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other established cost centers such as the individual accounts for recording particular objects or items of expense, and the separate account groupings designed to record the expenses incurred by individual organizational units, functions, projects and the like. In general, the administrative functions and service activities described in paragraph VI are identifiable as separate cost centers, and the expenses associated with such centers become eligible in due course for distribution as indirect costs of research agreements and other ultimate cost centers.

B. Application to research agreements. Identifiable benefit to the research work rather than the nature of the goods and services involved is the determining factor in distinguishing direct from indirect costs of research agreements. Typical of transactions chargeable to a research agreement as direct costs are the compensation of employees for the time or effort devoted to the performance of work under the research agreement, including related staff benefit and pension plan costs to the extent that such items are consistently accorded to all employees and treated by the hospital as direct rather than indirect costs (see paragraph V. B4b); the costs of materials consumed or expended in the performance of such work; and other items of expense incurred for the research agreement, such as extraordinary utility consumption. The cost of materials supplied from stock or services rendered by specialized facilities or other institutional service operations may be included as direct costs of research agreements provided such items are consistently treated by the institution as direct rather than indirect costs and are charged under a recognized method of costing or pricing designed to recover only the actual direct and indirect costs of such material or service and conforming to generally accepted cost accounting practices consistently followed by the institution.

period normally should coincide with the fiscal year established by the hospital, but in any event the base period should be so selected as to avoid inequities in the distribution of costs.

2. Need for cost groupings. The overall objective of the allocation process is to distribute the indirect costs described in paragraph VI to organized research, patient care, instruction and training, and other hospital activi. ties in reasonable proportions consistent with the nature and extent of the use of the hospital's resources by research personnel, medical staff, patients, students, and other personnel or organizations. In order to achieve this objective with reasonable precision, it may be necessary to provide for selective distribution by establishing separate groupings of cost within one or more of the functional categories of indirect costs referred to in paragraph V-A. In general, the cost groupings established within a functional category should constitute, in each case, a pool of those items of expense that are considered to be of like character in terms of their relative contribution to (or degree of remoteness from) the particular cost centers to which distribution is appropriate. Each such pool or cost grouping should then be distributed individually to the related cost centers, using the distribution base or method most appropriate in the light of the guides set out in B3 below. While this paragraph places primary emphasis on a step-down method of indirect cost computation, paragraph VIII provides an alternate method which may be used under certain conditions.

3. Selection of distribution method. Actual conditions must be taken into account in selecting the method or base to be used in distributing to related cost centers the expenses assembled under each of the individual cost groups established as indicated under B2 above. Where a distribution can be made by assignment of a cost grouping directly to the area benefited, the distribution should be made in that manner. Care should be given, however, to eliminate similar or duplicative costs from any other distribution made to this area. Where the expenses under a cost grouping are more general in nature, the distribution to related cost centers should be made through use of a selected base which will produce results which are equitable to both the Government and the hospital. In general, any cost element or costrelated factor associated with the hospital's work is potentially adaptable for use as a distribution base provided:

a. It can readily be expressed in terms of dollars or other quantitative measure (total direct expenditures, direct salaries, manhours applied, square feet utilized, hours of usage, number of documents processed, population served, and the like); and

V. INDIRECT COSTS

A. General. Indirect costs are those that have been incurred for common or joint objectives, and thus are not readily subject to treatment as direct costs of research agreements or other ultimate or revenue producing cost centers. In hospitals such costs normally are classified but not necessarily restricted to the following functional categories: Depreciation; Administrative and General (including fringe benefits if not charged directly); Operation of Plant; Maintenance of Plant; Laundry and Linen Service; Housekeeping; Dietary; Maintenance of Personnel; and Medical Records and Library.

B. Criteria for distribution-1. Base period. A base period for distribution of indirect costs is the period during which such costs are incurred and accumulated for distribution to work performed within that period. The base

b. It is common to the related cost centers during the base period. The essential consideration in selection of the distribution base in each instance is that it be the one best suited for assigning the pool of costs to related cost centers in accord with the relative benefits derived; the traceable cause and effect relationship; or logic and reason, where neither benefit nor cause and effect relationship is determinable.

