may, with some probability, be dated the inhabitants were reduced to slavery, from the victory gained by Eurylochus their lands consecrated to Apollo, and a and the Amphictyonic army. The exer- curse was pronounced on all who should cise of this right had the effect of pre- hereafter cultivate them. We are told serving to the council permanently a con- that Solon acted a prominent part on this siderable degree of importance. În early occasion, and that great deference was times the Delphic god had enjoyed im- shown to his counsels. Mr. Mitford, inmense authority. He sent out colonies, deed, has discovered without help from founded cities, and originated weighty history, which is altogether silent on the measures of various kinds. Before the subject, that he was the author of sundry times of which we have lately been speak- important innovations, and that he in fact ing, his influence had been somewhat remodelled the constitution of the Amdininished; but the oracle was scill most phictyonic body. He has even been able anxiously consulted both on public and to catch a view of the secret intentions of private matters. The custody of the the legislator, and of the political printemple was also an object of jealous in- ciples which guided him. But in further terest on account of the vast treasures assigning to Solon the command of the contained within its walls.

Amphictyonic army, he is opposed to the The Greek writers, who notice the re- direct testimony of the ancient historiaus. ligious jurisdiction of the council, point From the conclusion of the Cirrhæan our attention almost exclusively to Del war to the time of Philip of Macedon, an phi ; but it may be inferred from a re- interval exceeding two centuries, we hear markable fact mentioned by Tacitus little more of the Amphictyons, than that (Ann. iv. 14), that it was much more ex- they rebuilt the temple at Delphi, which tensive. The Samians, when petitioning had been destroyed by fire s.c. 548; that in the time of the Emperor Tiberius for they set a price on the head of Ephialtes, the confirmation of a certain privilege to who betrayed the cause of the Greeks at their temple of Juno, pleaded an ancient Thermopylæ, and conferred public hondecree of the Amphictyons in their favour. ours on the patriots who died there; and The words of the historian seem to imply that they erected a monument to the that the decree was made at an early famous diver Scyllias as a reward for the period in the existence of Greek colonies information which, as the story goes, he in Asia Minor, and he says that the de- conveyed under water from the Thessacision of the Amphictyons on all matters | lian coast to the commanders of the had at that time pre-eminent authority. Grecian fleet at Artemisium. If Plutarch

