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man Empire to be so many manifestations of this mental disease ; as il, forsooth, a Henry II., a William the Silent, a Henry IV.; had not fallen victims to the hand of assassins long ere any one dreamed of social democracy; as if, in our own pre-suciulistic times, not only the French citizen-king and the Freuch Cæsar, but also the Queen of England at the time of her greatest popularity, the republican slave-freer Lincoln, the royal predecessor of our own emperor, and that monarch himself, in more peaceful times, bad never been attacked by lunatics. The discontent as well as the misery of the lower classes is, besides, much smaller in Germany than in Italy and Ireland, where universal service is not euforced. Emigration is by no means caused by this ; the stream exists, and will flow a long time still, whether compulsory service is abolished or not. And as for socialism, it is redoubtable only where there is nu true middle class, as in Russia, or where the middle class allows itself to be intimidated, as in France. In Germany, which? has the most numerous middle class in Europe, and a middle class resolved to defend itself, socialism has no more chance of success than the servile wars and Jacqueries which have burst forth period. ically ever since an organized society has existed, and which will forever burst forth, because society can neither put an end to in." equality nor persuade the less-favored classes of the justice of such inequality ; 80 that exhaustion, resignation, and force, in other terms, labor, religion, and the police, will always be the sole means of making them submit to their hard lot. The rapid development of German manufactures since 1850 naturally makes the spread of social democracy among the working classes appear more alarming than it really is, and we are apt to overlook the consideration that if an unarmed power like the North American state was able to cope with a widely-spread socialist revolt, and to quell it in a few weeks almost without bloodshed, it would be easy for the German state to do the same in as many days. Besides, the un. wise help which socialism found in the sympathy of the learned middle class is fast being withdrawn, since men's eyes have been opened to the danger of playing with such utopias, and this, in its turn, has had a salutary and sobering effect, even on the lower classes.
It is, however, not merely the apprehension of danger from socialism which unsettles men's minds ; there is also a strung fear lest our manufactures, as yet in their infancy, should be damaged, bay ruined, by the increase of unconscientious workmanship. The rebuff we met with at Philadelphia is not yet forgotten; we are painfully conscious that our manufactures are neither solid nor in good taste, and thut in the long run their cheapness alone will not enable them to stuud the test of competition with those of superior furcigo workmanship. And here, again, we acçuse men instead of
circumstances, and throw the blame solely on our workmen's carelessness and negligence, while German workmen are notoriously in request in foreign countries quite as much as German clerks and German nursery-maids. The disease, which cannot be denied, lies, alas ! much deeper, and is therefore far more difficult to cure. Our priddle class, which, after all, consumes most, cannot afford to purchase substantial goods, as the French and English middle class can ; therefore the workmanship must necessarily suffer. Were we to renounce shuwy, scamped wares we should have to eat with wooden spoons, and go' about in homespuns and un.. bleached linen. I do nut deny that we might be happier and richer under i inore primitive simplicity in our outward life than beneath our present threadbare luxury de pacotille-especially if we were to spend un our families what is now squandered in taverns in the (vening. Nor can it be doubted that a less pretentious household and a more livmely life might exercise a purer moral influence upon ourselves, as well as upon those growing up around us, the latter particularly ; for as That iudefaligable Jeremial of New Germany, Herr Lagarde, has it, the lavern (kneipe) and the cigar are a far more effectual means of barbarization, and a more demor. alizing power, than all the Radical theories in the world put together;" and
to my mind, though I am native here, And to the manner born, it is a custom
More honor'd in the breach than the observanco;" for “ he who must needs finish his day in malodorous, smoky celo lars, may be a Liberal, lie vever can be a free man !!'
How simply did our ancestors live, although relatively much wealthier than we! How “ aristocratic" Herder and Schiller appear to us with their cane-bottomed chairs and simple polished iables ! To be sure, our wealth has forsaken us ever since the Thirty Years' War; but our middle-class university men, 80 numerous in Germany, are poorer than ever just now. The salaries of government officials and lawyers' and doctors' fees do not augment in proportion to the rise in rents and in articles of daily consumption, for the law of demand and supply needs time to find its balance. The official, the clergymau, the schoulmaster of today, who earns £200 is, in fact, a poorer man thau his father was wiih £100, even could he and would he live as his falber did, which our altered circumstances would hardly allow. Must likely the cquilibrium will only be cstablished by means of association. If, e.g., our buok manufacture is 11t 10 dwindle down into the "cheap and nasty" species, publishers must be enabled to cousider themselves independent of privale purchasers when there is a question of new publications. This, however, would necessitate a dev pment of public libraries, and a further increase of the
already finurishing circulating libraries sufficient to guarantee to the publisher an immerliate sale of 1000 copies of a valuable new work to institutions of this soit, so that he might be able 10 regard what is sold to the few who can afford such luxuries or are obliged to buy professionally, as clear profit. If, again, our already rapidly declining art of engraving is not to be entirely lost, towns und art societies will have to play the part of collective art patrons ; for the single individuals capable of recognizing the superiority of a valuable engraviug over stunting and distorting photographs are not rich enough to buy it, and, however great a part our museum and gallery system may have played in promoting the half-culture of the nation, we shall have to resort to association whenever contemporary works of art or of art manufacture are concerned, on account of our financial circumstances and the democratic character of our society. Besides, this as well as other forms of association have long since been called into life by our middle classes. Private gardens and grounds, indispensable to the Englishman and Frenchman, are replaced in Germany by public walks where our middle-class citizen sips his coffee and smokes his cigar anong a hundred others of his own rank ; the luxury of a ball at his own house being beyond his means, he subscribes to public balls; where his sons and daughters are free to enjoy an amusement which is denied to the young people of the same class in other countries ; he cannot afford to entertain bis guests with yood chamber-music or celebrated public singers, but he is a member of some musical society or public orchestral association for cheap concerts, where be and his family have opportunities of hearing the best music performed by the best artists, such as the Parisian and the Londoner have only begun to know since the existence of the Pasdeloup
and the Monday Popular Concerts, and such as nu provincial in England or France is able to enjoy at any price.
