with small holes, and this forms a connex required; the latter part of the pressing is ion with a cistern of cold water by means to be effected with a small pump without the of a four-way cock and receptacle, such as air-vessel. are employed in the apparatus for supplying Claim.--" What I claim is, first, the manwater, and operates in the same manner. ner of combining the follower of the press The condenser is also connected with the with its head, or cap-piece, by means of two cylinder of the engine, and is provided with lever beams, and their connecting-rods, aran aperture and valve for the discharge of ranged and operating in the manner, and for air and water. The water, after passing the purpose, set forth; and, secondly, I from the cistern into the receptacle, escapes

claim the combining with the force-pump of into the upper division of the condenser, and the hydrostatic press an air-chamber, the air percolating through the perforations in the in which shall be compressed in proportion diaphragm, condenses the steam. The air to the force with which the press is operatis forced from the condenser into the recep ing, and in such manner as that it shall, by tacle by the entering water, and in the same its reaction, gradually diminish the quantity manner from the receptacle into the cistern. of water raised from the reservoir, and thus IMPROVEMENT

WIND-MILL. graduate the action preparatory to the opePerry Davis.—This patent is taken for a ration of a smaller or more powerful forcemodification of the ordinary vertical wind pump, as herein made known." mill, with inclined sails, or vanes. The shaft IMPROVEMENT ON THE STEELYARD. Eli of the wind wheel has its bearings in the Willemm. The fulcrum pins, or knife edges, upper part of a tower, which rests, and turns, that receive the loops of the hooks, in the on a circular railway, and on a hollow shaft improved instrument, are attached to rings attached to the main framing. A solid shaft that turn on the steelyard, or lever, instead passes through the hollow shaft of the tower, of being attached to the steelyard itself. and is made to revolve by a crown wheel on These rings are retained in their places the shaft of the wind wheel; and from its lengthwise by means of flanches, or other lower end, motion is communicated to any

known means. Instead of being made fiat, kind of machinery to be driven. The lower and having only one or two edges notched inner edge of the tower is provided with cogs and graduated to receive weights, as in the into which the teeth of a pinion, on the end common steelyard, this instrument is to be of a vertical shaft, take for the purpose of made square, and is graduated and notched turning it. This last mentioned shaft is on three sides to receive the weights, by connected with a centrifugal regulator, or which the capacity of the apparatus is ingovernor, the balls of which are operated on creased : either of the notched angles may by a sliding clutch that clutches either of be turned uppermost. two bevel pinions on its shaft, so that when IMPROVEMENT IN THE SPRING SEATS OF the mill runs too fast the balls are thrown RIDING SADDLES. Thomas Mardock.--The out so far as to clutch the upper wheel, and claim in this patent is confined to the pethus to turn the tower, and the wind wheel, culiar mode of affixing and forming the spiral from the wind ; and when it runs too slowlyspring, called by the patentee the “jew'sthe balls fall, and clutch the lower wheel harp spiral spring,” and which is made out which turns the wind wheel to the wind. of a single piece of wire; but the formation

HYDROSTATIC PRESS FOR PRESSING COT of it could not well be understood without TON, &c.

John Houpt.—The follower of drawings, and these we deem it unnecessary this press is below the bed, hence, in the to give. In this, as in other spring saddles, operation of pressing, it is forced upwards; one end of the spring is attached to the and, to insure its parallelism with the bed pommel, and the other to the web which is during its action, there is a connecting-rod, secured to the cantle of the saddle-tree. The jointed at each end of it, which rods extend spring is easily constructed, at little cost, upwards, and are jointed to the ends of two and will, no doubt, operate well. levers, which two levers have their fulcra in the cap of the press, their inner ends being RINTENDING PATENTEES may be supplied connected together by a jointed link. gratis with Instructions, by application (post

The second improvement is in the employ- paid) to Messrs. J. C. Robertson and Co., ing of an air-vessel with a large force-pump, 166, Fleet-street, by whom is kept the only to be used in the commencement of the ope COMPLETE REGISTRY OF PATENTS EXTAN'T ration of pressing, and before great force is from 1617 to the present time).

