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From these remarks it cannot fail accomplished agair:st those styled to be obvious, that there is a natural heretics, meaning, thereby, persons connexion between Pepery and na- who presumed to read the Bible and tional degradation and general po- ventured to dispute the authority of verty. It will be intelligible how the combined Roman priesthood, and it happened that Spain, possessing the to disregard the fables and superstirichest colonial empire and a fine Eu. tion which they taught. These fables, ropean territory, sunk into compara- and that superstition, with all its wortive contempt among the nations of ship of waters, statues, pictures, pil. Europe ; while Britain, after it got grimages, confessions, holy waters, quit of the Popish domination, became absolutions, and penances, the more in. as a queen among the nations in com- telligent members of the body regard parative power and riches. Compare, with contempt; but consider them for an instant, the education of our as necessary tools whereby to comown country of Scotland with that mand the world, filled, as it comes to which the Popish system establishes, be under their domination, with a bruand it will be seen how it happened tally ignorant, sensual, and contempthat a small northern territory has tible race. So completely is the mind taken the lead, almost of the world, of the Popish priest or monk identi. in the first of all arts, that of agricul- fied with his order, that the laws of ture; and its population have diffused morality uniformly bend to its views themselves over all lands, prospering and aggrandisement. That is good and rising into wealth and distinction which is profitable to the corps, and in every country and climate to which nothing is evil that has a tendency to they have had access. But of this I promote its power. Hypocrisy, perhave more to say.

jury, every vice, and all profligacy, It is evident that the employments may be tolerated, or even countein which the members of the Popish nanced, if the measure appears expepriesthood are engaged, must differ dient towards advancing the views of according to the situation, interests, the. Church. The end sanctifies the and prospects of Popery. Being de- means. In a Popish country a man tached from all domestic and patriotic of sense regards with disgust the gross interests and affections, and exclu- mummery and miserable idolatry re. sively devoted to the aggrandisement presented as religion ; but having of their association, their occupations learned no other religion, and being are much diversified. When sent into aware of the hazard of exciting the Protestant countries they are taught hostility of the associated priesthood, to act with the greatest humility and he holds his peace, and takes refuge in mildness, in order to guard against giv. total infidelity. Thus it happens that, ing offence, and to say that they seek in countries under the influence of only in peace to attend to the spiritual the system of Popery, the mass of the welfare of their followers, without any people are sunk in miserable ignorance view to worldly ambition. Thus a veil and superstition, and persons possessed of the deepest hypocrisy covers them. of some intelligence become utter inBut they never forget the task they fidels. With these last the priesthood have been commanded to fulfil. In a have no quarrel, as they let them alone. free country, under the pretence of fos- What they hate and fear are heretics; tering liberty, they incessantly stimu. that is to say, men who seek after relate their followers to labour to at- ligioustruth, and are disposed to rescue tain political privileges, which will mankind from the dominion of a frato a certainty be employed in subser- ternity combined to hold them under viency to the interests of the priest- a most brutalizing servitude. To hood. These interests so totally ab. whatever country, as bis birthplace, sorb the minds of the members of that a member of that fraternity may bebody, as to deprive them of every long-his king, chief, or government sentiment of humanity or regard for that obtains his fidelity, attachment, the rest of mankind, when the interest and allegiance, is the Pope or prince of the priesthood is at stake. Hence of Rome, as head of the association. the horrid cruelties and diabolical ty. They are loyal to no government that ranny of their courts of Inquisition is not priestridden. In our days, they the massacres and bloody persecutions were loyal to the Bourbons merely which they have devised, urged, and because they were under servitude to the priesthood. They are not loyal trouble; but the government being to Louis-Philippe, because he is not Protestant, absolute, and military, and sufficiently submissive to their views. a succession of princes possessed of They caused the superstitious popu- considerable vigour having held the lace of Belgium, against the interest crown, they have been with some dif. of the country, to revolt from Hol. ficulty kept tolerably quiet. What land because its King is Protestant. we are chiefly interested in, is the They are not truly loyal to Leopold, question how Popery ought to be because not sufficiently their creature. treated in the British isles. In Prussia, they occasionally give

LETTER III.

