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Sterling.

Term of Years.

Steward, Lord High, of England. Terrier.
Stock Broker. [Broker.]

Test Act. [Established Church; Non-

Stocks. (National Debt.]

conformity.)

Stoppage in Tránsitu.

Testament. (Will.)
Subinfeudation. [Feudal System.] Teste of a Writ. [Writ.]
Subornation of Perjury. [Perjury. ] Testimony. [Evidence.)
Subpæna. [Equity, p. 842; Writ.]

Theatre.
Subsidy.

Theft. [Law, Criminal.]

Succession.

Theodosian Code. [Constitutions, Roman,

Suffragan. (Bishop.]

p. 621.]

Suicide.

Thirty-nine Articles. [Established

Suit.

Church.]

Suit and Service. [Suit.]

Threatening Letters. [Law, Criminal,
Summary Convictions. [Law, Criminal.] p. 194.]
Superannuations. [Pension.]

Timber Trade. [Tariff ; Tax, Taxation.]
Supercargo. [Ships.]

Tin Trade. [Mines.]

Supersédeas.

Tithes.

Supply. [Parliament.]

Tithing. (Shire.]
Supremacy.

Titles of Honour.

Surety.

Tobacco.

Surety of the Peace.

Toleration Act. (Law, Criminal, p. 218,

Surgeons, College of.

Nonconformity.)

Surrender.

Toll.

Surrogate.

Tolsey. [Toll. 7

Survivor, Survivorship. [Estate, p. 858.] Tontine.
Suzerain. [Feudal System, p. 22.]

Torture.

Swearing

Tory.

Tourn. [Leet.]

TACK.

Town.

Tail, Estate. [Estate.]

Town Clerk. [Municipal Corporations,

Tailzie.

p. 391.]

Tariff.

Towns, Health of.
Tax, Taxation.

Township.

Taxes.

Trader. [Bankrupt.]

Tea.

Translation. (Bishop.]

Tellers of the Exchequer.

Transportation.

Tenancy. [Tenant.]

Treason. [Law, Criminal.]

Tenancy, Joint. (Estate.]

Treasure Trove.

Tenancy in Common. [Estate.] Treasurer. [Municipal Corporations, p.

Tenancy in Coparcenary. [Estate.] 391.]

Tenant.

Treasury

Tenant and Landlord.

Treaty.
Tenant at Sufferance. [Estate.] Trial. (Law, Criminal.]
Tenant at Will. [Estate.]

Trinity House.
Tenant for Life. ČEstate.]

Trinóda Necessitas.
Tenant for_Years. [Estate; Lease.] Triple Alliance.
Tenant in Fee Simple. [Estate.] Truck System, Truck Act.
Tenant in Tail. [Estate.]

Trust and Trustee.
Tenant-Right

Turbary. [Common, Right of.]

Tender.

Turkey Company. (Joint Stock Com-

Tenement.

panies.

Tenths.

Turnpike Trusts.

Tenure.

Tutor.

Term.

Twelve Tables (Roman Law.]

Tyranny. [Tyrant.]

WAGER. [Gaming.]

Tyrant.

Wager-Policy

Wager of Battle. (Appeal.]

UDAL TENURE.

Wages.

Waif.

Umpire. [Arbitration.]

Underwriter. (Ships, p. 706.]

Wales, Prince of.

Unfunded Debt.

Wapentake. (Shire.]

Uniformity, Act of. [Benefice, p. 340.] War. [Blockade; International Law.]
Unigenitus Bull. [Bulls, Papal.] Ward. [Guardian ; Tenure.]
Union, Ireland, Scotland. [Commons, Wards. [Municipal Corporations, p. 386.]

House of, pp. 584, 590; Parliament, p. Wards, Court of.
455.]

Wardship. [Knight's Service.]

United States of North America, Govern- Warehousing System.

Warrant.

ment of.

Universities.

Warrant of Attorney and Cognovit.

University.

[Cognovit.]

Warren.
Unlawful Assembly. [Riot; Sedition.]