However this may be, it is an undeniable fact that our middle class is in a bad way, and that to assure it that it is only passivg through a period of transition is but a poor attempt at consolativn. Are not all historical moments periods of transition ? History never stands still ; the question is only, how long this period of transition is likely to last? The old purely intellectual and ideal German life, with its inaterial poverty, seems forever lost; the new public and realistic life is poor inwardly, and irretrievably false vutwardly. Our traditions of the past and our aspirations for the future are sadly at variance with each other. How are we to get rid of this discoid? Is it by going back to the past, suppos. ing this to be possible? Is it by giving up our traditions, and forming a new state of things adapied to a merely external existence ? Or is it by conciliating the old and tire new? And if we admit this reconciliation to be the task of our limes, what are the
means by which we can perform it with least risk, avoiding too hazardous and costly experiments on the one hand, and that convenient free-and-easy nonchalance on the other which so often conceals itself beneath general thoughts and terms? A reconciliation is certainly needed; for the deepest, most legitimate reason for our dissatisfaction does not lie so much in our disappointment after having attained long-wished-for beuefits, nor in the necessity we are under of fighting out the hard political and ecclesiastical battles which have been forced upon us by the new state, nor in the inCessant wounds inflicted upon our susceptibilities by vious and suspicious neighbors, nor in the material burdens and privations we are now groaning under, nor even in the outward dispropor, tion between the claims and wants of our middle class, and their means of sustaining these claims and satisfying these wants ; it lies rather in the inward disharmony which is felt in that very portion of the nation which, properly speaking, ought to be the nursery of our national culture. Now this inward disharmony has its source in our half-culture, and as the half-educated are always discontented, so does the present predominant dissatisfaction of the Germans principally spring from the preponderance of the halfeducated. But of this another time.
KARL HILLEBRAND, in the Contemporary:
THE MIGRATION OF POPULAR STORIES.
The preference for an explanation of facts which calls for little effort of thought to another which makes large demands on it is natural and intelligible. If we fiud the same custom in many dif. ferent countries, we infer more readily that it was carried from one of these countries into the rest, than that it has come down from the common ancestors of the inhabitants of these lands in some remote age. When we find popular stories, of a very complicated and remarkable character, in Scotland and Germany, in Scandinavia, Persia, and India, we are at once disposed to adopt the conclusion that their presence in the West is the result of direct communication with the East in historical and, perhaps, during comparatively modern times. This attitude of mind is to a certain extent justifiable. Much wit and ingenuity may be wasted in attempting to prove the lateral transmission of two or more given stories from times preceding the migration of divided tribes from their common home, when conclusive evidence may be forthcoming to show that we are dealing with instances of direct borrowing. The ground over which such discussions lead us needs wary walk. ing ; but it may be well to have our eyes open to the danger of committing ourselves with undue haste to either conclusion. If we say of some Norse or Teutonic tale that it found its way into Europe through some of those vast Oriental collections which are known to have been brought together in times later by many cen. turies than the Christian era, our mistake is not a trifling or a harm. less one, if it can be shown that European Aryans were well acquainted with it at a time anterior to the date of the mythical founding of Rome or the era of Nabonassar-in other words, at a time preceding the compilation of the Hitupadesa, and possibly even of the Panchatantra, by fourteen or fifteen hundred years. Our mistake would in this case be mischievous, not merely as committing us to a conclusion not borne out by evidence, but as putting out of sight one of the most astonishing facts in the history of the human race. If stories gathered, by Grimm or others, from the lips of peasants and their wives, almost in our own duy, were told by Greek nurses or mothers to their children two or three thousaud years ago, it is absolutely certain that their introduction into Europe is not owing to the activity of medieval Christendom and the contact with the East brought about by the Crusades or any other events of more modern history.
Our first duty, therefore, with regard to any story is to ascer: tuin, so far as it may be possible to do so, the earliest time at which it is found in the written literature of the country to which it is traced, and then to determine, so far as the evidence may warraut our determining, how long it may have been known in that country before it was committed to writing. Of the many misconceptions which have hindered the settlement of such questions or diverted them to a false issue, not å few. could never have sprung up if the ancient literature of the Hellenic tribes had been examined without prejudice or partiality. The truth is that Englishmen are still, or have been almost to the present time, brought up under the im. pression that the epic, lyric, and tragic poems which delighted Athenian bearers or readers had nothing in common with the poems and stories which have come to us in a distinctively Teu. ionic or English dress; and no attempt has been made to ascertain whether and how far the prose writings of Greek historians and mythographers bring before us stories which form part of the native popular tradition or folk-lore of northern Europe. On the contrary, if the subject was ever touched upon at all, boys were led to read the Iliad and Odyssey, and to work their way through the dramas of the Greek tragic poets under the firm belief that they contain nothing with which children in our nurseries are familiar in other shapes. Under the influence of this belief, which they never thought of calling in question, some have gone on to suppose that the stories told to English or German children were