ness to be performed in every month. By this means the subject becomes a daily amusement and study, applicable at the moment, and consequently leaving a lasting impression on the memory ; which if attended to for a few years, may make any person who has a taste for admiring and enjoying the magnificence, beauties and bounties of nature, in its vegetable productions, a complete Master of the Art, and if he pleases, his own Gardener.

In writing this treatise, I have had recourse to the best publications, American, English, French and Latin, lest any usefuil sugo gestions, or modern improvements in the art, shoulde scape my notice or recollection; still keeping in view, not only the difference of climate, season, and the necessary modes of culture in foreign countries, but also, in the extensive region of which the United States are composed. It is, however, probable, notwithstanding all my assiduity and care, in collecting as much information as possible, with respect to the most proper seasons for sowing particular kinds of seeds, &c. in the remote parts of the Union, that I have fallen into some mistakes ; for these, as well as typographical er. rors, to which a work of this kind is unavoidably subject, I solicit the reader's excuse; and shall consider myself under serious obligations to those, whose personal friendship, or patriotism, shall induce them to inform me of any horticultural errors which I may have coinmitted, or improvements that may be made; in order that the former be corrected, and the latter, if justified by experience, published in some future work, or edition of this.

The culture and management of Grape-Vines, and all other kinds of fruit-trees, which can be cultivated with us to advantage, or even to indulge curiosity; the raising and planting of Thornquicks and other plants suitable for LIVE-HEDGES, the cultivation of Liquorice, Rhubarb, Dyer's Madder, Weld or Dyer's Weed, Fuller's Teasel, Sea Kale ( Crambe maritima), Cork-tree, Manda Ash, Tanner's Sumack ( Rhus Coriaria), Paper Mulberry, Mulberry-trees for feeding Silk-worms (and care of the insects,) with every other plant, not already common, which appeared to me of sufficient importance, either in a commercial, manufacturing, or ornamental point of view, or as affording any of the luxuries or necessaries of life, have been treated of with due attention : and in order to accommodate the Agriculturist, I have given a classical catalogue of the most important and valuable grasses, and other plants, used in rural economy; and likewise pointed out the particular kind of soil, in which, each plant cultivated as a grass, or exclusively on account of its foliage, has been found, upon repeated trials, to succeed best.

To the work I also have annexed, a general catalogue, containing the Latin and English, names of near three thousand seven hundred species and varieties, of the most valuable and curious plants hitherto discovered ; and divided these into eighteen separate classes, according to their habits, duration, and necessary modes of culture, each alphabetically arranged; by which plan, a knowledge of their general treatment, may at once be obtained, and of each particular kind, greatly facilitated. This I deemed necessary to the completion of the work, as it was impossible to notice each kind separately, in the limits originally prescribed thereto, without abridging the necessary practical directions; a knowledge of which, however, when once acquired, will fully enable the proficient, with the assistance of the classification alluded to, to cultivate any plant therein mentioned, to as much advantage as the nature of the climate, soil and situation will admit of.

From an experience which I have had, of near thirty years, in PRACTICAL GARDENING, on a general and extensive scale; the particular pains which I have taken, not only to designate the necessary work of every month, but also the best methods of performing it; the avoiding of all unnecessary repetitions, so frequent in works of the kind, in order to render it as full of important matter as possible ; the assiduous endeavours to make it useful in every state of the Union, and to induce an association of the science of Botany with practical horticulture, without which the latter can never be so advantageously conducted; it is hoped, that this will be found to be the most useful and valuable GARDENER’S CALENDAR hitherto published in any country, but more particularly so, to the citizens of the United States, for whose use it has been written, and to whom it is respectfully inscribed by the Author.

Philadelphia, February 1, 1806.


THE author of this work takes the liberty of informing his friends and the public, that he is constantly supplied, at his Seed Warehouse in Philadelphia, with a general assortment of GardenSeeds, suitable for cultivation, in the United States, and in the West Indies; Grass sceds of every important and valuable kind; an immense variety of Tree, Shrub and flower seeds and roots, procured from the various parts of the world, with which the enterprize of American commerce has any connection, as well as from the different States and Territories of the Union; Spaces, Shovels, Rakes, Hoes, Reels, Lines, Trowels, Edging-irons, Garden-shears, Watering-pots, Pruning, Budding and Grafting Knives, &c. Bulb-glasses, Bass-mats, Glass suitable for hot-bed lights and other forcing departments; seeds for bird-fecding of every kind, split and whole peas for boiling, best flour of mustard, and every other article appertaining to his line of business; all of which he disposes of, wholesale and retail, on the most moderate terms.