Waste.
Usages. [Customs; Prescription.]
Usance. [Exchange, Bill of.]

Water and Watercourses.

Use.

Way.

Uses, Charitable and Superstitious. Wealth. (Political Economy]
Usucapio.

Wealth of Nations. [Political Economy.]
Usufructus, or Ususfructus.

Weights and Measures.
Usurpation. (Usucapio.]

Weir.
Usary.

Westminster Assembly.

Usus. [Usufructus.]

Whig

Wife; Husband and Wife.

VAGRANT.

Wife, Roman. [Marriage.]

Value. (Political Economy; Price.] Wife (Scotland).

Vassal. [Feudal System.]

Will and Testament.

Vendor and Purchaser.

Will, Roman.
Venire Facias.

Will (Scotland).
Ventre Inspiciendo, Writ de.

Wines and Spirits.

Venue.

Witness. (Evidence.]

Verderer. [Forest Laws; Woods and Woman.

Forests.]

Woods and Forests.

Verdict. (Jury.]

Wool. [Tariff.]
Vestry.

Workhouse. [Poor Laws.]
Vicar, Vicarage. [Benefice, pp. 34, Wounding. [Maim.]
342.]

Wreck. (Franchise; Ships, p. 704.]
Vicar Apostolic. [Catholic Church.] Writ.
View of Frank pledge. (Leet.]

Writ of Error.
Vill. [Town.]

Writ of Inquiry.
Villein, or Villain.

Writ of Summons. [Trial.]
Villeinage.

Writ of Trial.
Viscount.

Writer.
Visitor. [College; Schools, Endowed; Writer to the Signet.

Uses, Charitable and Superstitious.]

Visitation. [Archdeacon; Bishop.] YEAR-Books. [Reports.]

Voting

Yeoman.

Voyage. [Bottomry; Ships. ]

Yeomanry Cavalry

POLITICAL DICTIONARY.

ABATTOIR.

ABATTOIR. ABANDONMENT is a term used in | includes all the expenses of slaughtering; marine insurance. Before a person who but a witness who was examined before a has insured a ship or goods can demand Parliamentary Committee on Smithfield from an insurer or underwriter the sti- | Market, and who had visited Paris for the pulated compensation for a total loss of purpose of inspecting the abattoirs, says such ship or goods, he must abandon or that the butchers employ their own men. relinquish to the insurer all his interest Dulaure's account is probably correct. The in any part of the property which may butchers can have their cattle slaughtered be saved.

at any hour of the night, but they must ABATTOIR, the name given by the take away the meat at night. There is an French to the public slaughter-houses inspector appointed at each abattoir, and which were established in Paris by a de- means are taken to prevent unwholesome cree of Napoleon in 1810, and finished meat getting into consumption. There in 1818. There are three on the north, are slaughter-houses under public reguand two on the south side of Paris, not lations in most of the continental cities; far from the barriers, and about two and those of New York and Philadelphia miles from the centre of the city. The and some other of the cities of the Ameeattle markets for the supply of Paris are rican Union are, it is said, placed on a several miles distant, and the cattle are similar footing. The medical profession driven from them round the exterior in France attach great importance to boulevards to the abattoirs, and conse- slaughter-houses being strictly regulated, quently do not enter the city. The con- and removed from the midst of the popusumption of Paris in 1840 was 92,402 lation. oxen, 437,359 sheep, 90,190 pigs, and The great cattle-market in Smithfield 20,684 calves: the number of butchers, for the supply of London existed above all of whom are required to take out a five centuries ago, but the spot was at licence, does not much exceed five that time a piece of waste ground beyond kundred. At one of the abattoirs each the city, instead of being, as at present, butcher has his slaughter-house, a place surrounded by a dense population. In for keeping the meat, an iron rack for 1842 there were sold in Smithfield Martallow, pans for melting it, and a place ket 175,347 cattle, and 1,468,960 sheep, with convenience for giving cattle hay and at least this number are annually and water, and where they may be kept slaughtered within the limits of the mebefore being slaughtered. A fixed sum tropolis. There are slaughtermen who is charged for this accommodation, and in kill for other butchers frequently above a 1843 the fee was 6 francs for each ox, hundred head of cattle, and perhaps five 4 fr. for a cow, 2 fr. for a calf, and 10 c. or six hundred sheep every week; many for a sheep. The income of the esta- butchers kill for themselves to a considerblishment, arising from these fees, the able extent; and there are few who have sale of manure, &c., was above 48,000). in not accommodation for slaughtering and 1842. It is stated in Dulaure's Paris,' dressing a few sheep, either in the cellar that the fee paid for each head of cattle | underneath their shop, or in the rear of