4. General consideration on cost groupings. The extent to which separate cost groupings and selective distribution would be appropriate at a hospital is a matter of judgment to be determined on a case-by-case basis. Typical situations which may warrant the establishment of two or more separate cost groups (based on account classification or analysis) within a functional category include but are not limited to the following:

a. Where certain items or categories of expense relate solely to one of the major divisions of the hospital (patient care, sponsored research, instruction and training, or other hospital activities) or to any two but not all, such expenses should be set aside as a separate cost grouping for direct assignment or selective distribution in accordance with the guides provided in B2 and B3 above.

b. Where any types of expense ordinary treated as indirect cost as outlined in paragraph V-A are charged to research agreements as direct costs, the similar type expenses applicable to other activities of the institution must through separate cost grouping be excluded from the indirect costs allocable to research agreements.

c. Where it is determined that certain expenses are for the support of a service unit or facility whose output is susceptible of measurement on a workload or other quantitative basis, such expenses should be set aside as a separate cost grouping for distribution on such basis to organized research and other hospital activities.

d. Where organized activities (including identifiable segments of organized research as well as the activities cited in paragraph II-E) provide their own purchasing, personnel administration, building maintenance, or housekeeping or similar service, the distribution of such elements of indirect cost to such activities should be accomplished through cost grouping which includes only that portion of central indirect costs (such as for overall management) which are prop erly allocable to such activities.

e. Where the hospital elects to treat as indirect charges the costs of pension plans and other staff benefits, such costs should be set aside as a separate cost grouping for selective distribution to related cost centers, including organized research.

f. Where the hospital is affiliated with a medical school or some other institution which performs organized research on the hospital's premises, every effort should be

made to establish separate cost groupings in the Administrative and General or other applicable category which will reasonably reflect the use of services and facilities by such research. (See also paragraph VII-A.3)

5. Materiality. Where it is determined that the use of separate cost groupings and selective distribution are necessary to produce equitable results, the number of such separate cost groupings within a functional category should be held within practical limits, after taking into consideration the materiality of the amounts involved and the degree of precision attainable through less selective methods of distribution.

C. Administration of limitations on allowances for indirect costs. 1. Research grants may be subject to laws and/or administrative regulations that limit the allowance for indirect costs under each such grant to a stated percentage of the direct costs allowed. Agencies that sponsor such grants will establish procedures which will assure that:

a. The terms and amount authorized in each case conform with the provisions of paragraphs III, V and IX of these principles as they apply to matters involving the consistent treatment and allowability of individual items of cost; and

b. The amount actually allowed for indirect costs under each such research grant does not exceed the maximum allowable under the limitation or the amount otherwise allowable under these principles, whichever is the smaller.

2. Where the actual allowance for indirect costs on any research grant must be restricted to the smaller of the two alternative amounts referred to in C1 above, such alternative amounts should be determined in accordance with the following guides:

a. The maximum allowable under the limitation should be established by applying the stated percentage to a direct cost base which shall include all items of expenditure authorized by the sponsoring agency for inclusion as part of the total cost for the direct benefit of the work under the grant; and

b. The amount otherwise allowable under these principles should be established by applying the current institutional indirect cost rate to those elements of direct cost which were included in the base on which the rate was computed.

3. When the maximum amount allowable under a statutory limitation or the terms of

research agreement is less than the amount otherwise allocable as indirect costs under these principles, the amount not recoverable as indirect costs under the research agreement involved may not be shifted to other research agreements.

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VI. IDENTIFICATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF

INDIRECT COSTS

A. Depreciation or use charge. 1. The expenses under this heading should include de

preciation (as defined in paragraph IX-B.9a) on buildings, fixed equipment, and movable equipment, except to the extent purchased through federal funds. Where adequate records for the recording of depreciation are not available, a use charge may be substituted for depreciation (See paragraph LXB.)

2. The expenses included in this category should be allocated to applicable cost centers in a manner consistent with the guides set forth in paragraph V-B, on a basis that gives primary emphasis to (a) space utilization with respect to depreciation on buildings and fixed equipment; and (b) specific identification of assets and their use with respect to movable equipment as it relates to patient care, organized research, instruction and training, and other hospital activities. Where such records are not sufficient for the purpose of the foregoing, reasonable estimates will suffice as a means for effecting distribution of the amounts involved.

B. Administration and general expenses. 1. The expenses under this heading are those that have been incurred for the administrative offices of the hospital including accounting, personnel, purchasing, information centers, telephone expense, and the like which do not relate solely to any major division of the institution, i.e., solely to patient care, organized research, instruction and training, or other hospital activities.

2. The expenses included in this category may be allocated on the basis of total expenditures exclusive of capital expenditures, or salaries and wages in situations where the results of the distribution made on this basis are deemed to be equitable both to the Government and the hospital; otherwise the distribution of Administration and General expenses should be made through use of selected bases, applied to separate cost groupings established within this category of expenses in accordance with the guides set out in paragraph V-B.

C. Operation of plant. 1. The expenses under this heading are those that have been incurred by a central service organization or at the departmental level for the administration, supervision, and provision of utilities (exclusive of telephone expense) and protective services to the physical plant. They include expenses incurred for such items as power plant operations, general utility costs, elevator operations, protection services, and general parking lots.