Any man of common sense, who con- ployer, and lose the bread of his fasiders the subject with tolerable atten- mily. Even were the man a king, tion, must be satisfied that it must prove endangering his crown by obeying extremely difficult and embarrassing to the priest his confessor, that hazard manage with success the affairs of a peo- would be disregarded by the priest. ple, if Protestants and Papists are to be They urged Charles X. of France joined together in forming the legis. and James II. of England to patro. lature. The objects which the parties nise Popery, obviously at that risk. have in view, are totally different. What then? The Popish priesthood The object which the system of Po. cared not for the interest of these unpery has in view is, to render all man- happy princes or their families. They kind subject to the associated prieste said, let these kings reign for our hood. For that purpose the members benefit, or let them perish in a miser. of the association are made to abjure able exile. every tie that might divert their minds Well, the Legislature is met, and and efforts from that sovereign pur. Protestant members and the delegates pose. They must not marry—they of the Romish priesthood are mingled must obey the superior of the corps together. The Popish members must to which they belong, and hold them- obey their constituents. If money is selves to be the subjects of its head, the proposed to be expended in the edu. prince. bishop of Rome—the sacred cation of the people, the Popish memand infallible vicar of God upon earth, ber readily concurs; but their priestand superior of all kings and poten- hood must be the teachers, or have tates. To all this, every member of influence in the nomination of the the incorporation is sworn. Every teachers, so that little may be learn. priest, monk, and nun, therefore, is ed at the national schools but to redevoted to the task of subduing man- peat Popish prayers to saints and kind to obedience to the Church. catechisms_to abhor all heretics, and Hence, in a free country, they devote to adore the priest. If judges or matheir highest efforts to influence the gistrates are to be appointed, or offi. election of the members of the legis. cers of any description to be employlature, and to direct the people to the ed, the King or Queen's ministers will nomination of individuals devoted to be opposed in Parliament by every Pothe Church. For that purpose they pish voter, if the crown's patronage is spare no exertion.

All the influence not placed in the hands of their priestis called to his aid, by every priest, that hood. If the preferment to be granted can be derived from superstition, form a part of the Protestant church from the horror of heresy, the fear establishment, so that it cannot openly of hell and purgatory, and the influ. be given to a Papist, the influence of ence derived from the power to create the body is exerted in favour of a man God in the mass--the power to grant of unsound faith, or so unprincipled or refuse absolution from eternal dam- that he may safely be relied on as a nation. He regards only the interest man who will make no opposition to of the Church, and disregards that of Popery, and will even support all inthe members of his ignorant congre- direct measures demanded by that gation. It is nothing to him that an body. In short, it is in every respect individual, by voting as he directs, will the interest of the Popish system to quarrel with his landlord or best em- subdue or retain the people under the most brutal ignorance, and slavery to towns. Those who did not go into the most contemptible and odious form exile were subjected to a cruel perseof Paganism! The old Greeks and cution, till, in consequence of the asRomans, though under a blind super- cendency derived from Marlborough's stition, could still enjoy a degree of victories, Britain demanded protection liberty ; but the subjects of Popery, for them; and, in virtue of an article through their superstition, are fastened in the treaty of peace, the French down under a degrading servitude to nation had the mortification to see an unfeeling combination of priests. thousands of their countrymen libe

On the other hand, it is the interest rated from French prisons in conseand the duty of Protestants, and of the quence of the glorious use of victory Protestant members of the Legisla. by a Protestant nation. ture, to endeavour, in every form, to As it is the interest, and therefore excite to fair exertion, and thereby to the object pursued by Popery, to bru. improve the talents and moral cha. talize mankind, and that of Protesracter of the people ; and, for that tantism to enlighten and improve purpose, to afford them the means of mankind, it is clear that a Legislature obtaining an enlightened and virtuous containing both Protestants and Paeducation. It is only in that way that pists must of necessity find itself inthe nation can be enabled to put forth volved in perplexity and embarrassall its powers ; that is to say, it is ment, at least if either the Papists be only by bestowing on the mass of the in any degree considerable in point of population such a degree of litera. number, or if the Protestant factions ture, and of moral and religious ha. in the state be at all divided. The bits, as are necessary to enable those Papists will necessarily pursue Popish among them, whom nature has gifted objects, and, acting under instructions with talents, to labour under the con- from a concentrated body of priests, trol of the exalted and beneficent the Popish members will act consisviews that religion inspires—in ex. tently, zealously, and with uniformity, tending the limits of every science, in the pursuit of the policy and special and the powers of every valuable objects dictated to them. The Proart. It is the nature of Protestant- testant members being, on the other ism, and is consistent with an en- hand, left to follow their own views as lightened self-interest on the part of individuals, and being often influenced every Protestant, to endeavour to ac. by personal and family interests, the complish that object. It is only thus Protestant party will not act with that that his country, and his kindred and unity and consistency which, in polidescendants,can become great wealthy, tical contests, and in a popular asand enlightened. Accordingly, Pro- sembly, is so necessary to success. testantism has produced that object- Hence the Popish party may do more look to Holland and to Britain from than balance or overcome, in the eyes of the time that Popery was banished the executive government—that is, in from its government and counsels. point of efficiency as a faction-double Nay, even in France, after the Protheir number of Protestant members, testants had been removed from every and may easily carry with them all branch of the public service; yet, by, those of an infidel and unprincipled. directing their attention to the im- character.