The more effectually to accommodate his customers, he has connected with the Seed Trade, a Botanical, Agricultural and Horticultural Book Store, where a great variety of the most valuable publications on these subjects, especially the modern works of merit, may now be had. This, with his other business, he is determined to extend to the utmost of his ability, and he flatters himself, that by his industry, perseverance and punctuality, with the patronage of a generous public, he will be enabled to render this establishment, not only useful to himself, but of considerable advantage to the community at large.






Preparations for Early Crops.

IN such parts of the Union, where the ground is not at this time bound up with frost, continue to dig the waste quarters of your kitchen garden, first giving them such manure as they require ; laying them in high sloping ridges, to sweeten and be improved by the frost, &c. more especially if the soil be of a stiff nature : by which method, its adhesion is destroyed, the pores are opened for the admission of air, frost, rain and dews, all of which abounding with nitrous salts, contribute, in a high degree, towards its melioration and fertility; and besides a great quantity of ground thus prepared, can be soon leveled in the spring for sowing or planting ; which, if neglected, would require much time to dig in a proper manner, and that at a period, when the throng of business requires every advantage of previous preparation.

When the ground at this time is frozen so hard as not to be dug, which is generally the case in the middle and eastem states, you may carry manure into the different quarters and spread it, repair fences, rub out and clean your seeds, prepare shreds, nails and twigs, for the wall and espalier trees, which are to be pruned in this and the next month ; get all the garden-tools in repair, and purchase such as are wanting; provide from the woods-a susficient quantity of pea-rods, and poles for your Lima and other running beans; dress and point them, so as to be ready for use when wanted.

Here it may be well to remark, that many people who neglect to provide themselves with pea-rods at this season, when it can be so conveniently done, are necessitated, when the hurry of business overtakes them in spring, to sow their peas and let them trail on the


ground ; in which situation they will never produce, especially the tall growing kinds, one third as many as if they were properly rodded.

The various kinds of Early-Hotspur Peas, will require rods from four to five feet high, the Marrowsat, Glory of England, White and Green Rouncival, Spanish Morotto, and other tall growing kinds; will require them to be from six to seven feet high, exclusive of the part to be inserted in the earth ; they ought to be formed or dressed fan fashion, the lower ends pointed, for the case of pushing them into the earth, and laid by, either under some shed, or in any convenient place till wanted; one set of rods, will with care last for three years. The same kind of rods, that the tall growing peas require, will answer for the generality of running Kidney-Beans; the Lima-Beans require strong poles from eight to nine feet high.

If in this, and the next month, you neglect forwarding every thing that can possibly be donc, in and for the garden, you will materially find the loss of such inattention, when the hurry and pressure of spring business over take you. Every active and well inclined gardener will find abundant employment in the various departments of the garden at this season, and need not be idle, if disposed to be industrious, or to serve either himsell or his employer.


Many will think that the instructions hereafter given, for the raising of early Cucumbers and Melons, in frames, are too diffuse ; especially in a country which abounds in these kinds of fruit, produced in such quantities, in summer and autumn, without artificial heat, or very much trouble.

The remark may be just, but the principal motive for giving these lengthy instructions, is to exercise the young Gardener, in the art of managing Garden-Frames in general ; an art absolutely essential to every good Gardener, and which cannot be better exemplified than in the raising of early Cucumbers and Melons. And besides these fruit coming into use at an early season, will be much valued and esteemed.

As several other kinds of Kitchen-Garden vegetables are desirable at an early season, such as cresses, rape, lettuce, mustard, radishes, &c. to cut while young; asparagus, radishes, peas, kidney beans, &c. to be forwarded to early perfection ; cauliflower and cabbage plants, to succeed those sown in September, and to produce a prin. cipal crop for early summer use ; you should now provide the necessary supplies of hot stable dung, rich earth, and other requisites proper for their cultivation in hot beds, as explained for each, under its respective head.

Hoi-bed-Frames and Lights.

If not already provided with hot-bed-frames and lights, you may get them made agreeably to the following instructions. Large frames ought to be made of inch and half, or rather two inch plank,

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