Canterbury over the southern. It seems | Caer Leon; and others, on grounds to have been the peculiar diligence and equally uncertain, that bishops, under dignity of Paulinus which procured for the denomination of archbishops, were him the title of archbishop, and gave him settled in those early times at London and a province, instead of a diocese only, as York. was the case with the other members of This account of the mode in which the Augustinian mission. This was done Christianity was diffused through many by special act, under the authority, it is parts of Europe may be perfectly true; said, of Justus, an early successor of but though a specious explanation of the Augustine. But the precedence of the word metropolitan, it is not a true exreal English metropolitan is acknow-planation. Under the later empire the ledged in two circumstances: in the style, name Metropolis was applied to various the one being a priznate of England, and cities of Asia and conferred on them as a the other the primate of all England ; title of rank. The emperors Theodosius and in the rank, precedence being always and Valentinian conferred on Berytus in given to the archbishop of Canterbury, Phoenicia the name and rank of a metra and the lord chancellor of England being polis " for many and sufficient reasons." interposed in processions between the (Cod. xi. tit. 22 (21). Accordingly the two archbishops. In former times the bishop of a metropolis was called metroarchbishops of Canterbury were invested politan (untporolons), and the bishop by the pope with a legatine authority of a city which was under a metropolis throughout both provinces. The arch- was simply called bishop. All the bishops, bishop can still grant faculties and dis- both metropolitan and others, were sub pensations in the two provinces. He can ject to the archbishop and patriarch of confer degrees of all kinds, and can grant Constantinople, who received his instrucspecial licences to marry at any place and tions in ecclesiastical matters from the at any time. He licenses notaries. Burn emperor. (Cod. i. tit. 3, s. 42, 43). states that previous to the creation of an The precise amount of superintendence archbishopric in Ireland in 1152, the and control preserved by the archbishops archbishop of Canterbury had primacy over the bishops in their respective proover that country, and Canterbury was vinces, does not seem to be very accudeclared, in the time of the two first Nor- rately defined. Yet if any bishop introman kings, the metropolitan church of duces irregularities into his diocese, or England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the is guilty of scandalous immoralities, the isles adjacent. The archbishop was some- archbishop of the province may, as it times styled a patriarch and orbis Bri- seems, inquire, call to account, and punish. tannici pontifer. At general councils He may, it is said, deprive. In 1822 the abroad he had precedency of all other archbishop of Armagh deposed the bishop archbishops.

of Clogher from his bishopric. In disThere is evidence sufficient to show putes between a diocesan and his clergy that Christianity had made its way long an appeal lies to the archbishop of the before the time of Gregory among the province in all cases except disputes reRoman inhabitants of Britain and the specting curates' stipends." (1 & 2 Vict. Romanized Britons; and it is not con- c. 106.) Rolle, a good authority, says tended that either Scotland or Ireland that the archbishop . may appoint a coowed its Christianity to that mission. adjutor to one of his suffragans who is Wales has no archbishop; whence it infirm or incapable. The right is now seems to be a legitimate inference that confirmed by 6 & 7 Vict. c. 62, intituled the Welsh church is only a fragment of An Act to provide for the Performance a greater church in which the whole of of the Episcopal Functions in case of the England and Wales was comprehended, Incapacity of any Bishop or Archbishop." the church, as to what is now called It is under this act that the bishop of England, being destroyed by the Saxons, Salisbury at present exercises episcopal who were pagans. Yet some have con- functions in the diocese of Bath and tended that there was an archbishop at Wells..

An archbishop has a right to name one chaplain. The archbishop of Canterbury of his clerks or chaplains to be provided is the chief medium of communication for by every bishop whom he consecrates. between the clergy and the king, and is The present practice is for the bishop consulted by the king's ministers in all whom he consecrates, to make over by affairs touching the ecclesiastical part of deed to the archbishop, his executors and the constitution ; and be generally deassigns, the next presentation of such livers in parliament what, when unani. benefice or dignity which is at the bishop's mous, are the sentiments of the bench of disposal within his see, as the archbishop bishops. The two archbishops have premay choose. This deed only binds the cedence of all temporal peers, except bishop who grants, and, therefore, if a those of the blood-royal ; and except that bishop dies before the option is vacant, the lord chancellor has place between the the archbishop must make a new option two archbishops. when he consecrates a new bishop. If The province of the archbishop of York the archbishop dies before the benefice or consists of the six northern counties, with dignity is vacant, the next presentation Cheshire and Nottinghamshire; to these goes to his executors or assigns according were added, by act of parliament in the to the terms of the grant.

time of Henry VIII., the Isle of Man: in The archbishop also nominates to the this province he has five suffragans, the benefices or dignities which are at the bishop of Sodor and Man, the bishop of disposal of the bishops in his province, if Durham, the only see in his province of not filled up within six months from the Saxon foundation, the bishops of Carlisle, time of the avoidance. During the va- Chester, and Ripon. Of these, the bishopric cancy of a see, he is the guardian of the of Carlisle was founded by King Henry I. spiritualities.