Thus the Popish party provement of arts and manufactures, will and must ultimately destroy the they became the most industrious Protestant church and clergy. Nor branch of the population, and the is it possible to prevent this result, if artists and enrichers of the nation. political privilege be given to Papists. But the historical fact is well known; To make it a condition of their so utterly regardless is the Popish admission to the Legislature, that system of every interest but that of its they shall take an oath not to injure own selfish ascendency, that the super. the Protestant Church already estastition of Louis XIV. was influenced blished, is of no avail. If a man by it to drive into exile many hundred swear to do what is wrong, the crime thousands of those Protestants, by far consists in swearing and not in his most valuable subjects, who carried violating the oath.

When the Papist their arts, the source of riches, to swears he will not injure a heretical England and the Protestant part of church, he does an act which in his Germany, where they peopled whole estimation is of the same nature as if

nance.

he were to swear that he will commit pery. In Scotland, as already stated, murder; or that, being a soldier, he will an attempt was made to lead the Scots desert to the enemy, or run away in- back to Popery by the aid of the forms stead of standing to his post or his of Episcopacy; and during the reigns colours. If he have any scruple about of Charles II. and his brother James breaking such an oath, his priest will II. (VII. of Scotland), the one a con. give him absolution upon small pe. cealed and the other an avowed Pa.

pist, the Scottish Protestants, adhering It would be more rational for the generally to the Presbyterian ecele. British Protestant people to receive siastical forms as remotest from Pointo their House of Commons repre. pery, were exposed to a grinding sentatives of our Mahometan people tyranny, and most sanguinary and in. of Bengal, than to receive the dele. quisitorial persecution. They were gates of Popery. Our Mahometan hunted over the mountains and moors Indians (not Gentoos) have no other of their native land; and wherever prince than our own monarch, and found exercising, or suspected of hav. are not the subjects of a sworn com- ing exercised, their ordinary form of bination of priests ; whereas the men worship with their ancient clergy, who by their influence nominate the they were slaughtered without mercy Popish members of Parliament, are by the royal troops. But during the subjects of a foreign power, the prince intervals of weakness on the part of of Rome, and have combined under the government, the Protestant party him to subdue mankind at whatever in Scotland had taken those measures cost, under the domination of him which rendered their extinction imand the body of which he is the head. practicable without an absolute depo

All this was well understood by our pulation of this ancient kingdom. Scottish forefathers, and had been in- Being aware that the strength of pressed upon them by severe expe- the Popish system consists in fastenrience. They had a hard struggle ing down a people under a cloud of with Popery. By dint of preserving superstition and ignorance, the Scotignorance among the populace, the tish Protestants, with great discernPopish priesthood had themselves be- ment, made war upon ignorance and come ignorant. When directed by superstition, as the fatal enemies of their superiors to prevent the Bible them and of mankind. For that purfrom being read or heard read, the pose they made effectual provision for historian Hume tells us that many of the education of the people;-and here, the Popish clergy in Scotland serious- be it observed, that our forefathers ly believed that the New Testament was never proposed to establish a board of a heretical book, written by Martin education or a minister of instruction, Luther. However strange that idea with national schools supported by the may now seem, it was not utterly ab- general government. Their Scottish surd, because, if not heretical, why was sagacity protected them from relithe perusal of it prohibited? These ance on such projects. In the first simple men, not being in the secrets place, that a people may enjoy freeof the combined Roman continental dom, it is necessary that they do much priesthood, could not suspect that the for themselves, and leave as little as inspired Record of the Christian faith

possible to be done by government, so could, under any circumstances, be as to leave little pretext for the collec. treated as a bad book, that would lead tion of a great revenue to support numen to perdition.