LONDOV: Edited, Printed and Published by J. C. Robertson, at the Mechanics' Magazine Office,

No. 165, Fleet-street.-Sold by W. and A. Gal gnani, Rue Vivienne, Paris;

Machin and Co., Dublin; and W. C. Campbell and Co., Hamburgh.

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][graphic][merged small][merged small]

COMMANDER BEADON's Life BUOY. SIR,—Two great difficulties in the pre from drowning; for the conveyance of a sent excellent Life Buoy, invented by inissage after or during an action; in Lieutenant Cooke, and now used in the short, it is a portable life apparatus calNavy, have for a long time occupied my culated for use when boats cannot enattention : these are, the want of method counter the sea, or are not immediately to prevent the rapidity of its drift, and at hand, or have been rendered unfit for means whereby a man may regain the use by shot or other causes, which the ship, after he has been able to get on the apparatus in question is not likely to be, Life Buoy. Of the first of these, nume from its diminutive size, construction in rous proofs are afforded by the fact that compartments, and places of suspension good swimmers have often struggled to under the “taffrail. The present inthe last stage of exhaustion before they vention did not originate in a mere chance could reach the buoy-although they have thought, but was commenced with a wish been close to it at first, simply because it to attain the above desirable ends, and has continually drifted from them, al matured by a course of laborious and ex. most as fast as they swam. In proof of pensive practical experiments. the second, instances have often occurred I have tried many plans for propelling of an unfortunate shipmate having of ne it, more especially the principle of the cessity been abandoned to a protracted “ Screw," as far back as 1833, and the and miserable death, when the weather “Duck's Foot," at a later period, besides has been too rough to lower a boat. Other many others; but for simplicity and efinstances are given where attempts made fectiveness the “Qar" surpasses all for to assist men on the life buoys now used the present purpose. in the navy, have proved most disastrous. I offer the invention untrammelled by It will be sufficient for the present to refer restrictive rights. Its expense is trifling; to the loss of a whole boat's crew belong and I therefore trust that humanity may ing to her Majesty's ship Melville, bear supersede prejudice, and that its utility ing the flag of Sir John Gore, off the may be further tested. Cape of Good Hope, in 1832 or 1833.

George BeadOn, Com. R.N. When a person falls overboard, the Bristol, December 6, 1842. Life Buoy is "let go,” and the ship kept P.S. I cannot help thinking that my close to it; but in a gale of wind, with the sea running high, this cannot be done,

buoy would have been beneficial in many for the ship, owing to her lofty spars, will

of the cases of shipwreck recently detailed drift faster than the buoy; consequently,

in the papers. I will naine one onlythe distance between them continually in

that of the Waterloo, where, I think, a

line might have been taken on shore, for creases, until both buoy and man are lost sight of to windward. I can refer to se

instance, the deep sea lead line, by which

others could have been sent. veral eye-witnesses of such indescribably agonizing and heart-rending farewells. Description of the Engraving.

The first named of these objections is The prefixed engraving represents a in a great measure obviated by the deep keel of my Life Buoy, the position of the

man seated upon a moveable Life Buoy, light staff before the centre of motion, and

in the act of returning to a ship to lee

ward. It consists of a metal tube 8 feet the effects of the wind acting against long by 12 inches at its greatest diameter, it, whereby it is caused to drift nearly and is tapered towards its after end

so as 6 broadside on." The second is overcome by means of

to permit it to pass freely through the

water. It is conical at each end, in the double-bladed oar, by which a man can propel himself faster than a vessel

which are “eyebolts,” for the double drifts in a gale of wind.

purpose of attaching a rope to tow it by, I moreover think, my buoy would be

and to steady it when suspended at the a desirable appendage to every ship, as it

stern by passing over guide rods fixed is calculated for running out a line in the

therein. The keel (a portion of which

is seen) is 10 or 12 inches deep. * The event of her becoming stranded. It will also be a ready and safe means for one

. This method I conceive to be advisable in the person to proceed to the rescue of others

construction of all buoys, and water-marks.


