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with the enemy; and that the said offi- tiativi,” notice-giving fires. (Plin. Hist. cers should enjoy all the rights, privi- Nat. edit. Harduin, ii

. 73.) leges, and immunities secured to the Third Lord Coke, in his Fourth Institute, class of the said order. (Observations in- chap. xxv., speaking of our own beacons, troductory to an Historical Essay upon the says, “ Before the reign of Edward III. Knighthood of the Bath, by John Anstis, they were but stacks of wood set up on Esl. 4to. Lond. 1725; Selden's Titles of high places, which were fired when the Honour, fol. Lond. 1672, pp. 678, 679; coming of enemies was descried ; but in Camden's Britannia, fol. Lond. 1637, his reign pitch-boxes, as now they be, p. 172; Sandford's Genealog. Hist. fol. were, instead of those stacks, set up: and 1707, pp. 267, 431, 501, 562, 578; J. C. this properly is a beacon.” These beaDithmari, Commentatio de Honoratissimo cons had watches regularly kept at them, Ordine de Balneo, fol. Franc. ad. Viad. and horsemen called hobbelars were sta1729; Mrs. S. S. Banks's Collections on tioned by most of them to give notice in the Order of the Bath, MSS. Brit. Mus.; day-time of an enemy's approach, when Statutes of the Order of the Bath, 4to. the fire would not be seen. (Camden, Brit. Lond. 1725, repr. with additions in 1812; in Hampshire, edit. 1789, vol. i. p. 173.) Bulletins of the Campaign of 1815, pp. Stow, in his Annals, under the year 1-18.)

1326, mentions among the precautions BAWDY-HOUSES. [PROSTITUTION.) which Edward II. took when preparing

BEACON, a sign ordinarily raised against the return of the queen and Morupon some foreland or high ground as a timer to England, that " he ordained sea-mark. It is also used for the fire-bikenings or beacons to be set up, that signal which was formerly set up to the same being fired might be seen far alarm the country upon the approach of off, and thereby the people to be raised.” a foreign enemy. The word is derived The Cottonian MS. in the British from the Anglo-Saxon beacen or beacn, Museum, Augustus I. vol. i. art. 31, prea sign or signal. Beac or bec is the real serves a plan of the harbours of Poole, root, which we still have in beck, beckon. Purbeck, &c., followed, art. 33, by a

Fires by night, as signals, to convey chart of the coast of Dorsetshire from the notice of danger to distant places with Lyme to Weymouth, both exhibiting the the greatest expedition, have been used beacons which were erected on the Dorin many countries. They are mentioned setshire coast against the Spanish invain the prophecies of Jeremiah, who (chap. sion in 1588. Art. 58 preserves a simivi. ver.'1) says, "Set up a sign of fire in lar chart of the coast of Suffolk from OrBeth-haccerem, for evil appeareth out of well Haven to Gorlston near Yarmouth, the north, and great destruction.” In the with the several forts and beacons erected treatise De Mundo, attributed to Aristotle, on that coast. it is said (edit. 12mo. Glasg. 1745, p. 35) The power of erecting beacons was that fire-signals were so disposed on watch- originally in the king, and was usually towers through the king of Persia's do- delegated to the Lord High Admiral. minions, that within the space of a day in the eighth of Elizabeth an act passed he could receive intelligence of any dis- touching sea-marks and mariners (chap. turbances in the most distant part of his 13), by which the corporation of the dominions; but this is evidently an exag- Trinity House of Deptford Strond were gerated statement. Æschylus, in his play empowered to erect beacons and sea-marks of the Agamemnon, represents the intelli- on the shores, forelands, &c. of the gence of the capture of Troy as con- country according to their discretion, and veyed to the Peloponnesus by fire-beacons. to continue and renew the same at the cost During the Peloponnesian war we find fire- of the corporation. [TrinitY HOUSE.] beacons (puktol) employed. (Thucyd. Professor Ward, in his . Observations iii. 22.) Pliny dístinguishes this sort of on the Antiquity and Use of Beacons in signal from the Phari, or light-houses England' (Archæologia, vol. i. p. 4), says, placed upon the coasts for the direction the money due or payable for the mainof ships, by the name of “Ignes prænun- tenance of beacons was called Beconagium, and was levied by the sheriff of the | as Lord Coke informs us in his Fourth county upon each hundred, as appears by Institute, was an officer who not only an ordinance in manuscript for the county warned the forest courts and executed of Norfolk, issued to Robert de Monte process, but made all proclamations. and Thomas de Bardolfe, who sat in par- It appears from the Reports of the liament as barons, 14th Edward II. Commissioners of Corporation Inquiry