2. The expenses included in this category should be allocated to applicable cost centers in a manner consistent with the guides provided in paragraph V-B, on a basis that gives primary emphasis to space utilization. The allocations should be developed as follows:

a. Where actual space and related cost records are available or can readily be developed and maintained without significant

change in the accounting practices, the amount distributed should be based on such records;

b. Where the space and related cost records maintained are not sufficient for purposes of the foregoing, a reasonable estimate of the proportion of total space assigned to the various costs centers normally will suffice as a means for effecting distribution of the amounts involved; or

c. Where it can be demonstrated that an area or volume or space basis of allocation is impractical or inequitable, other bases may be used provided consideration is given to the use of facilities by research personnel and others, including patients.

D. Maintenance of plant. 1. The expenses under this heading should include:

a. All salaries and wages pertaining to ordinary repair and maintenance work performed by employees on the payroll of the hospital;

b. All supplies and parts used in the ordinary repairing and maintaining of buildings and general equipment; and

c. Amounts paid to outside concerns for the ordinary repairing and maintaining of buildings and general equipment.

2. The expenses included in this category should be allocated to applicable cost centers in a manner consistent with the guides provided in paragraph V-B. on a basis that gives primary emphasis to space utilization. The allocations and apportionments should be developed as follows:

a. Where actual space and related cost records are available and can readily be developed and maintained without significant change in the accounting practices, the amount distributed should be based on such records;

b. Where the space and related cost records maintained are not sufficient for purposes of the foregoing, a reasonable estimate of the proportion of total space assigned to the various cost centers normally will suffice as a means for effecting distribution of the amounts involved; or

c. Where it can be demonstrated that an area or volume of space basis of allocation is impractical or inequitable, other basis may be used provided consideration is given to the use of facilities by research personnel and others, including patients.

E. Laundry and linen. 1. The expenses under this heading should include:

a. Salaries and wages of laundry department employees, seamstresses, clean linen handlers, linen delivery men, etc.;

b. Supplies used in connection with the laundry operation and all linens purchased; and

c. Amounts paid to outside concerns for purchased laundry and/or linen service.

2. The expense included in this category should be allocated to related cost centers in a manner consistent with the guides provided in paragraph V-B. on a basis that gives primary emphasis to actual pounds of linen used. The allocations should be developed as follows:

a. Where actual poundage and related cost records are available or can readily be developed and maintained without significant change in the accounting practices, the amount distributed should be based on such records;

b. Where it can be demonstrated that a poundage basis of allocation is impractical or inequitable other bases may be used provided consideration is given to the use of linen by research personnel and others, including patients.

F. Housekeeping. 1. The expenses under this heading should include:

a. All salaries and wages of the department head, foreman, maids, porters, janitors, wall washers, and other housekeeping employees;

b. All supplies used in carrying out the housekeeping functions; and

c. Amounts paid to outside concerns for purchased services such as window washing, insect extermination, etc.

2. The expenses included in this category should be allocated to related cost centers in a manner consistent with the guides provided in paragraph V-B. on a basis that gives primary emphasis to space actually serviced by the housekeeping department. The allocations and apportionments should be developed as follows:

a. Where actual space serviced and related cost records are available or can readily be developed and maintained without significant change in the accounting practices, the amount distributed should be based on such records;

b. Where the space serviced and related cost records maintained are not sufficient for purposes of the foregoing, a reasonable estimate of the proportion of total space assigned to the various cost centers normally will suffice as a means for effecting distribution of the amounts of housekeeping expenses involved; or

c. Where it can be demonstrated that the space serviced basis of allocation is impractical or inequitable, other bases may be used provided consideration is given to the use of housekeeping services by research personnel and others, including patients.

G. Dietary. 1. These expenses, as used herein, shall mean only the subsidy provided by the hospital to its employees including research personnel through its cafeteria operation. The hospital must be able to demonstrate through the use of proper cost accounting techniques that the cafeteria operates at a loss to the benefit of employees.

2. The reasonable operating loss of a subsidized cafeteria operation should be allocated to related cost centers in a manner consistent with the guides provided in para

graph V-B. on a basis that gives primary emphasis to number of employees.

H. Maintenance (housing) of personnel. 1. The expenses under this heading should include:

a. The salaries and wages of matrons, clerks, and other employees engaged in work in nurses' residences and other employees' quarters;

b. All supplies used in connection with the operation of such dormitories; and

c. Payments to outside agencies for the rental of houses, apartments, or rooms used by hospital personnel.

2. The expenses included in this category should be allocated to related cost centers in & manner consistent with the guides provided in paragraph V-B. on a basis that gives primary emphasis to employee utilization of housing facilities. The allocation should be developed as follows:

a. Appropriate credit should be given for all payments received from employees or otherwise to reduce the expense to be allocated;

b. A net cost per housed employee may then be computed; and

c. Allocation should be made on a departmental basis based on the number of housed employees in each respective department.