19 buoy is quite safe from filling with water, I make no claim, you will perceive, to it being divided into compartments or having first suggested or demonstrated the cases : these cases or drums are water principle, that “the section of the chains tight, and distinct from each other as well should diminish from the points of susas from the outer cylinder, but are pension to the centre." made to fit it nicely, whereby it is much To have done so would have shown strengthened and supported on the inside great ignorance of the history of practical against any external blow or pressure. science. In the Phil. Trans. for 1826, A saddle is formed in it, in which the this principle is fully stated and discussed man sits quite secure from sharks, or by Mr. Davis Gilbert. A table is even from being washed off, his feet resting given by him to facilitate its application ; on a pinion. On each side is attached a and again by Mr. Hodgkinson,

in a paper frame-work or wing with stop hinges, referred to in my Preface, and published secured by bolts passing into circular in 1831. Again I find it in the Analypieces of wood, fitting the cylinder. On tical Statics of the Rev. Dr. Whewell, the underside of these wings are fixed published in 1833. It was from these semicylindrical buoys, which terminate in writers, and not from Mr. Dredge's semiconical extremities. These wings bridge, that I derived my knowledge of hang down when the buoy is suspended it; and I think it likely that it may

be across the taffrail, but form outriggers found recorded in theoretical works of a when in the water, thus giving it stability. yet earlier date. The light-staff is moveable on an axle, I do, indeed, claim (although I have and so arranged that it lies parallel with nowhere in my work specifically stated the buoy when hung up to the ship, and that claim) to have been the first to deassumes an upright position when in the velope, completely, that law of the variawater ; by this contrivance, there is not tion of the section of the chains, and of more available space occupied than by the their curvature, which is consistent with buoy now used. It is fired, and let go the greatest economy of the material of in the usual way, and is propelled by a the structure, under its ordinary form. double-bladed oar, 8 feet long, which is Whilst preceding writers have either attached to a moveable shole pin, suffer modified the conditions of the question, it to have a horizontal and vertical

or, deterred by its analytical difficulties, motion, but securing it from loss. It may have not proceeded beyond that point at also be propelled by two paddles fixed in which it may be solved by approximaa similar way at their ends.

tion, my inquiries have been pushed on to the determination of formulæ express

ing (in comparatively simple terms) the MR. DREDGE's SUSPENSION-BRIDGE SYS

equation to the curve and the section of

the chains. When applied to such cases TEM- PROFESSOR MOSELEY IN REPLY

as occur most commonly in practice, the

la'ter formula shows the variation of the Sir,-In answer to the letter of Mr.

section not to be rapid or considerable. Dredge, published in your Magazine of I trust that I have sufficiently cleared 31st of December, to which my attention

myself of the imputation of “ borrowing has this moment been called, I shall be

another's ideas' without acknowledgobliged if you will do me the favour to

ment." insert the whole of the paragraph of my Whenever a second edition of my Preface, (p. xvi.,) in which I have spoken work shall be called for, I will take care of the suspension-bridge, together with

to institute a fuller investigation into the the appended note.*

merits of Mr. Dredge's bridge. In the


• The paragraph and note are as follows:

“In treating of rupture by elongation, I have been led to a discussion of the theory of the suspension-bridge. The question, so complicated when reference is had to the weight of the roadway and The weights of the suspending rods, and when the suspending chains are assumed to be of uniform thickness, becomes comparatively easy when the section of the chain is assumed so to vary its dimensions, as to be every where of the same strength. A suspension-bridge thus constructed is obviously

that which, being of a given strength, can be constructed with the least quantity of materials; or, which is of the greatest strength, having a given quantity of materiais used in its construction.