The manner of watching the beacons, (1835), that inferior officers, called particularly upon the coast, in the time Beadles, were appointed in forty-four of Queen Elizabeth, may be gathered boroughs out of upwards of two hundred from the instructions of two contempo- visited by the commissioners. rary manuscripts printed in the Archæo- Bishop Kennett, in the Glossary to his logia, col. viii. pp. 100, 183. The sur- Parochial Antiquities of Orfordshire, prise of those by the sea-side was usually says that rural deans had formerly their a matter of policy with an invading enemy, beadles to cite the clergy and church to prevent the alarm of an arrival from officers to visitations and execute the being spread.

orders of the court Christian. Parochial An iron beacon or fire-pot may still be and church beadles were probably in their seen standing upon the tower of Hadley origin persons of this description, though Church in Middlesex. Gough, in his now employed in more menial services. edition of Camden, fol. 1789, vol. iii. p. Bedel, or Beadle, is also the name of 281, says, at Ingleborough, in Yorkshire, an officer in the English universities, on the west edge, are remains of a beacon, who in processions, &c. precedes the ascended to by a flight of steps, and ruins chancellor or vice-chancellor, bearing a of a watch-house.. Collinson, in his His- mace. In Oxford there are three esquire tory of Somersetshire, 4to. 1791, vol. ii. p. and three yeomen bedels, each attached 5, describes the fire-hearths of four large to the respective faculties of divinity, beacons as remaining in his time upon a medicine and arts, and law. In Cambridge hill called Dunkery Beacon in that county. there are three esquire bedels and one He also mentions the remains of a watch- yeoman bedel. The esquire bedels in house for a beacon at Dundry (vol. ii. p. the university of Cambridge, beside at105). Beacon-hills occur in some part tending the vice-chancellor on public or other of most counties of England solemnities, attend also the professors and which have elevated ground. The Here- respondents, collects fines and penalties, fordshire beacon is well known. Gough, and summon to the chancellor's court all in his additions to Camden, ut supr. vol. members of the senate. (Ducange's Gloss. i. p. 394, mentions a beacon hill at Hares- in voce Bedellus; Kennet, Paroch. Antiq. combe in Gloucestershire, inclosed by a vol. ii. Gloss. ; Gen. Introd. to Domesday transverse vallation fifty feet deep. Sal- | Book, 8vo. edit. vol. i. p. 247; Camb. and mon, in his History of Hertfordshire, p. Oxf. Univ. Calendars.) 349, says, at Therfield, on a hill west of BED OF JUSTICE. This expresthe church, stood one of the four beacons sion (lit de justice) literally denoted the of this county.

seat or throne upon which the king of BEADLE, the messenger or apparitor France was accustomed to sit when perof a court, who cites persons to appear to sonally present in parliaments, and from what is alleged against them. It is pro- this original meaning the expression came, bably in this sense that we are to under- in course of time, to signify the parliastand the bedelli, or under-bailiffs of ma- ment itself. Under the ancient monarchy nors, mentioned in several parts of the of France, a Bed of Justice denoted a soDomesday Survey. Spelman, Somner, and lemn session of the king in the parliament, Watts ail agree in the derivation of for the purpose of registering or promulbeadle from the Saxon bydel, a crier, gating edicts or ordinances. According and that from bid, to publish, as in bid to the principle of the old French constiding the banns of matrimony. The tution, the authority of the parliament, bedelli of manors probably acted as criers being derived entirely from the crown, in the lord's court. The beadle of a forest, I ceased when the king was present; and

consequently all ordinances enrolled at “consist usually of the prime nobility of a bed of justice were acts of the royal | England. Their office in generalis, will, and of more authenticity and effect each one in his turn, to wait a week in than decisions of parliament.' The cere every quarter in the king's bedchamber, mony of holding a bed of justice was as there to lie by the king on a pallet-bed follows:- The king was seated on the all night, and in the absence of the groom throne, and covered; the princes of the of the stole to supply his place.” In the blood-royal, the peers, and all the several | edition of the same work published in chambers were present. The marshals 1716, he adds, “Moreover, they wait upon of France, the chancellor, and the other the king when he eats in private; for then great officers of state stood near the throne, the cup-bearers, carvers, and sewers do around the king. The chancellor, or in not wait. This high office, in the reign his absence the keeper of the seals, de- of a queen, as in her late majesty's, is clared the object of the session, and the performed by ladies, as also that of the persons present then deliberated upon it. grooms of the bedchamber, who were The chancellor then collected the opi- called bedchamber women, and were nions of the assembly, proceeding in the five in number." At present there are order of their rank; and afterwards de- in the queen's household, taking their clared the determination of the king in turns of periodical duty, seven ladies of the following words: “Le roi, en son lit the bedchamber and eight bedchamber de justice, à ordonné et ordonne qu'il sera women. There are also a principal lady procédé à l'enregistrement des lettres sur of the bedchamber and an extra lady of lesquelles on à délibéré.” The last bed the bedchamber. Both the ladies of the of justice was assembled by Louis XVI. bedchamber and the bedchamber women at Versailles, on the 6th of August, 1788, are allied to the nobility. In the houseat the commencement of the French re- hold of the prince consort there are two volution, and was intended to enforce lords of the bedchamber. upon the parliament of Paris the adoption The title of lords of the bedchamber of the obnoxious taxes, which had been appears to have been adopted after the previously proposed by Calonne at the accession of the House of Hanover. They Assembly of Notables. The resistance are first mentioned by that title in Chamto this measure led to the assembly of the berlayne's • State of England' for 1718. States-General, and ultimately to the Re- The question whether the ladies of volution.