merous government officers. Some Having succeeded in putting down things must be performed by a general Popery, the Scottish Protestants government, such as the management adopted measures, devised with pro. of the Post-Office, the national defound sagacity, to prevent its return. fence, and the appointment of judges, Their measures encountered great in- with the fixing of rules or laws for terruption. Our native princes, having their direction. But all interference inherited the English crown, became by government that can be avoided, independent of Scotland. In the time ought to be avoided by a people jea. of Charles I., who had married a lous of their liberties. By intrusting Papist, the Church of England, under education to a minister of the Crown the superintendence of Archbishop or a central board, it is exposed to all Laud, was led to the verge of Po. the effects of political intrigue and revolutions in the national administra- and thousands and tens of thousands tion. Above all, it is exposed to the of Scotsmen have found the education influence of that system of Popery received at the parish school their which is established in the centre of best and no mean patrimony. The Europe, and by its ramifications, in- teacher of such schools is elected by trigues, and efforts, open, secret, or the owners of property of a certain disguised, is incessantly engaged in an amount. In every school the translaactive warfare against Protestantism. tion of the Bible made in the time of By the aid of the confessional, it pe- James I. is the ordinary schoolbook. netrates into all transactions, and Adjacent to the parish school, the operates equally by the ascendency of parish church and a house for the the priest over the weakness of devout minister were established. The prowomen, and the ferocity which he in- prietors of land in the parish were respires into ignoraut men against the quired to furnish both, and a suitable heretic.

salary to the clergyman. The whole Education is of two kinds-intellec- population of the parish have free actual and moral. To possess intellect, cess to the church ; and thus provision without moral virtue or benevolent af. was made in Scotland for teaching the fections, is satanic, or the character we Protestant doctrine at the expense of ascribe to the spirit of evil.

When a

the landed gentry exclusively. This Frenchman said of the late Bonaparte, institution continues to this day ; al. whether justly or not, that he had though, from the increase of the popuun téte sans entraillesa head with lation, and the establishment of taxa. out a heart (bowels of compassion tion to support the clergy in Edinor affections), he represented the burgh, and one or two of the larger character of that eminent soldier as towns, the institution is less effective utierly diabolical. It is certain that than at its original establishment. the mere acquisition of knowledge by That there might be no relapse, men, animated only by selfish passions and to protect the community more in whatever form-ambition, avarice, effectually against falling back insensuality-leaves the individual ac- to that corruption of the administratually worthless, while it renders his tions of religion which had led to the existence a misfortune to human so. pernicious institutions of Popery, care ciety. Such men, when aided by op- was taken to treat according to its portunity and possessed of ability, merits the impure device on which the have in different ages come forth to chief practical unity and strength of the afllict mankind, and have been well Popish combination rests--the celibacy designated as more eminently the of the clergy. The Scottish clergy scourges of God than famine or pes- were not only permitted but encourtilence. Our forefathers endeavoured aged to marry. Further, in the Scotto educate not a part merely, but the tish ecclesiastical establishment, a body whole of the population of the king- of lay elders was in all the parishes apdom; and held education to consist of pointed to assist the ministers-voting the two branches already mentioned, equally with them in all affairs of reintelligence and morality, understand- ligion in the Presbyteries and Synods, ing by moral education, instruction in and with a large mixture of them in the Christian Protestant religion. the General Assemblies of the Church.

For the first of these purposes, they in the parish or kirk sessions, which established a school in every parish form the radical court, the minister to teach the whole of the youth of both presides ; but has only his casting vote sexes to read and write the English added to such influence as may result language, and also the ordinary rules from his personal character and suof arithmetic. In villages, the teach- perior learning. All this was meant ers were required to be capable of to guard against the Popish device of teaching the Latin language. The erecting the clergy into a fraternity proprietors of lands in the parish were or corporation distinct from the rest required to furnish a school and school of the community, and with different house, and a salary to the teacher, re- interests. serving to him to obtain a very mode- The effect of these institutions was, rate remuneration from the scholars. in the first place, to enable every

Thus, cheap education for his child. Scotsman, according to the measure ren was brought to every man's door, of his ability and opportunities, to at.

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