not only serve the

purpose

of transacting
business, but are a constant incitement to every
with the institution, to perform his duty with the lil-

The Massachusetts General Hospital embrace
ments, distinct from each other, but under the
the same Board of Trustees, and supported by the
fund; the Hospital for the sick and wounded, i
the McLean Asylum for the Insane, in Charlesto
Report of the Superintendent of the Hospital it ap
whole number of patients admitted during the
440; 213 of whom were free patients, and 25 m
but a part of the time. To those who are regard
tients, the institution may justly be considered
only in a somewhat lower degree, a work of
independently of all the outlay of capital, the wee
board &c. to much the greater part, is much
weekly cost. The number discharged during the
358 of whom are reported

as well,” “ much reli-
lieved”; only 32 died. The “ Analysis of patien
their several trades and employments, would furn
some general reflections, but we must refrain from
at present.

The Asylum for the Insane admitted, during
patients; and 105 were discharged. Of these, 7

recovered," and 13 as “much improved," and
It is worthy of observation, that the term “ cured
monly appears conspicuously in similar reports, i
either of these. The medical officers in both ins
to have modestly abstained from claiming the favo
tion of so many cases as the fruit of their labors,
not be doubted that it might be so claimed with a
as in most similar instances. We like these ter
are glad to see them introduced by so high au
young practitioner may be excused for ascribing t
scription the cure of the patient.

But a little expe
sufficient to teach him, that other agencies besides
much to do with the result; and he soon learns t
much more consonant to his real share in the matt
the man recovered, than that he was cured.

70

as

7. Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of the Massa

chusetts General Hospitalfor the Year 1837. Boston. James Loring. 1838. 8vo. pp. 30.

VOL. XLVI.

This Report presents a gratifying view of the condition and usefulness of each department of the Hospital

. It is highly creditable, that gentlemen busily engaged, as are most of the Trustees, in the active concerns of life

, should be found willing to devote their time and attention with so much fidelity and zeal

No. 99.

The Report of Dr. Bell, physician and superin Asylum, is the first which he has had occasion to his appointment to the office. “With respect t management, moral and medical,” he modestly ai remarks, he “has attempted few innovations or He has rather attempted to carry out and perfect, e combinedly, the respective plans of moral and med of the eminent individuals who have preceded him the aids offered in the experience of other instit Report shows, in a brief detail, what these plans ar administered, and gives a very satisfactory view which the establishment affords for promoting the s and restoration of patients. We commend the Re would see with what liberality, humanity, and so the Trustees have provided for this unfortunate cla and what confident anticipations of success ma from the care and management of the able and sician.

8. Reflections on the Present State of the Cu

United States. Boston. 1837. pp. 34. Further Reflections on the Currency of the By C. F. ADAMS. Boston. 1837.

pp.

4

1

The first of these pamphlets was published in F and accordingly before the collapse of the curren after the extra session of Congress. They are ductions. The first deals with the causes of the barrassments of the country; the latter with the re causes of these troubles are traced to the excessiv the spirit of speculation. As to the latter cause, ject of regulation and control, any further than rectly checked by putting lenders on their guard under guardianship has a right, as far as the lar tions of the country are concerned, to ruin himself But it behooves the country to prevent any one others, as far as they can do this, by withholding 1 rashness or too sanguine enterprise. This offic upon the banks, through which a great part of t the country is conducted, as far as it rests upon p independently of property security by mortgage The check is to be given, not by any positive regi the interest of the stockholders of the banks to av make the most of their capital. Their interest in

The Report of Dr. Bell, physician and superintendent of the Asylum, is the first which he has had occasion to present, since his appointment to the office. “With respect to the general management, moral and medical,” he modestly and pertinently remarks, he “has attempted few innovations or experiments He has rather attempted to carry out and perfect, eclectically and combinedly, the respective plans of moral and medical treatment of the eminent individuals who have preceded him, not rejecting the aids offered in the experience of other institutions." The Report shows, in a brief detail, what these plans are, as at prezent administered, and gives a very satisfactory view of the means which the establishment affords for promoting the safety, comfort, and restoration of patients. We commend the Report to all who would see with what liberality, humanity, and sound judgment the Trustees have provided for this unfortunate class of sufferers, and what confident anticipations of success may be cherished from the care and management of the able and devoted physician.

however, leads them to speculation and rashness their circulation, and thus deriving a profit from its in another direction their interest leads them to chec cies to excessive credit ; since, if they loan to thos pay them, they must be the sufferers. But the b cannot foresee the events of next year; they can on like others, what is to happen; and, in the ordina business in giving credits for sixty and ninety days be supposed, and do not affect to go into very pro pations of the future. Both borrowers and lender calculations upon the existing state of prices and tra ingly, when some tremendously destructive power lating in the dark, which may begin to develope its the whole system within those sixty or ninety days, ers and lenders are at fault; and, before they are awa part of the system begins by little and little to be dis if the cause is deep and lasting, it at length totte bles. The borrower at Boston has his draft return. Orleans, because the acceptor at New Orleans has remittances from his debtor at Cincinnati, and so on circle of credits. The borrower's paper must, the newed at the bank; and so it continues from one pe to another, until the borrower, by immense sacrifice in a fallen market, works his way through the succumbs.

Now, if the currency is based partly or wholly that is, upon the solvency of the debtors to the ban case in this country, (and always will be, and, as it always ought to be, if experience is any guide upon the dividends of the stockholders will be affected, if slight; if a little more severe, their capital is dimin lastly, in a tremendous shock, the currency is shake a bank is, in general, managed with a view to the in stockholders, and with a reasonable prudence, and fering any great fraud or calamity out of the course such as a fire, robbery, or embezzlement, the proba insolvency is so remote as hardly to be appreciable. plosions of some of the banks in Boston, only a very tion of the whole amount of the currency will finall bad bills. And when these losses happen, they ari fact, that banks have been managed in some instan. the influence of their debtors, and not for the benstockholders generally. The operation of this sinist on the administration of the banks, has no doubt had agency in aggravating the existing pecuniary derange

8. -- Reflections on the Present State of the Currency of the

United States. Boston. 1837. pp. 34.
Further Reflections on the Currency of the United States.

By C. F. Adams. Boston. 1837. pp. 41.

The first of these pamphlets was published in February, 1937, and accordingly before the collapse of the currency; the latter

, after the extra session of Congress

. They are both able pro ductions. The first deals with the causes of the pecuniary embarrassments of the country; the latter with the remedies

. The causes of these troubles are traced to the excessive banking and the spirit of speculation. As to the latter cause, it is not a sub ject of regulation and control, any further than it can be indirectly checked by putting lenders on their guard

. A man not under guardianship has a right, as far as the laws and institutions of the country are concerned, to ruin himself if he chooses But it behooves the country to prevent any one from ruining others, as far as they can do this

, by withholding facilities to his rashness or too sanguine enterprise

. This office falls mostly the banks, through which a great part of the business of the country is conducted

, as far as it rests upon personal credit, independently of property security by mortgage or otherwise. The check is to be given, not by any positive regulation

, but by the interest of the stockholders of the banks to avoid losses and make the most of their capital. Their interest in one direction

,

upon

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