The sacred wars, as they were called, may be trusted, the power of the Amphicwhich were originated by the Amphic- tyons had not at this time fallen into contyons in the exercise of their judicial tempt. When a proposition was made authority, can here be noticed only so far by the Lacedæmonians to expel from the as they help to illustrate the immediate council all the states which had not taken subject of inquiry. The Cirrhæan war, part in the war against the Persians, it in the time of Solon, has already been was resisted successfully by Themistocles, incidentally mentioned. The port of on the ground that the exclusion of three Cirrha, a town on the Crissæan bay, af- considerable states, Argos, Thebes, and forded the readiest access from the coast the Thessalians, would give to the more to Delphi. The Cirrhæans, availing them- powerful of the remaining members a selves of their situation, grievously op- preponderating influence in the council, pressed by heavy exactions the numerous dangerous to the rest of Greece. pilgrims to the Delphic temple. The After having, for a long period, nearly Amphictyons, by direction of the oracle, lost sight of the Amphictyons in history, proclaimed a sacred war to avenge the we find them venturing, in the fallen cause of the god; that is, to correct an fortunes of Sparta, to impose a heavy abuse which was generally offensive, and fine on that state as a punishment for an particularly injurious to the interests of old offence, the seizure of the Theban the Delphians. Cirrha was destroyed, ! Cadmeia, the payment of which, however, they made no attempt to enforce. new city of Nicopolis. Strabo says that In this case, as well as in the celebrated in his time it had ceased to exist. If his Phocian war, the Amphictyonic council words are to be understood literally, it can be considered only as an instrument must have been revived; for we know in the hands of the Thebans, who, after from Pausanias (x. 8), that it was in their successful resistance to Sparta, ap- existence in the second century after pear to have acquired a preponderating Christ. It reckoned at that time twelve influence in it, and who found it con- constituent states, who furnished in all venient to use its name and authority, thirty deputies; but a preponderance was whilst prosecuting their own scheines of given to the new town of Nicopolis, vengeance or ambition. Though the which sent six deputies to each meeting; charge brought against the Phocians was Delphi sent two to each meeting, and that of impiety in cultivating a part of Athens one deputy: the other states sent the accursed Cirrhæan plain, there is no their deputies according to a certain reason to think that any religious feeling cycle, and not to every meeting. For was excited, at least in the earlier part the time of its final dissolution we have of the contest; and Amphictyonic states no authority on which we can rely. were eagerly engaged as combatants on It is not easy to estimate with much both sides. For an account of this war certainty the effects produced on the the reader is referred to a general his- Greek nation generally by the institution tory of Greece. The council was so far of this council. It is, however, something affected by the result, that it was com- more than conjecture that the country pelled to receive a new member, and in which was the seat of the original memfact a master, in the person of Philip of bers of the Amphictyonic confederacy Macedon, who was thus rewarded for his was also the cradle of the Greek nation, important services at the expense of the such as it is known to us in the historical Phocians, who were expelled from the ages. This country was subject to incurconfederacy. They were, however, at a sions from barbarous tribes, especially on subsequent period restored, in conse- its western frontier, probably of a very quence of their noble exertions in the different character from the occupants of cause of Greece and the Delphic god whom we have been speaking. In the against the Gauls. It may be remarked, pressure of these incursions, the Amphicthat the testimony of the Phocian general tyonic confederacy may have been a Philomelus, whatever may be its value, powerful instrument of preservation, and is rather in favour of the supposition that must have tended to maintain at least the the council was not always connected separation of its members from their fowith Delphi. He justifies his opposition reign neighbours, and so to preserve the to its decrees, on the ground that the peculiar character of that gifted people, right which the Amphictyons claimed from which knowledge and civilization was comparatively a modern usurpation. have flowed over the whole western world. In the case of the Amphissians, whose It may also have aided the cause of hucrime was similar to that of the Phocians, manity; for it is reasonable to suppose the name of the Amphictyons was again that in earlier times differences between readily employed; but Æschines, who its own members were occasionally comseems to have been the principal instiga- posed by interference of the council; and tor of the war, had doubtless a higher thus it may have been a partial check on object in view than that of punishing the the butchery of war, and may at least Amphissians for impiety.

have diminished the miserics resulting The Amphictyonic council long sur- from the cruel lust of military renown. vived the independence of Greece, and in one respect its influence was greatly was, probably, in the constant exercise of and permanently beneficial. In common its religious functions. So late as the with the great public festivals, it helped battle of Actium, it retained enough of to give a national unity to numerous inits former dignity at least to induce dependent states, of which the Greek Augustus to claim a place in it for his nation was coinposed. But it had a merit which did not belong to those fes- | according to ine writer or speaker, there tivals in an equal degree. It cannot be has been an undue remissness or supine. doubted that the Amphictyonic laws, ness of the sovereign, and especially of which regulated the originally small con- those who wield the executive scvefederacy, were the foundation of that reignty. In the former sense, anarchy international law which was recognised means the state of a body of persons throughout Grecce; and which, imper- among whom there is no political governfect as it was, had some effect in regu- ment; in its second sense, it means the lating beneficially, national intercourse state of a political society in which there among the Greeks in peace and war, and, has been a deficient exercise of the soveso far as it went, was opposed to that reign power. As an insufficiency of gobrute force and lawless aggression which vernment is likely to lead to do guvernno Greek felt himself restrained by any ment at all, the term anarchy has, by a law from exercising towards those who common exaggeration, been used to sigwere not of the Greek name. To the nify the small degree, where it properly investigator of that dark but interesting means the entire absence. [SOVEperiod in the existence of the Greek na- REIGNTY.] tion which precedes its authentic records, ANATOMY ACT. Before the passthe hints which have been left us on the ing of 2 & 3 Will. IV. c. 75, on the 1st earlier days of this council, faint and of August, 1832, the medical profession scanty as they are, have still their value. was placed in a situation at once anomaThey contribute something to those frag-lous and discreditable to the intelligence ments of evidence with which the learn- of the country. The law rendered it ing and still more the ingenuity of the illegal for the medical practitioner or present generation are converting mythi- teacher of anatomy to possess any human cal legends into a body of ancient history. body for the purposes of dissection, save

