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have an injurious effect upon the present standard of efficiency in many countries.

2. In other countries, where such efficiency does not exist, it is thought that it will be best secured by the same means which have secured it elsewhere, leaving each nation to modify such means in ways which will best adapt them to the particular methods of the respective gov. ernments.

3. Again, it is found that the present rules existing in different countries upon several of these questions are different in many respects, though probably equally efficient. It would, therefore, become neces. sary in forming an international rule in such cases to recommend changes in the existing rules of several countries which to some of them might be impracticable. This is thought to be undesirable. How. ever, the committee earnestly recommend that

4. All vessels, whether propelled by steam or sail, should possess a margin of strength over and above that which is required to enable them to perform the work for which they were designed and built. A chain, a bridge, or any other structure, the failure of which would entail the loss of human life, invariably bas a considerable reserve of strength provided; in other words, the admitted working load is always much less than the computed strength, or the strength ascertained by actual test; certainly it is no less important that the hull of a vessel should contain a similar reserve.

5. To attempt to formulate rules for the construction of vessels of ali sizes and for all trades would far exceed the proviuce of this com. mittee, and besides, any arbitrary rules would probably much bamper the advance in design and the method of construction.

6. Therefore, to obtain as much as seems to be practicable in this direction, it is desirable to rely upon efficient and oft-repeated inspection, when upon the least indication of distress or of rupture showing, very substantial additions should be made before the vessel is allowed to again proceed to sea.

7. Ocean-going steam-vessels which carry passengers should be additionally protected by having efficient bulk-leads so spaced that when any two compartments be filled with water the vessel will still remain in a seaworthy condition, and two at least of the amidships bulk-heads should be tested by water pressure to the height of the deck next above the water-line.

GENERAL DIVISION 4.

UNIFORM REGULATIONS REGARDING THE DESIGNATING AND MARK

ING OF VESSELS.

(a) Position of name on vessels.
(6) Position of name of port of registry on vessels.
(c) Size of lettering.
(d) Uniform system of draft marks.

1. The name of every registered merchant vessel shall be marked upon each bow and upon the stern, and the port of registry of every such vessel shall be marked upon the stern.

These names shall be marked in Roman letters in a light color on a dark ground, or in a dark color on a light ground, and to be distinctly visible.

The smallest letters used shall not be less than four (4) inches high. 2. The draft of every registered vessel shall be marked upon the stem and stern post in English feet or decimeters, in either Arabic or Roman numerals. The bottom of each numeral shall indicate the draft to that line.

GENERAL DIVISION 6.

NECESSARY QUALIFICATIONS FOR OFFICERS AND SEAMEN, INCLUD.

ING TESTS FOR SIGHT AND COLOR-BLINDNESS,

(a) A uniform system of examination for the different grades. (6) Uniform tests for visual power and color-blindness. (c) General knowledge of methods employed at life-saving stations. (d) Uniform certificates of qualification.

1. Every man or boy going to sea as a seaman, or with the intention of becoming a seaman, should be examined for visual power and color-blindness; and no man or boy should be permitted to serve on board any vessel in the capacity of seaman, or where he will have to stand lookout, whose visual power is below one-half normal or who is red and green color-blind.

2. Every man who shall qualify as an officer or as a pilot of a registered vessel after the adoption of these rules, except engineer officers, shall be required to have a certificate that he has the necessary visual power and that he is not red and green blind. He shall also have a certificate that he is familiar with the regulations for preventing collisions at sea, and with the duties required of him in co-operating with a life-saving station in case his vessel is stranded.

3. It is recommended that each country provide means which will enable any boy or man intending to go to sea to have his eyes examined for visual power and color-blindness, and to obtain a certificate of the result; also to enable the master of any vessel to have the eyes of any of his crew tested for the same purpose.

It is the opinion of the committee that defective visual power and color-blindness are sources of danger at sea, the first both by day and night, because of the inability of the short-sighted to see objects at a sufficient distance. Color-blindness is a source of danger, more especially at night, because of the inability of a color-blind person to distin. guish between the red and green side lights. The inability on the part of an officer or look-out to distinguish the color of buoys may be a cause of accident in broad daylight.