in the latter part of his reign, and the Certain of the bishops are nominally bishopric of Chester by King Henry officers in the Cathedral of Canterbury, Vill. ; so thinly scattered was the seed or in the household of the archbishop of Christianity over the northern parts of “The bishop of London is his provincial the kingdom in the Saxon times. "To the dean, the bishop of Winchester his chan- above have been added the bishopric of cellor, the bishop of Lincoln anciently was Ripon, created by act of parliament (6 & his vice-chancellor, the hishop of Salisbury 7 Wm. IV. c. 77) in 1836, and the his precentor, the bishop of Worcester his bishopric of Manchester, also created by chaplain, and the bishop of Rochester the same act; but a bishop will not be (when time was) carried the cross before appointed for Manchester until a vacancy

(Burn.) The archbishop has occurs in either the see of St. Asaph or also certain honorary distinctions; he Bangor. has in his style the phrase " by Divine The rest of England and Wales providence,” but the bishop's style runs forms the province of the archbishop of

by Divine permission;" and while the Canterbury, in which there are twelve bishop is only installed, the archbishop is bishoprics of Saxon foundation ; and the said to be enthroned. The title of bishopric of Ely, founded by Henry I.; “Grace” and “Most Reverend Father in the bishoprics of Bristol, Gloucester, OxGod” is used in speaking and writing to ford, and Peterborough, founded by archbishops, and bishops have the title of Henry VIII.; and the four Welsh “ Lord” and “Right Reverend Father in bishoprics, of which St. David's and God.”

Llandaff exhibit a catalogue of bishops The archbishops may nominate eight running back far beyond the times of St. clerks each to be their chaplains, and Augustine. The Welsh bishoprics will bishops six. The archbishop of Canter- be reduced to three by the union of St. bury claims the right of placing the Asaph and Bangor whenever a vacancy crown upon the head of the king at his occurs in either. The twelve English coronation ; and the archbishop of York bishoprics of Saxon foundation are Lonclaims to perform the same office for the don, Winchester, Rochester, Chichester, queen consort, and he is her perpetual | Salisbury, Exeter, Bath and Wells,


Worcester, Hereford, Lichfield and Co- St. Andrew's is to Scotland what Canventry, Lincoln, and Norwich.

terbury is to England; and while the The dioceses of the two English arch- episcopal form and order of the church bishops, or the districts in which they have existed in that country, it was the seat of ordinary episcopal functions to perform, the archbishop, though till 1470, when the were remodelled by 6 & 7 Wm. IV. c. 77. pope granted him the title of archbishop, The diocese of Canterbury comprises the he was known only as the Episcopus Maxigreater part of the county of Kent, except mus Scotiæ. In 1491 the bishop of Glasthe city and deanery of Rochester and gow obtained the title of archbishop, and some parishes transferred by the above act, had three bishops placed as suffragans a number of parishes distinct from each under him. Until about 1466 the archother, and called Peculiars, in the county bishop of York claimed metropolitan juof Sussex, with small districts in other risdiction over the bishops in Scotland. dioceses, particularly London, which, be- In Ireland there are two archbishoplonging in some form to the archbishop, rics, Armagh and Dublin. The archacknowledge no inferior episcopal au- bishoprics of Tuam and Cashel were rethority. The diocese of the archbishop duced to bishoprics by the act 3 & 4 Will. of York consists of the county of York, IV. c. 37. Catalogues of the archbishops except that portion of it included in the of Ireland and Scotland may be found new diocese of Ripon, the whole county of in that useful book for ready reference Nottingham, with some detached districts. the Political Register, by Robert Beatson,

Exact knowledge of the diocesan divi- Esq., of which there are two editions. sion of the country is of general import- To enumerate all the prelates throughance as a guide to the depositaries of out Christendom to whom the rank and wills of parties deceased. But all wills office of archbishop belong would extend which dispose of property in the public this article to an unreasonable length. funds must be proved in the Prerogative The principle exists in all Catholic counCourt of the archbishop of Canterbury ; tries, that there shall be certain bishops and in cases of intestacy, letters of admi- who have a superiority over the rest, nistration must be obtained in the same forming the persons next in dignity to court; for the Bank of England acknow the great pastor pastorum of the church, ledges no other probates or letters of ad- the pope. The extent of the provinces ministration.

belonging to each varies, for these eccleLives of all the archbishops and siastical distributions of kingdoms were bishops of England and Wales are to be not made with foresight, and on a regufound in an old book entitled De Pre- lar plan, but followed the accidents which sulibus Angliæ Commentarius. It is a attended the early fortunes of the Chriswork of great research and distinguished tian doctrine. In Germany, some of the merit. The author was Francis Godwin, archbishops attained no small portion of or Goodwin, bishop of Llandaff