I. Medical records and library. 1. The expenses under this heading should include:

a. The salaries and wages of the records librarian, medical librarian, clerks, stenographers, etc.; and

b. All supplies such as medical record forms, chart covers, filing supplies, stationery, medical library books, periodicals, etc.

2. The expenses included in this category should be allocated to related cost centers in a manner consistent with the guides provided in paragraph V-B. on a basis that gives primary emphasis to a special time survey of medical records personnel. If this appears to be impractical or inequitable, other bases may be used provided consideration is given to the use of these facilities by research personnel and others, including patients.

VII. DETERMINATION AND APPLICATION OF

INDIRECT COST RATE OR RATEŠ A. Indirect cost pools. 1. Subject to (2) below, indirect costs allocated to organized research should be treated as a common pool, and the costs in such common pool should be distributed to individual research agreements benefiting therefrom on a single rate basis.

2. In some instances a single rate basis for use on all government research at a hospital may not be appropriate since it would not take into account those different environmental factors which may affect substantially the indirect costs applicable to a particular segment of government research at the institution. For this purpose, a particular segment of government research may be

other base selected) for all research agreements identified with such a pool.

C. Negotiated lump sum for overhead. A negotiated fixed amount in lieu of indirect costs may be appropriate for self-contained or offcampus research activities where the benefits derived from a hospital's indirect services cannot be readily determined. Such amount negotiated in lieu of indirect costs will be treated as an offset to the appropriate indirect cost pool after allocation to patient care, organized research, instruction and training, and other hospital activities. The base on which such remaining expenses are allocated should be appropriately adjusted.

D. Predetermined overhead rates. The utilization of predetermined fixed overhead rates may offer potential advantages in the administration of research agreements by facilitating the preparation of research budgets and permitting more expeditious close out of the agreements when the work is completed. Therefore, to the extent allowed by law, consideration may be given to the negotiation of predetermined fixed rates in those situations where the cost experience and other pertinent factors available are deemed sufficient to enable the Government and the hospital to reach a reasonable conclusion as to the probable level of the indirect cost rate for the ensuing accounting period.

that performed under a single research agreement or it may consist of research under a group of research agreements performed in a common environment. The environmental factors are not limited to the physical location of the work. Other important factors are the level of the administrative support required, the nature of the facilities or other resources employed, the scientific disciplines or technical skills involved, the organizational arrangements used, or any combination thereof. Where a particular segment of government research is performed within an environment which appears to generate a significantly different level of indirect costs, provision should be made for a separate indirect cost pool applicable to such work. An example of this differential may be in the development of a separate indirect cost pool for a clinical research center grant. The separate indirect cost pool should be developed during the course of the regular distribution process, and the separate indirect cost rate resulting therefrom should be utilized provided it is determined that:

a. Such indirect cost rate differs significantly from that which would have obtained under (1) above; and

b. The volume of research work to which such rate would apply is material in relation to other government research at the institution.

3. It is a common practice for grants or contracts awarded to other institutions, typically University Schools of Medicine, to be performed on hospital premises. In these cases the hospital should develop a separate indirect cost pool applicable to the work under such grants or contracts. This pool should be developed by a selective distribution of only those indirect cost categories which benefit the work performed by the other institution, within the practical limits dictated by available data and the materiality of the amounts involved. Hospital costs determined to be allocable to grants or contracts awarded to another institution may not be recovered as a cost of grants or contracts awarded directly to the hospital.

B. The distribution base. Preferably, indirect costs allocated to organized research should be distributed to applicable research agreements on the basis of direct salaries and wages. However, where the use of salaries and wages results in an inequitable allocation of costs to the research agreements, total direct costs or a variation thereof, may be used in lieu of salaries and wages. Regardless of the base used, an indirect cost rate should be determined for each of the separate indirect cost pools developed pursuant to paragraph VII-A. The rate in each case should be stated as the percentage which the amount of the particular indirect cost pool is of the total direct salaries and wages (or

VIII. SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR SMALL

INSTITUTIONS

A. General. 1. Where the total direct cost of all government-sponsored research and development work at a hospital in a year is minimal, the use of the abbreviated procedure described in paragraph VII-B below may be acceptable in the determination of allowable indirect costs. This method may also be used to initially determine a provisional indirect cost rate for hospitals that have not previously established a rate. Under this abbreviated procedure, data taken directly from the institution's most recent annual financial report and immediately available supporting information will be utilized as a basis for determining the indirect cost rate applicable to research agreements at the institution.

2. The rigid formula approach provided under the abbreviated procedure has limitations which may preclude its use at some hospitals either because the minimum data required for this purpose are not readily available or because the application of the abbreviated procedure to the available data produces results which appear inequitable to the Government or the hospital. In any such case, indirect costs should be determined through use of the regular procedure rather than the abbreviated procedure.

3. In certain instances where the total direct cost of all government-sponsored research and development work at the hospital

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