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DRY'S PATENT THRASHING MACHINE.
[Patent dated August 2, 1842.] The thrashing machine represented in the revolving beater-frame D, and thrown the accompanying engravings, though out into the vacant space, H, behind. From but recently patented, and only just spe. the separate views (figs. 6 and 7) given cified, is already, we are informed, coming of the revolving beater-frame, it will be into extensive use in the North of Eng seen that the triangularly-shaped beaters, land. It is certainly, by far, the most & gg, are fixed to the frame at such an effectual, simple, and easily managed of angle, that when they come down upon any yet produced. Fig. l'is a side ele the grain as it passes between the stationvation of the machine; fig. 2 is an end ary semi-cylinder B, and the revolving elevation; fig. 3, a transverse section, beater-frame D, they fall flatly upon it, through the line a b, of fig. 1, and fig. 4, and do not present their edges to break, a horizontal section, through the line cd, or cut, or otherwise damage the grain or of fig. 1. A A A A is the frame. straw. It will also be seen by reference work of the machine; B is a semi-cylin to the separate view, fig. 5, of the semider, represented separately in fig. 5, which cylinder B, that the teeth on the inside is divided into two sections, Band B?, thereof are set at an angle to correspond each of which is suspended, independently with that at which the teeth of the reof the other, by eye bolts from the cross volving beater-frame D are fixed. The bolt C. Both sections present, on the distance between the teeth of the stationinside, regular rows of teeth fff, of a ary semi-cylinder B, and those of the triangular form, supported by transverse revolving beater-frame D, may be made stays, or ties, f? f?; but in the upper wide or narrow at pleasure, according to section, the spaces between the rows of the sort of grain to be thrashed, and the teeth and the stays are closed; while, state as to dryness or wetness which it is in the lower, these spaces are left open. in, by the means next to be described. By means to be presently explained, both K (fig. 4) is a curved bar, attached by its these sections are made perfectly fixed two ends to the cross bolt C, from which and stationary, when the machine is in the sections of the stationary semi-cylinaction, and in that state they have the ap der are suspended. L is a winch, one pearance of, and form, in effect, one entire arm of which passes through a bearing k, semi-cylinder. D is a revolving beater at the end of the frame work A A, and frame, shown separately in figs. 6 and 7, terminates in a male screw l, which takes (the former being a bird's-eye-view, and into a female screw cut out in the head the latter an end view,) which carries of the curved bar K. M M are two bearrows of teeth or beaters, g g g, shaped ings in the slots m m, on which rest the similarly to the teeth, f f, of the station ends of the cross bolt C. ary semi-cylinder B, and taking into the From the description, so far, it will be interstices between them. E is a pinion, readily understood, that as the winch is fixed on the end of the axis of the revoly turned, and the screw end forced inwards, ing beater-frame D. F is a cog wheel, through the curved bar K, the cross bolt which takes into the pinion E, and which, C, to which the ends of the curved bar being connected by its axis with any pri K are attached, will be drawn back, and mary moving power, as horse power, or with it the two sections of the semi-cysteam power, gives motion to ihe whole linder B, suspended from it, and that the machine. G is a stage, or platform, from space between the opposite rows of teeth which the grain to be thrashed is laid by will be thereby proportionally increased, hand on an inclined feeding board G?, and vice versa. Now to keep the secwhence it falls between the teeth of the tions of the semi-cylinder B steady in any revolving beater-frame and those of the position, which may be thus assigned to stationary semi-cylinder. The grain, as them, and to preserve their parallelism it is thrashed out, falls through the open within the frame work, as also to allow interstices of the lower section B2 of the of the upper section being raised to the stationary semi-cylinder, and is received slight degree required when the cross on the floor of the machine, while the bolt C is drawn back, there are four diastraw is carried round by the action of gonal stays N N, two on each side,