“* That particular case of this problem, in which the weights of the suspending-rods are neglected, has been treated by Mr. Hougkinson, in the fourth volume of the “Manchester Transactions,” with his uxual ability. He has not, however, succeeded in effecting its complete solution."


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ANTAGONIST ESSENCES, AND PHOTIC FLUIDS. mean time, I cannot but regret the ex

Statement of Foot Tolls taken at Waterloo Bridge. pressions which have given him pain.

3-year ending Aug. 1833 4861 Perhaps you will permit me io avail

Feb. 1834 4776 myself of this opportunity to correct an



Feb. 1835 4788 error into which you have been led, (p.


5006 523,) by an observation in my Preface.

Feb. 1836 4703

5090 The principle which I have employed, in

Feb. 1837 4831 treating of the pressure of earth, is that


5155 of Coulomb; but the whole method by

Feb. 1838 4918

5353 which I have investigated the stability

Feb. 1839 of the revetement wall sustaining that



Feb. 1840 ... 5057 15657 penny tolls pressure is new to science.


5340 Again, in respect to the arch, I have

Feb. 1841 made no reservation whatever in favour



14534 halfpenny

Feb. 1842 of the old theory of the arch, as taught

tolls. Aug.

5091 by Attwood, Hutton, Whewell, &c.; but

1123 loss in 3 only in favour of that old principle which

[half-years. neglects the consideration of the adhesive

[It is a singular thing, certainly, and properties of the cement, and constructs the arch so strongly, that it would stand

contrary to general experience, that in

this instance a reduction of toll should without mortar. My own calculations are founded on this principle.

not have been productive of any increase

in the number of passengers. We do My theory of the arch is different, in

not sce how the conclusion can be reevery other respect than in its results, from that of Coulomb.

sisted, that there is a limit to the inYour very obedient servant,

fluence of cheapness, even; and that, in

this case, that limit must be the original HENRY MOSELEY.

penny. The case of the proprietors of Wandsworth, January 9, 1843.

this noble structure was hard enough as it stood, without the aggravation of this

halfpenny wise and pounds foolish meaWATERLOO BRIDGE-HIGH AND LOW sure.-Ed. M. M.]

TOLLS. Sir,- Thinking it may be a matter of some interest to the public to know the ANTAGONIST ESSENCES-"z.'s" THEORY effect of lowering the fool tolls at Water

OF PHOTIC FLUIDS. loo Bridge, I herewith send you a state Sir,-I am well aware that your space ment, (omitting shillings and pence)

is too valuable to be wasted in idle contaken from their toll-book for the eight

troversy; but I hope that the remarks I am years preceding the reduction from one

about to make on the letter of your corpenny to one halfpenny, and also for the

respondent, “Z.,” (p. 6) may not exactly subsequent year and a half, up to August

be considered as coming under that head. last. From this it will be seen that a

He says that he “has devoted many years loss has been sustained, in the three last

to the endeavour of tracing the connexion half-years, of 1,1231., as compared with

of photic matter with the elements;" and the three last corresponding half-years,

I should, therefore, not presume to disprevious to the reduction, being 7481. per

cuss facts with him, as he is, no doubt, annum; exclusive of a probable additional

infinitely stronger on that point than a loss of about 1201, in these three half

student like myself can pretend to be: but years, as the foot tolls were annually in

his letter shows that he is prosecuting his creasing at the rate of about 801. per

researches on a principle which I think annum, on an average of 7 years previous

likely to prevent his ever attaining to any to the reduction; and would, no doubt, have continued to increase at that rate, if

satisfactory result. I allude to the prin

ciple of " antagonist essences,” which I the tolls had not been lowered.

had supposed entirely obsolete, but which I am, Sir, &c.,

he evidently recognizes, as he talks of A PROPRIETOR AND ANNUITANT.

"latent cold," as well as “latent heat;London, January, 1913.

and of darkness as “a vivid predominance of negative,” whilst light is “ a predomi


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