the bedchamber should be regarded BEDCHAMBER, LORDS OF THE, as political offices in the hands of the are officers of the royal household under minister, or whether the appointment the groom of the stole. The number of should depend upon the personal falords, in the reign of William IV., was vour of the queen, forined an important twelve, who waited a week each in turn. feature in the ministerial crisis which The groom of the stole does not take his took place in May, 1839. The governturn of duty, but attends his majesty on ment of Lord Melbourne had been deall state occasions. There were thirteen feated, and Sir Robert Peel was sent for grooms of the bedchamber who waited by the Queen to form a new administralikewise in turn. The salary of the groom tion, and on proposing to consult her of the stole was 2000l. per annum, of the majesty on the subject of the principal lords 1000l. each, and of the grooms 500l. appointments held by ladies in the royal

The salaries of all officers of the royal household, her Majesty informed him househoia are paid out of a fund appro- that it'was her pleasure to reserve those priated for this purpose in the Civil List, appointments, conceiving the interference and which is fixed by 1 Vict. c. 2, at of the minister “ to be contrary to usage," 131,260l. per annum.

while she added it was certainly "repugChamberlayne, in his . Present State of nant to her feelings.” Sir R. Peel being England, 12mo. 1669, p 249, calls them thus denied the advantage of a public gentlemen of the bedchamber. “ The demonstration of her Majesty's “ full supgentlemen of the Bedchamber,” he says, 1 port and confidence,” resigned the task of

forming a cabinet, and the former minis- other inferior spiritual persons. But a
ters were sent for, when they held a distinction is made between bepefices at.
council and came to the following reso- tached to communities under the monastic
lution, which is likely to settle the ques- rule (sub regulâ), which are called regular
tion on future occasions : “ That for the benefices, and those the possessors of
purpose of giving to the administration which live in the world (in sæculo),
that character of efficiency and stability which are thence called secular benefices.
and those marks of the constitutional | The writers on the canon law distinguish
support of the crown which are required moreover between simple or sinecure be-
to enable it to act usefully to the public nefices, which do not require residence,
service, it is reasonable that the great and to which no spiritual duty is attached
officers of the court, and situations in the but that of reading prayers and singing
household held by members of parlia- (as chaplainries, canonries, and chantries),
ment, should be included in the political and sacerdotal benefices, which are at-
arrangements made in a change of the tended with cure of souls.
administration: but they (the ex-minis- Lord Coke says, “ Beneficium is a
ters) are not of opinion that a similar large word, and is taken for any ecclesi-
principle should be applied or extended astical promotion whatsoever.” (2 Inst.
to the offices held by ladies in her Ma- | 29.) But in modern English law trea-
jesty's household.” The defeated minis- tises the term is generally confined to the
try was then reinstated.

temporalities of parsons, vicars, and perBEDE-HOUSE, a term used for an petual curates, which in popular lanalms-house. Hence, bedes-man, or beads- guage are called livings. The legal posman, a person who resides in a bede- sessor of a benefice attended with cure of house, or is supported from the funds ap- souls is called the incumbent. The hispropriated for this purpose. The master of tory of the origin of benefices is involved St. Katherine's Hospital, London, in the in great obscurity. The property of the Regent's Park, has the right of appointing Christian church appears, for some cena number of non-resident pensioners on turies after the apostolic ages, to have that foundation, who are termed bedes- been strictly enjoyed in common. It was men and bedeswomen. In the recently the duty of the officers called deacons abolished Court of Exchequer in Scotland, (whose first appointment is mentioned in the term bedesman, beadman, or beid- | Acts, cap. vi.) to receive the rents of the man, was used to denote that class of pau- real estates, or patrimonies, as they were pers who enjoy the royal bounty. Bede called, of every church. Of these, as is the Anglo-Saxon word for prayer, and well as of the voluntary gifts in the shape as almsmen were bound to pray for the of alms and oblations, a sufficient portion founder of the charity, they were hence was set apart, under the superintendence called beadsmen. Sir Walter Scott de- of the bishop, for the maintenance of the scribes the king's beadsmen as an order bishop and clergy of the diocese; another of paupers to whom the kings of Scotland portion was appropriated to the expenses were in the custom of distributing a cer- of public worship (in which were intain alms, in conformity with the ordi- cluded the charge for the repairs of the oance of the Roman Catholic church, and church), and the remainder was bestowed who were expected, in return, to pray for upon the poor. This division was exthe royal welfare and that of the state. pressly inculcated by a canon of Gelasius, BEGGAR. [MENDICITY.]

