For the Tycho, to whom Constantino dedicated his new city, the most recent and instructive study is the brief paper of Strzygovski, in Analccta Graeciensia (Graz, 1893).

As to the connexion of Constantino with the Donatist controversy, attention may bo drawn to the article of O. Seeck in Brieger's Zeitsch. f. Kirchengesohichte, x. 505-568 (Quellen und Urkunden iiber die Anfango des Donatismus). Me fixes the date of the Council of Aries to A.d. 316 (cp. Euseb., V. C. i. 44-45). The general result of his discussion is to discredit the authority of Optatus, whom he regards as a liar, drawing from a lying source. The only value of the work of Optatus is to be found, he concludes, in the parts which rest on the protocols of the Synods of Cirta and Borne, and the lost parts of the Acta of the process of Felix (viz., I., 13, 14, 23, 24, 27, and perhaps the story of the choice of Csecilian, 16-18).

For Constantine in mediaeval legend see the Incerti Auotoris de C. Magno eiusque matre Helena, edited by Heydenreich (1879); Extracts from a popular Chronicle (Greek) given by A. Kirpituchnikow, Byz. Ztsch. i. p. 308 sqq. (1892); Heydenreich, C. der Grosse in den Sagen des Mittelalters, Deutsche Ztsch. f. Geschichts-wissenschaft, 9, 1 tqq. (1893). and Grieohische Berichte Uber die Jugend C. des G., in Or. Stud. II. Lipsius zum Geburtstag dargebracht, p. 88 tqq. (1894). For his father Constantius in mediaeval legend see Li contes dou roi Constant l'Emperor, ed. in the Bibl. Elzevir, by MM. Moland and d'Hericault, 1856. An English translation by Mr. Win. Morris has appeared 1896.


The ecclesiastical divisions of the empire, referred to incidentally by Gibbon,

are not olosely enough connected with the subject to require an editorial note.

But, as they sometimes throw light on the political boundaries, and as they hare

been recently much investigated, some bibliographical indications of literature

on the eastern bishoprics may be useful.

Farthey: Notitiie Grsecae Episcopatuum (along with Hierooles).

H. Gelzer: Die Zeitbestimmung der griech. Not. Episc, Jahrb. f. protest. Thoologie, xii. 656 sqq.: Zeitsch. f. wiss. Theologie, xxxv. 419sqq.; Byz. Ztsch., L 245 (on eastern Patriarchates); ii. 22. Also edition of Basil's Notitia (early in ninth century) in "Georgius Cyprius" (edition Teubner, 1890).

W. Ramsay: Artioles in the Journal of Hellenic Studies, 1884, 1887; Historical Geography of Asia Minor, 1890, passim.

De Boor: Ztsch. f. Kirchengesohichte, xii. 303 tqq., 519 tqq. (1890); xiv. 573 tqq. (1893).

Duchesne: Byz. Ztsch., i. 531 sqq. (eccl. geogr. of Illyricum).


The legend of the discovery of the Cross by Judas for St. Helena has come down in Syriac, Greek and Latin versions. See E. Nestle, Byz. Zeitschrift, iv. p. 319-345, who makes it probable that the original Helena legend was in Syriac, and prints the oldest Greek version extant from a Sinai Ms. of the eighth century copied by Mr. Rendel Harris. (The Greek from later Mss. (1) in J. Gretser's huge treatise, De Cruce Christi (1600), ii. 530 sqq., and Holder, Inventio verae cruciB, 1889; (2) in Gretser, op. cit., ii. 543 tqq.; (3) Wotke, Wiener Studien, 1891, p. 300 sqq.; the Latin (1) in the Sanctuarium (a rather rare book; c. 1479) of Mombritius, and in Acta Sanct., May 4, I., 445 sqq.; (2) in Holder, op. cit; '3) in Mombritius, op. cit.; the Syriac (1) from seventh century Ms., in Nestle's De sancta Cruce, 1889; (2) ib.; (3) in Bedjan's Acta Martyrum et Sanctorum, 1890, p. 326«?{.)

22. ST. GEORGE-(P. 472) The article on St George by Zookler in Herzog and Plitt's Encyclopedia has

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been superseded by the discussion of F. Gorres in the Zeitsch. f. wigs. Theologie, xvi. 1890, p. 454 tqq. "Ritter St. Georg in Geschichte, Legende, u. Kunst." [There is no question that the Acts (in Act. Sanct. 23rd April) are apocryphal and legendary. They are remarkable for the horrible descriptions of scenes of martyrdom, which might serve as a text to elucidate the pictures on the walls of the curious round Church of San Stefano on the Esquiline.] Gorres arrives at practically the same conclusion as Tillemont (Miim. eccl., v. 186-9, 658-60). All the details of St George's martyrdom are uncertain; but St. George existed and suffered as a martyr in the East in some pre-Constantinian persecution. Tillemont established the reality of St. George by the existence of his cult (he was a M<-vaAo)iaprv!) in the sixth century; Gorres proves that it already existed in the fifth century. (1) The round Church of St. George at Thessalonica is not younger than the fifth century and possibly belongs to the fourth; (S) Venantius (Carm. ii. IS, p. 41, ed. M. H. G.) mentions a Gallic basilica to St. George, founded by Sidonius Apollinaris; (3) the decree of Pope Gelasius de libris non rccipiendis, at end of fifth century, condemns the Acta of St. George as apocryphal, but confesses his historical existence.

The connexion of his name with a dragon-slaying legend does not relegate him to the region of myth. For over against the fabulous Christian dragon-slayer, Theodore of the Bithynian Heraclea, we can set Agapetus of Synnada and Arsacius, who though celebrated as dragon-slayers were historical persons.

