“ 4. That in designating bearings the letter E shall designate east, and the letter W shall designate west.

“5. That whenever bearings are given the variation of the compass at the place should be stated.

“6. That distances should be expressed in nautical miles and fractions thereof. The word “cable’ should mean the tenth part of a nautical mile.

7. That whenever the longitude of a position is given it should be stated which prime meridian is adopted, and if other than that of Greenwich or Paris, the difference of longitude should also be stated.

“y. That in defining the visibility of a light it should be stated whether the distance is for clear' or 'mean’ state of the weather.

“9. That where the geographical range of a light is given it should be calculated as seen at high water from an observer 15 feet or 5 meters above the sea.

“10. That a uniform classification of lights based on luminous intensity and on the character as seen by the mariner shoulil be adopted.

“11. That the central offices that issue • Notices to Mariners' or Light Lists' should be permitted to correspond direct on such subjects.

“12. That from countries where · Notices to Mariners' are published only in newspapers copies of such papers should be sent to the various bydrographic offices."

The United States delegates recommend the adoption of these resolutions, and that proper measures be taken to put into effect such as are not now in use or in force.



A uniform system of buoys and beacons.

(a) Uniformity in color of buoys.

(1) Uniformity in numbering of buoys. Under this general division the Conference approved of the following:

"Owing to the absence of a uniformity in buoyage, mariners, up to very recent times, seldom attempted to navigate a district by means of the buoyage unless they were specially well acquainted with the local system. But now that a certain degree of uniformity on a fundamental basis prevails, mariners in general are more induced to navigate their vessel, trusting to the chart of the district; it therefore becomes of greater importance that such uniformity should be extended as far as possible.

“Two principal characters are used for distinguishing buoys and beacons, color and shape.

“The first object to be attained, from an international point of view, is uniformity. For that purpose color is the best means, as applying to all systems of whatever kind, while the shape admits numerous excep. tions. The color is also applicable in all countries and with little expense, whereas the immediate adoption of shape would involve changes of several existing systems. Moreover, experience has proved that very many, if not the majority of channels, are now buoyed with suflicient distinctness without resorting to difference of form.

“For these reasons, and while the opinion prevails that at night and in thick weather difference in form is a better means of distinction than difference of color the Conference advise that uniformity in color should be adopted as a general rule, and that the use of shape should remain optional

“While, in the opinion of some members, the single colors of black and red are not so distinctive in contrast as a single color used in connection with a party-color, experience, gained in many buoyage districts, and particularly where used in conjunction with form, has proved that these dark colors are sufficiently distinctive for the safe navigation of districts where a more complicated system is not necessary. Singlecolored buoys are also more readily and cheaply repainted than partycolored buoys. We therefore recommend that the largely used red and black colors should be adopted generally for marking, respectively, the starboard and port sides of single channels.

“Many districts, however, require a more complicated system of buoyage to identify the several neighboring channels one from the other, such as the entrances of rivers with numerous channels like the Thames, the outlying shoals off the coast of the North Sea, the numerous shoals separated from each other by complicated channels such as in the Baltic Sea, etc.

“ In some of such districts a party-colored buoy is used with much advantage as a port-hand buoy. In a few-notably in England-a single black color is used as a starboard-hand buoy. Inasmuch as a single black color is in general use as a port-hand buoy in neighboring districts visited by the same shipping, we suggest that the authorities of such countries should be invited to consider the great general advantages to shipping that would result from the adoption of uniformity in color by discontinuing this dangerous custom of using a black color to denote a starboard-band as well as a port-band buoy.

“ In some countries white is used as a distinctive color, and with ad. vantage when contrasted with a dark background. As this practice can not lead vessels into danger we hesitate to advise that it should be compulsorily interfered with.

“We are of opinion that where form is adopted the two shapes 'Conical (Nun) and Can’ are appropriate for marking the starboard and port sides of a channel, a spar-buoy taking the place of the can in certain cases.

“These forms are practically used in the United States, Germany, Canada, India, and Great Britain. But the various countries are not all in agreement as to which side of the channel is to be marked by a conical buoy and which by a can or spar-buoy,

“ It follows that one or more of the countries would necessarily have to re-arrange their system, but, if the work were done gradually, the Conference believe that this could be performed at a minimum of expense in no way comparable with the great advantage that would result to navigation.

" In connection with such a change of system we are informed that an extensive re-arrangement in buoyage was recently carried out by Great Britain, the different shapes being changed from one side of the channels to the other side, the change being brought about without any casualty to navigation.

“As regards top.marks, we recommend that those countries whose buoyage is based on color alone should, whenever top-marks are used to denote sides of a channel, use conical or can-shaped marks on the existing buoys or beacons.

“We are of opinion that the mode of distinguishing buoys from each other by names, numbers, or letters should be left to the decision of the various countries, but that all numbers and letters should be in consecutive order, commencing at the seaward end of the district.

“The Conference are of opinion that districts where the buoyage is so complicated as to have led the authorities to adopt a compass system of marking, such as in the Baltic Sea, can not, with a view to general uniformity, be coupled with the simpler systeins found sufficient elsewhere; they therefore hesitate to recommend a fundamental change in such districts. But, after studying the Sailing Directions, and the publication of Mr. S. A. Philipsen, Copenhagen, on · Beaconage and Buoyage of Different Nations, which presents graphically the plays adopted by several nations, particularly those interested in the navigation of the Baltio seas, the Conference find that the systems now in use, so far as color and top-marks are concerned, are so similar that they suggest to the countries interested the desirability of the adoption of one uniform system, at least as regards color.