ANARCHY (from the Greek évapxia, that of murderers executed pursuant to anarchia, absence of government) pro- the sentence of a court of justice, whilst perly means the entire absence of politi- it made him liable to punishment for cal government; the condition of a col. ignorance of his profession; and while lection of human beings inhabiting the the charters of the medical colleges ensame country, who are not subject to a forced the duty of teaching anatomy by common sovereign. Every body of dissection, the law rendered such a course persons living in a state of nature (as it is impracticable. But as the interests of termed) is in a state of anarchy; whether society require anatomy to be taught, the that state of nature should exist among laws were violated, and a new class of a number of persons who have never offenders and new crimes sprung up as a known political rule, as a horde of sa- consequence of legislation being inconvages, or should rise in a political society sistent with social wants. By making in consequence of resistance on the part anatomical dissection a penalty for crime, of the subjects to the sovereign, by which the strong prejudices which existed rethe person or persons in whom the sove- specting dissection were magnified tenfold. reignty is lodged are forcibly deprived of This custom existed in England for about that power. Such intervals are com- three centuries, having commenced early monly of short duration ; but after most in the sixteenth century, when it was revolutions, by which a violent change of ordered that the bodies of four criminals government has been effected, there has should be assigned annually to the corporabeen a short period during which there tion of barber-surgeons. T'he 2 & 3 Will. was no person or body of persons who IV. c. 75, repealed s. 4, 9 Geo. IV. c. 31, exercised the executive or legislative which empowered the court, when it saw sovereignty,- that is to say, a period of fit, to direct the body of a person conanarchy.

victed of murder to be dissected after Anarchy is sometimes used in a trans- execution. Bodies are now obtained for ferred or improper sense to signify the anatomical purposes under the following condition of a political society, in which, regulations enacted in 2 & 3 Will. IV. c. 75, which is entitled “An act for regulating until forty-eight hours after death, nor Schools of Anatomy. The preamble of until twenty-four hours' notice after death this act recites that the legal supply of to the anatomical inspector of the district human bodies for anatomical examination of the intended removal, such notice to was insufficient, and that in order further be accompanied by a certificate of the to supply human bodies for such purpose cause of death, signed by the physician, various crimes were committed, and lately surgeon, or apothecary who attended murder, for the sole object of selling the during the illness whereof the deceased bodies of the persons so murdered. The person died; or if not so attended, the act then empowers the principal Secre- body is to be viewed by some physician, tary of State, and the Chief Secretary for surgeon, or apothecary after death, and Ireland, to grant a licence to practise who shall not be concerned in examining anatomy to any member or fellow of any the body after removal. Their certificollege of physicians or surgeons, or to cate is to be delivered with the body to any graduate or licentiate in medicine, or the party receiving the same for exato any person lawfully qualified to prac- mination, who within twenty-four hours tise medicine, or to any professor or must transmit the certificate to the inspecteacher of anatomy, medicine, or surgery; tor of anatomy for the district, accomor to any student attending any school of panied by a return stating at what day anatomy, on application countersigned and hour and from whom the body was by two justices of the place where the received, the date and place of death, the applicant resides, certifying that to their sex, and" (as far as known) the name, age, knowledge or belief such person is about and last abode of such person ; and these to carry on the practice of anatomy. (s. 1.) particulars, with a copy of the certificate, Notice is to be given of the place where are also to be entered in a book, which is it is intended to examine bodies anato- to be produced whenever the inspector mically, one week at least before the first requires. The body on being removed is receipt or possession of a body. The to be placed in a decent coffin or shell and Secretary of State appoints inspectors of be removed therein ; and the party replaces where anatomical examinations ceiving it is to provide for its interment are carried on, and they make a quar- after examination in consecrated ground, terly return of every deceased person's or in some public burial-ground of that body removed to each place in their district religious persuasion to which the person where anatomy is practised, distinguish- whose body was removed belonged; and ing the sex, and the name and age. Ex- a certificate of the interment is to be ecutors and others (not being undertakers, transmitted to the inspector of anatomy &c.) may permit the body of a deceased for the district within six weeks after person, lawfully in their possession, to the body was received for examinatioa. undergo anatomical examination, unless, Offences against the act may be punished to the knowledge of such executors or with imprisonment for not less than three others, such person shall have expressed months, or a fine of not more than 501. his desire, either in writing or verbally The supply, under this act, of the during the illness whereof he died, that bodies of persons who die friendless in his body might not undergo such exami- poor-houses and hospitals and elsewhere, nation; and unless the surviving husband is said to be sufficient for the present or wife, or any known relative of the de- wants of the teachers of anatoiny. The ceased person shall require the body to be enormities which were formerly practised interred without. Although a person may by "resurrection-men” and “burkers have directed his body after death to be have ceased. The number of bodies anexamined anatomically, yet if any sur-nually supplied in London for the purviving relative objects, the body is to be poses of dissection amounts to 600. interred without undergoing such exami- ANCIENT DEMESNE. (MANOR.] nation. (s. 8.) When a body may be ANGLICAN CHURCH. [Estalawfully removed for anatomical exami- BLISHED CHURCH OF ENGLAND AND dation, such removal is not to take place IRELAND.]