Gibbon's theory which identifies St. George with George of Cappadocia has nothing to be said for it; but Gorres points out that it is not open to any objection on the ground that George of Cappadocia was an Arian. For there are examples of Annus admitted into the Martyrologium: he cites Agapetus of Synnada and Auxentius, afterwards bishop of Mopsuestia. (It is to be noted that one recension of the Acta S. Georgii was edited by Arians.)


In regard to Constantino's Churches at Jerusalem it may be said, without entering upon the question as to the true positions of Golgotha and the Holy Sepulchre, that it is certain that these Churches—(1) the round Church of the Anastasis which contained the Sepulchre, and the (2) adjacent Basilica, dedicated to the Cross—stood on the site of the present Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Injured by the Persians (614 \.t>.) they were restored some years later, and a plan of the buildings drawn up, towards the end of the seventh century, by the pilgrim Arculfus is extant, and is of great importance for the topography. Some traces of the old buildings still remain. '' The relative position of the Churches is the same; the circular Church of the Anastasis has preserved its form; the south wall of the Basilica can be traced from ' Calvary' eastward, and one of the large cisterns constructed by Constantine has been discovered" (Sir C. Wilson, in Smith's Diet, of the Bible, new ed., 1893, p. 1654). Mr. Fergusson's theory whioh identified the Church of the Resurrection with the mosque known as Kubbet-es-Sakhrah, the Dome of the Rock (within the so-called " Haram area "), is now quite exploded.

The Dome of the Rock has its own question, but has nothing to do with Constantine. Is it of Saracenic origin dating from the end of the seventh century—built perhaps by a Greek architect? or was it originally a Christian Church, and converted into a mosque? It has been identified by Professor Sepp with a Church of St. Sophia built by Justinian. Sir 0. Wilson thinks that it stands on the site of St. Sophia, which was destroyed by the Persians; "that it was rebuilt with the old material by Abdul-Melik who covered it with a dome, and that it was again repaired and redecorated by El Mamun" (ii., p. 1657).

The adjacent mosque el-Aksa occupies the site of the mosque of Omar. It was built by Abd al Malik, '' out of the ruins of Justinian's Church of St. Mary" (Wilson, to.), which is fully described by Procopius; but there is a difference of opinion whether the Church was on the same site as the mosque or

Vol. ii. 36*

(so Fergusson and others) in the south-eastern corner of the "Haram area," where there are vaults apparently of the Justinianean age.

For further details see Sir O. Wilson's article Jerusalem, cited above; Mr. T. H. Lewis' essay on the Church of Constantine at Jerusalem in the Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, 1891; Sepp, Die Felsenkuppell eine Justinianische Sophien-kirche; various papers in the Palestine Exploration Fund publications.


The recent publication of a geographical description of Mesopotamia and Baghdad by an Arabic writer, Ibn Serapion, of whom nothing is known except that he wrote in the early years of the tenth century, by Mr. Guy Le Strange (with translation and commentary, in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Soc, 1895, January and April; cp. addenda in July, and 1896, October), is of considerable importanceIt shows that since the tenth century great alterations have taken place in the course of the Tigris and Euphrates, and shows what these alterations were; it gives a clear account of the canal system which drew the overflow of the Euphrates into the Tigris; and it supplies most important data for the reconstruction of the topography of Baghdad.

Before the Caliphate, the River Tigris followed its present course, from Kut-al-Amarah (about 100 miles below Baghdad) flowing in a south-easterly direction to its junction with the Euphrates. But during the middle ages—in the tenth century for example—it flowed almost due south "running down the channel now known as the Shatt-al-Hay, and passing through the city of ArVasit" (Le Strange, ib., Jan., p. 3). The changes in the Euphrates are thus summed up by Mr. Le Strange (p. 4): A little above Al-Kufa '' the stream bifurcated. The branch to the right—considered then as the main stream of the Euphrates, but now known as the Hindiyya Canal—ran down past AlKiifa, and a short distance below the city became lost in the western part of the great Swamp," which also swallowed up the waters of the Tigris. '' The stream to the left or eastward called the Sura Canal—which, in its upper reach, follows the line of the modern Euphrates—ran a short course and then split up into numerous canals whose waters for the most part flowed out into the Tigris above Wastt." The great Swamp in which the streams of both Tigris and Euphrates lost themselves was drained by the Tidal Estuary which reached the sea at Abhadan, '' a town which, on account of the recession of the Persian Gulf, now lies nearly twenty miles distant from the present shore-line".

It should be carefully remembered in reading the account of the events after Julian's death that the Tigris has also altered its course to the north of Ctesiphon since the tenth century. From a point below Samarra to a point above Baghdad, it followed a shorter and more westerly channel than at the present day.

As to the canal Nahr-al-Malik (see above, p. 503), Mr. Le Strange says (to., Jan., p. 75), that "roughly speaking it followed the line of the modern Railhwaniyya Canal".

It may be added that the geographical work of Abu-1-Fida, mentioned by Gibbon, p. 495, n. 54, is not very valuable, being neither good nor early. The authoritative Arabic text is that of Reinaud, 1840, and there is a French translation by S. Guyard, 1883. On early geographical works in Arabic see Le Strange's Palestine under the Moslems (Pal. Explor. Fund).

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304, 1. 17, the luminous trophy of the cross, placed above the meridian sun. [I cannot forbear to mention here the ingenious and plausible suggestion communicated to me by Professor Flinders Petrie that what Constantine saw was the phenomenon of mock-suns (not uncommon in northern, but rare in southern, latitudes). The real sun, with three mock-suns, might have appeared to his eyes as a cross.]

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