It is the opinion of the committee, however, that tests for these de. fects need not be enforced in the cases of masters and mates who al. ready occupy such positions.

The committee purposely avoid making any recommendation as to the methods to be used in making such tests for visual power and color: blindness, or in conducting the necessary examinations for officers. It is thought that the desired objects will be best secured by leaving each country to employ the methods which may seem most suitable.

CHEN NGEN TAO.
MAN'L ARAGON.
CHR. DONNER.
JAMES WIMSHURST.
H. SETTEMBRINI.
W. T. SAMPSON, Chairman.
CAPT. H. LANNELUC.
CAPT. L. SALDANHA DA GAMA.
T. SALVESEN.

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE UPON THE SUBJECT OF

A UNIFORM LOAD-MARK.

GENERAL DIVISION 3 OF THE PROGRAMME.

RESOLUTION.

Resolved, That the Chair appoint a committee of seven upon the subject of a uniform load-mark, general division 3 of the programme.

MOTION.

Mr. GOODRICH (United States). That the several committees be in. creased, each by two, and that the Committee on Collocation also be increased by two members.

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DRAFT TO WHICH VESSELS SHOULD BE RESTRICTED WHEN LOADED. Uniform maximum load-mark.

WASHINGTON, November 26, 1889. To Rear-Admiral S. R. FRANKLIN,

President of the International Marine Conference, etc.: SIR : Your committee, having been appointed to report on the subject of a uniform load-mark, have first of all endeavored to obtain as much information as could be collected on this very important question.

S. Ex. 53, pt. 3--12

177

The British law, as laid down in the Merchant Shipping Act, 1876 (39 and 40 Vict., c. 80), gives certain powers to the Board of Trade to detain British and foreign vessels which, by reason of overloading or improper loading, are unfit to proceed to sea without serious danger to human life. These powers may be put into force against foreign ships when they have taken on board all or any part of their cargo at a port in the United Kingdon, and are, whilst at that port, unsafe by reason of overloading or improper loading.

With the intention of carrying out this law in a way consistent with the interests of the mercantile community on the one side and with the regard due to protection of life and property on the other side, certain general rules, after careful investigations instituted by a load-line committee appointed by the president of the Board of Trade, as well as by the Board of Trade, have been framed with the purpose of ascertain. ing whether a ship be overloaded or not. These rules assign to ships a freeboard, which, according to the experience collected on the subject, is considered sufficient to prevent dangerous overloading without unduly interfering withi trade, and they contain tables assigning such freeboard as is suitable for vessels of the highest class in Lloyd's Rogister or of strength equivalent thereto, and which is to be increased for ships of inferior strength.

The above-mentioned rules lave proved to be a good standard upon which to determine the proper loading of British vessels which are classed in Lloyd's Register, or for other vessels the particulars of whose strength and fitness to carry any particular cargo can easily be ascertained by the surveyors of the Board of Trade.

As regards foreign ships, however, which are loading in the United Kingdom, and which are either not classed in Lloyd's Register, or the particulars of which can not be ascertained without a minute examination, the difficulty exists that the law which intends to guard against the dangers arising from overloading can not be enforced without serious disadvantages to the owners of ships and cargoes consequent upon the clilliculty of ascertaining whether the ships are fit to carry the cargo in question.

For these reasons it appears to be obvious that it would be very desirable if means could be found to ascertain, in a simple and easy way and without loss of time, the fitness of any vessel loading in a port of the United Kingdom to load a particular cargo.

These remarks naturally apply also to vessels loading elsewhere, because it is a very high and important interest, common to all nations, to take every possible measure for the protection of life and property against the dangers arising from overloading.

For these reasons it appears to deserve very serious attention whether, by providing for a certain load-line to be marked on sea-going ships, a trustworthy and simple method could be arrived at for deciding whether

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