ANNALS, in Latin Annales, is de- , of which there was as yet no example in rived from annus, a year.

Cicero, in the Latin language. It belongs, he says, his second book, "On an Orator' (De to the highest class of oratorical composiOratore, 12), informs us, that from the tion (“ opus oratorium maxime”). commencement of the Roman state down This question has been considerably to the time of Publius Mucius, it was the perplexed by the division which is comcustom for the Pontifex Maximus annu-monly made of the historical works of ally to commit to writing the transactions Tacitus, into books of Annals and books of the past year, and to exhibit the ac- called Histories. As what are called his count publicly on a tablet (in albo) at Annals' are mainly occupied with events his house, where it might be read by the which happened before he was born, while people. Mucius was Pontifex Maximus in his History' he relates those of his own in the beginning of the seventh century time, some critics have laid it down as from the foundation of Rome. These the distinction between history and annals, are the registers, Cicero adds, which we that the former is a narration of what the now call the ‘Annales Maximi,' the great writer has himself seen, or at least been annals. It is probable that these annals contemporary with, and the latter of transare the same which are frequently re- actions which had preceded his own day. ferred to by Livy under the title of the Aulus Gellius (v. 18), in his discussion Commentarii Pontificum,' and by Diony- on the difference between Annals and sius under that of lepas déatoi, or “Sacred History, says that soine consider that both Tablets.' Cicero, both in the passage History and Annals are a record of events, just quoted, and in another in his first but that History is properly a narrative of book On Laws' (De Legibus), speaks of such events as the narrator has been an them as extremely brief and meagra eye-witness of. He adds that Verrius documents. It may, however, be inferred Flaccus, who states that some people hold from what he says, that parts of them at this opinion, doubts about its soundness, least were still in existence in his time, though Verrius thinks that it


derive and some might be of considerable an- some support from the fact that, in Greek, tiquity. Livy says (vi. 1) that most of History (iotopía) properly signifies the the Pontifical Commentaries were lost at obtaining of the knowledge of present the burning of the city after its capture events. But Gellius considers that all by the Gauls. It is evident, however, annals are histories, though all histories that they were not in Livy's time to be are not annals; just as all men are anifound in a perfect state even from the mals, but all animals are not men. date of that event (B.C. 390); for he is Accordingly Histories are considered to often in doubt as to the succession of be the exposition or showing forth of magistrates in subsequent periods, which events; Annals, to contain the events of it is scarcely to be supposed he could have several successive years, each event being been, if a complete series of these annals assigned to its year. The distinction had been preserved.

which the historian Sempronius Asellio The word annals, however, was also made is this, as quoted by Gellius, used by the Romans in a general sense; Between those who had intended to and it has been much disputed what was leave annals, and those who had atthe true distinction between annals and tempted to narrate the acts of the Roman history. Cicero, in the passage in his people, there was this difference :-Annals work “De Oratore,' says, that the first only affected to show what events took narrators of public events, both among place in each year, a labour like that the Greeks and Romans, followed the same of those who write diaries, which the mode of writing with that in the ‘Annales Greeks call Ephemerides. To us it Maximi;' which he further describes as seemed appropriate not merely to state consisting in a mere statement of facts what had been done, but also with what briefly and without ornament. In his design and on what principle it had been work De Legibus' he characterizes bis- done.” Accordingly Annals are materials tory as something distinct from this, and for History. [HISTORY.]

« ForrigeFortsett »