B

nate.

their premises. The business of slaugh- | their slaughter-houses, and had adopted tering cattle and sheep in London is con- regulations for avoiding nuisances under ducted just in the way most convenient the advice of the corporation of the city; to the butcher, without reference to the and they also alleged that the cost of convenience and comfort of the public. carrying and re-carrying meat made it There are slaughter-houses for sheep dear. It was then enacted that the act within fifty yards of St. Paul's Church- aforesaid should not extend to butchers yard, and within a hundred and fifty within the city, who may kill within the yards of Ludgate-street, one of the great walls. thoroughfares of London. The fear of ABBEY (from the French Abbaye), a creating a nuisance, cognisable as such by religious community presided over by an the law, is in some measure a substitute abbot or abbess. When the superior was for the vigilant inspectorship maintained denominated a Prior, the establishment in the public slaughter-houses on the con- was called a priory; but there was lattinent; and those who slaughter cattle terly no real distinction between a priory know that in proportion as their esta- and an abbey. The priories appear to blishments are cleanly and well venti- have been all originally off-shoots from lated, it is easier to keep the meat in a certain abbeys, to which they continued proper state ; but the ignorant, the care for some time to be regarded as subordiless, and those who cannot afford to im

The wealthiest abbeys, in former prove the accommodation and conveni- times, were in Germany; and of all such ence of their slaughter-houses, require to foundations in the world the most splenbe placed under the restraint of positive did and powerful was that of Fulda, or regulations. A general police regulation Fulden, situated near the town of the on the subject is thought to be necessary same name in Franconia. This monasby many persons. In the Report of the tery, which belonged to the order of St. Parliamentary Committee on Smithfield | Benedict, was founded by St. Boniface, in Market, to which allusion has already the year 784. Every candidate for adbeen made, the question of establishing mission into the princely brotherhood abattoirs in London is doticed. The was required to prove his nobility. The butchers objected to them on account of monks themselves elected their abbot the expenses to which they would be put from their own number; and that digniby having to carry the meat to their tary became, by right of his office, Archshops ; and they alleged also that the Chancellor to the Empress, and Princemeat would not keep so well in conse- Bishop of the diocese of Fulda.

He quence of being removed so soon after claimed precedence over all the other being killed. These objections apply in abbots of Germany. One of the first some degree to the present system, under effects of the Reformation, both in Engwhich the great slaughtermen kill for the land and in Germany, was the destruction butchers of a certain district, though the of the religious houses; in England district is certainly much smaller than their extinction was complete. [Monaswould be attached to one of several TERY.] abattoirs.

In the early times of the French monBy 4 & 5 Henry VII. c. 3, butchers archy the term abbey was applied to a were prohibited from killing cattle within duchy or earldom, as well as to a relithe walls of the city of London, on ac- gions establishment; and the dukes and count of “ the annoyance of corrupt airs counts called themselves abbots, although engendered by occasion of blood and they remained in all respects secular perother foul things coming by means of sons. They took this title in consequence slaughter of beasts and scalding of swine." of the possessions of certain abbeys In 1532-3 this act was partially repealed having been conferred upon them by the by 24 Hen. VIII. c. 16, the preamble of crown. which recited that since the act 4 & 5 ABBOT, the title of the superior of Hen. VII. the butchers of London had certain establishments of religious permade drains to carry off the filth from / sons of the male sex, thence called abbeys.

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