66 NOVELTY" STEAM-SHIP.
this vessel, which you are aware has been
fitted by me (under my patent) with a screw
propeller worked direct from the engines, which pass
from the sides of the sections I will make no apology for offering, a Bi and B?, to the insides of the bearings communication on this interesting subM M, and are secured at each point by ject through the medium of your pages. screws, on which they turn freely, so that The results are so extraordinary and inwhatever is the position given to the credible, that, with a view of drawing cross bolt, the thrust of the diagonal stays public notice more forcibly to the imon one side, and the opposing force of the portant facts I have developed, I inserted screw l on the other, will keep it for the the following challenge in the Times of time fixed in that position. On the screw
the 15th December :arm of the winch L, there is a small “Steam Navigation. The owner of the pinion 0, which takes into a circular Novelty steam-ship, 12 years A 1, 328 tons, toothed plate P, fixed on the end of the 25 horses' power, challenges, for 1,0001., machine, on the centre of which plate is paddle-wheel steamers, for speed, sea-worfixed the centre of a larger plate, which thiness, stowage, and comfort, any vessel the inventor calls the index plate, the
with the same, or double the power of the rim of which is divided into any num
Novelty. Both vessels to have the same ber of equal parts, say from 1 to 10
emerged and midship section." inclusive, as shown in fig. 2. The pur To this challenge I have had no pose of these arrangements is to enable
This is as I expected; for, the owner or user of the machine in what steamer is there in the world, stantly to ascertain, by outside inspection, which, with a power of only 25 horses, whether the semi-cylinder B, and the
and of 328 tons admeasurement, having revolving beater-frame D, are at the dist 140 tons of ballast on board, and whose ance from cach other most proper for the
immersed section is 164 feet, would realsort of grain which is in the course of ize a speed of 8} miles per hour ? being thrashed. Thus, supposing fig. 1
This circumstance is altogether so unwere to indicate when the pointer of the precedented, that we must seek in vain toothed plate P is opposite to it, that the to account for it upon any of the hypoteeth of the cylinder and beater-frame theses by which the properties of screw are all but in contact with one another, propellers have been heretofore investi. 2, 3, and 4 would indicate, that they are
gated. one, two, or three degrees more removed I am myself a plain unlettered man, from one another. Or again, supposing
and have always felt what a more learned that it has been found, by repeated trials, individual declared, after much hard that the best distance for thrashing wheat, theoretical study, namely, that " a grain in a dry state, is when the pointer of the of practice is worth a pound of theory.” toothed plate P is opposite fig. 3, the I therefore here give facts, which are owner, or user, has for ever after, when stubborn things ; and if I adventure thrashing such wheat, only to see that upon a theory of my own, by way of acthe index plate is in that position, and so counting for the great result I have atof all other sorts of grain. The inventor
tained from such small means, I
be states, that though the teeth, as well of
beaten and silenced on the argument, but the stationary semi-cylinder as of the re I shall quietly point to the performance volving beater-frame have been directed of the Novelty, as a proof that I am to be set at such an angle as that they practically right. The theory to which shall act or press flatly against the grain I refer has been sneered at by those ento be thrashed; yet, that he does not gineers to whom I have broached it, and confine himself to any one angle, but I expect it will be so by others; but, as claims a right to use any angle or an greater men have been laughed at by gles at which they can be placed con
those who afterwards applauded them, I sistently with the production of the said have no doubt that my theory will ultieffect.
mately be admitted to be correct.
But first let me state the facts regard
5 ing the Novelty's performance and If I am right in this theory (and I appower. The Novelty is a very burthen peal to the facts for its confirmation,) some vessel, built, as I have said, by then the methods employed by other exmyself, with a view of testing the appli perimentalists for increasing the velocity cation of steam in combination with a of the screw over that of the engine are screw, as an auxiliary power to merchant all of them detrimental (independent of ships. She is a three-masted vessel, their complexity,) to the best applicawith a capacious hold; and as her funnel tion to the power, for they are multiforms the mizen-mast, and as she is, of plying the opposing lever, which multicourse, without the clumsy appendage of plication I have shown to cause the paddle-boxes, she differs in no respect,
inferior performance of paddle-wheel in her external appearance, from that of steamers. an ordinary sailing vessel.
The Archimedes is fitted with a pair She is fitted with a pair of non-con of engines of the united power of ninety densing engines; the cylinders are 13 horses, and her screw has a multiplied inches diameter, and the length of the velocity over that of the engine of 53d stroke 2 feet 4 inches; the effective force times, and I find by Captain Chappell's of the steam on the piston is about 20 lbs. report, as well as by Mr. Galloway's mean pressure, being cut off at half Appendix to Tredgold, that with an stroke. The engines make about fifty- immersed section of only 135 feet, or five double strokes per minute, and the 29 feet less than that of the Novelty, and power is applied direct to the crank on nearly four times her power, she only atThe screw axis, without the intervention tains a speed of ten miles per hour. of gearing, or any kind of multiplying I am met on every side by the assermotion. The combined power of these tion, that when the power of the screw engines will be found to be about twenty is obtained direct from the engines, the five horses, and with these I have re increased pitch of the screw will entail a peatedly realized a speed of eight and a greater loss by diagonal action. I will half statute miles per hour! Now, I answer in the words of a learned mathe. ask, what power would be required to matician, who had been attempting to propel such a vessel fitted with paddles investigate screw propellers, and who at the same rate ? I assert, without fear concluded his labours by declaring, that of contradiction, that you cannot do the “ results have shown us that we know same work with less than three times the nothing about angular action in the water." power. If any one thinks I am wrong, The fastest fish apply their force at the let my challenge be accepted.
most acute angle to their line of motion, Now for my theory.
though the practice in screw experiments Let us suppose the screw and paddle- has been the reverse. In my opinion, wheel each exerting the same propelling the angle of power is the difference of effort, and that the power of the engine the velocity of the screw and that of the is applied direct to the screw axis by vessel, and not the angle of departure. means of a crank or cranks. It is clear, If you will allow me space in your in such case, the pressure on the piston valuable columns, on a future occasion I is not required to equal the propelling will state more fully the grounds of my effort, because the latter is applied on the hypothesis. At present I shall wind up principle of the wedge; while in the case by enumerating the advantages of my of the paddle-wheel, the pressure on the plan, well assured that I am underrating piston must be as many times greater their extent. ihan the resistance encountered in moy 1st. Less than half the power is reing the floats, as the length of the crank quired. is to the radius of the wheel.
2nd. No gearing or multiplying moThe paddle-wheel also exerts its force tions, the best of which are complicated in the direction of the vessel's motion, and uncertain. while the screw, acting as a wedge, re 3rd. A saving of half the fuel with a quires a power equal to the perpendicular proportionate decrease of labour in firing. to give out an effort equal to the hypo
4th. An increase of room for cargo then use. Here then, the leverage is in and passengers, to nearly double the space farour of the screw and against the pad
available at present. dle; and this, I think, accounts for the 5th. The steam power does not affect great advantages I have attained. the sailing properties, and vice versa,