pope, or rather bishop, of Rome, A.D. 470. BENEFICE (from the Latin Bene- (See Father Paul's Treatise on Eccleficium), a term applied both by the canon siastical Benefices, cap. 7.) After the law and the law of England to a pro- payment of tithes had become universal vision for an ecclesiastical person. In its in the west of Europe, as a means of supmost comprehensive sense it includes the port to the clergy, it was enacted by one temporalities as well of archbishops, of the capitularies of Charlemagne, that bishops, deans and chapters, abbots and they should be distributed according to priors, as of parsons, vicars, monks, and this division. When the bishoprics be

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gan to be endowed with lands and other | lay property. Hence, as the estates disfirm possessions, the bishops, to encourage tributed in fief by the kings of France the foundation of churches, and to esta- and Germany among their favoured Slish a provision for the resident clergy, nobles were originally termed beneficia gave up their portion of the tithes, and [BENEFICIUM), this name was conferred, were afterwards by the canons forbidden by a kind of doubtful analogy, upon the to demand it, if they could live without temporal possessions of the church. Thus, it. Although the revenues of the church the bishoprics were supposed to be held were thus divided, the fund from which by the bounty of the kings (who had by they were derived remaiued for a long degrees usurped the right originally vested time entirely under the same administra- in the clergy and people of filling them up tion as before. But by degrees every when vacant), while the temporalities of minister, instead of carrying the offerings the inferior ecclesiastical offices were held made in his own church to the bishop, for of the bishops, in whose patronage and disthe purpose of division, began to retain posal they for the most part then were. them for his own use. The lands also The manner of investiture of benefices in were apportioned in severalty among the those early times was probably the same resident clergy of each diocese. But as that of lay property, by the delivery these changes were not made in all places of actual possession, or of some symbols or all at one time, or by any general order, of possession, as the ring and crozier, but by insensible degrees, as all other which were the symbols of investiture customs are introduced. (See Father appropriated to bishoprics. Paul's "Treatise on Benefices,' cap. 9 and Benefices being thus endowed, and re10.). “Some writers have attributed the cognised as a species of private property, origin of parochial divisious to a period their number gradually multiplied during as early as the fourth century; and it is the ages succeeding that of Charlemagne. not improbable that this change took | In England especially several causes conplace in some parts of the Lastern Empire, tributed to the rise of parochial churches. either in that or the succeeding age. "Sometimes” (says Dr. Burn, Eccles. Some of the Constitutions of Justinian Law, title "Appropriation”) “the itinerant seem to imply that in his time (the be- preachers found encouragement to settle ginuing of the sixth century), the system amongst a liberal people, and by their of ecclesiastical property, as it existed in assistance to raise up a church and a little the East, was very similar to that which adjoining manse. Sometimes the kings, has prevailed in Catholic countries in in their country vills and seats of pleamodern times.” The churches, monas- sure or retirement, ordered a place of teries, and other pious foundations pos- worship for their court and retinue, which sessed landed and other property (slaves was the original of royal free chapels. among the rest), which, by the Constitu- Very often the bishops, commiserating tions of Justinian, they were restrained the ignorance of the country people, took from alienating, as they had been in care for building churches as the only the habit of doing to the detriment of way of planting or keeping up Christitheir successors. (Authentica, Const. vii. anity among them. But the more ordi“On not alienating ecclesiastical things, nary method of augmenting the number &c.")

of churches depended on the piety of the The general obscurity that hangs over greater lords, who, having large fees the history of the Middle Ages prevents and territories in the country, founded us from ascertaining, with precision, at churches for the service of their families what period the changes we have alluded and tenants within their dominion. It to were introduced into the west of Europe. was this that gave a primary title to the This, however, seems clear, that after the patronage of laymen; it was this made feudal system had acquired a firm footing the bounds of a parish commensurate to in the west of Europe, during the ninth those of a manor; and it was this distinct and tenth centuries, its principles were property of lords and tenants that by desoon applied to ecclesiastical as well as grees allotted new parochial bounds, by

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