6. The Covference understand that the following are the colors and top-marks at present in use in the various districts using the compass system to define the bearing of the mark or buoy from the danger it indicates :

Marks on the north side of a shoal

Norway...... Black.

.. White.


Marks on the south side of a shoal-



Marks on the east side of a shoal-

Sweden. Black, with a white horizontal band.
Russia ...Red with wbite horizontal bands.
Finland .Half red and half white horizontal.

Denmark Red.
Marks on the west side of a shoal-


} ...White.
Russia.. White and black horizontal bands.
Finland. .Half white and half red horizontal.

Sweden. .Red.
Marks on a middle ground, with fair-way channels on either side-

Norway. ... Black and white horizontal bands.
Denmark ::}.. Red and white horizontal bards.
Russia. ..Black.

- ..

Un buoys or marks on the north side of a shoal-

Norway........Brooms turned downwards. .
Russia. . Broom or brooms not systematically ar-

Finland .A pole without a top-mark.

A ball.
On buoys or marks on the south side of a shoal-


..Broom turned upwards.

On buoys or marks on the cast side of a sboal-

Broom turned downwards.
Finland A pole without a top-mark.
Sweden.. A ball.
Russia.. ..Two brooms

| upper one turned upwards.

lower one turned downwards. On buoys or marks on the west side of a shoal

Norway........ Broom turned upwards.

..Broom turned downwards.
Russia... .Two brooms.

| upper one turned downwards.

lower one turned upwards. On marks on a middle ground with fair-way channels on either side


Finland ..... A cross. "Owing to the difficulty in choosing a fourth single color, green being universally used to denote a wreck, it practically became necessary, in arranging for a general system, if four distinct modes of coloring are adopted to mark the four cardinal bearings of or from a shoal, to resort to one or more party-colors to be used in conjunction with red, black, and white.

“On the principle of using four colors to mark the four sides of a shoal, the Conference put forward the following scheme, based on the least change that would be necessary in altering the present systems to a uniform plan ; and they bring it to the notice of the countries interested, as an example showing that uniformity is attainable if they will agree to consider the subject :

“ All shoals, marked on the compass system, to be marked-
“On the north side by a single black or white color.

6. South side by red.
East side by balf red and half white combined.

“ West side by half white and half black combined. “On rocks in fair-way, with channels on either hand, to be marked black or red, with horizontal bands.

“ If such colors were adopted, then the following changes of color would be necessary :

66 The marks on the north siile of a shoal would remain colored black or white as they now are in all countries using the compass system.

" The marks on the south side of a shoal would in“ Norway, have to be changed from white to red.


..A ball

« The marks on the east side of a shoal would in

- Norway, have to be changed from black to half red and half white. 6 Sweden, have to be changed from black and white to half red

and half white. 6 Denmark, have to be changed from red to half red and half white. 66 The marks on the west side of a shoal would in

Norway .. have to be changed from white to half white and halt 66 Denmark. I black. "Sweden, have to be changed from red to half white and half black. " Finland, have to be changed from white and red to half white and

half black. 6. The marks on a rock in Fair-way, with channel on either side, if a white horizontal band is generally adopted, would in Russia have to be changed from black to black or red with white horizontal bands, in agreement with the other countries.

"The Conference invite the various powers interested to consider the following general principles, which they put forward as a basis on which to build up a uniforin international buoyage system for districts other than those where the compass system is in use.

" The term starboard-hand shall denote that side of a navigablo channel which is on the right hand of the mariner entering from seaward ;. the terin port-hand shall denote that side which is on the left hand under the same circumstances.

" Color.-Buoys defining the starboard-hand shall be painted a single red coior. Buoys defining the port-hand shall be painted a single black color, or a party color. Buoys defining middle grounds shall be painted with horizontal bands.

"Form.- Wherever form is used as a distinctive character, buoys defining the starboard-hand shall be conical, and those defining the port-hand shall be can or spar.

6. Top marks.—Countries where form is not used as a distinctive character for buoys, may adopt, as another distinctive feature for the buoys on either side of a channel, top-marks resembling a cone to be used on the starboard side, or a cylinder on the port side of a channel.

Numbers and letters.-Numbers, letters, and names may be painted on the buoys, but they must never be so large as to interfere with their distinctive coloring.

"Wherever numbers and letters are used they shall be in consecutive order, commencing from seaward.

Buoying and marking of wrecks.a) All buoys and the top-sides of vessels used for the marking of wrecks shall be painted green with a suitable white inscription. (b) Where it is practicable, by day one ball shall be exhibited on the side of the vessel nearest the wreck and two placed vertically on the other side; three tixed white lights similarly arranged, but not the ordinary riding light, shail be shown from sunset to sunrise."

The United States delegates agree witli the findings of the Conference with reference to this division, and call attention to the recommendations of the Conference in regard to the principles submitted as a basis on which to build up a uniform international

system of buoyage.

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