, and it political independence and power. Three was first published in 1616. A new edi. of them, viz. those of Treves, Cologne, tion of it, or rather the matter of which and Mainz, were electors of the empire. it consists, translated and recast, with a In France, under the old regime, there continuation to the present time, would were eighteen archbishoprics, all of form a useful addition to our literature. which, except Cambray, are said to have There is also an octavo volume, published been founded in the second, third, and in 1720, by John le Neve, containing live fourth centuries; the foundation of the of all the Protestant archbishops, but writ- archbishopric of Cambray was referred ten in a dry and uninteresting manner. to the sixth century. The number of Of particular lives there are many, by bishops France was one hundred and Strype and others; many of the persons four. The French have a very large and who have held this high dignity having splendid work, entitled Gallia Chrisbeen distinguished by eminent personal tiana, containing an ample history of each qualities, as well as by the exalted station province, and of the several subordinate they have occupied.

sees comprehended iu it, and also of the abbeys and other religious foundations, | licence necessary, enabled them to resort with lives of all the prelates drawn up to the bishops of the Church of England. with the most critical exactness. Since At the present time there are twentythe Revolution forty-nine dioceses in four bishops of the Protestant Episcopal France have been suppressed, and only Church of the United States of America. three new ones have been created. The The Episcopal church of the United French hierarchy consists at present of States of North America is said to be a fourteen archbishops and sixty-six bi- complete picture of the Church of Engshops. According to the Metropolitan land republicanized. The superior powers Catholic Almanac' for 1844, published of church government are vested in a in the United States, the number of Roman General or National Convention which Catholic archbishops in Europe is 108, meets triennially. The Convention conand of bishops 469, and there are 154 bi- sists of two houses. The bishops sit as a shops in other parts of the world, making body in their own right and forin a sepa a total of 731 bishops.

rate House. The lower House is comIn the British colonies the first bishop- posed of lay and clerical delegates. Each riccreated was that of Nova Scotia, in 1787, diocese is represented by four laymen and the number of bishops in the colonies and four of the clergy, who are elected has been increased by a number of recent by local Diocesan Conventions. The lay creations of sees to fifteen. [BISHOPRIC.) members of the Diocesan Couventions are In 1841 a bishop of the United Church elected by their respective congregations of England and Ireland was appointed or vestries. The General Couvention, for Jerusalem. The king of Prussia was amongst other things, has the power of the first to suggest the appointment to revising old or making new canons. Queen Victoria, and the right of appoint. It hears and determines charges against ment will be alternately enjoyed by the bishops ; receives and examines testicrowns of Prussia and England; but the monials from Diocesan Conventions l'earchbishop of Canterbury has a veto on commending new bishops, and decides the Prussian appointment. The bishop upon their appointment; without the cerof Jerusalem is for the present a suffragan tificate of the General Convention a of the archbishop of Canterbury's; but he bishop cannot be consecrated. The sitcannot exercise any of his functions in tings of a General Convention usually the dominions of Great Britain, nor can last about three weeks. At the Convention the persons ordained by him. The act which assembled at Philadelphia in Oct. 5 Víct. c. 6, was passed to enable the 1844, eleven comınittees were appointed archbishops of Canterbury and York, for the transaction of business; there was and such bishops as they might select, to one committee on matters relating to the consecrate a foreign bishop.

admission of new dioceses; and another On the separation of the North Ame- on the consecration of bishops. At this rican colonies from the mother-country, Convention a canon was passed for regua difficulty was felt by those persons who lating the consecration of foreign bishops : were desirous of observing the forms of such bishops cannot exercise their functhe Anglican Church, as persons ordained tions in the United States. At the by the bishops of England are required same Convention“ sentence of suspento take the oath of allegiance, &c. An act sion” was passed on a bishop by the was therefore passed (24 Geo. III. c. 35) House of Bishops. They adjudged him to which relieved them from the necessity be “suspended from all public exercise of taking such oaths, with the proviso of the office and functions of the sacred that they could not legally officiate in ministry, and in particular from all exerany part of the British dominions. The cise whatsoever of the office and work of American bishops, from the same obsta- a bishop of the church of God.” The cle, were for some time consecrated by resignation of a bishop must in the first Scotch bishops ; but the act 26 Geo. Ill. instance be accepted by a majority of C. 84, which dispensed with the oath of two-thirds of the lay and clerical deputies allegiance, and rendered only the king's / of the Convention of his diuccse; and it

then requires to be ratified by a majority | District of York by the Bishop of Trachis; of both Houses at a General Convention. the Northern District by the Bishop of The title assumed by a bishop in the Abydos; and the Welsh District is under United States is “Right Reverend.” a vicar-apostolic, the Bishop of Apollonia.

The bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Scotland is divided in a similar manner. Church of the United States have no par- Each District in Great Britain is subditicular province or district. Their time vided into Rural Deaneries. is chiefly spent in attending the different In the Charitable Donations (Ireland) annual conferences of the church.

Act (7 & 8 Vict. c. 97) the Roman CaThe Roman Catholic hierarchy in the tholic prelates are designated for the first United States is composed of one arch- time since the Reformation by their episbishop, fifteen bishops, and five coad- copal titles. They had been referred to in jutors. The first Roman Catholic bishop in the bill, when first brought in, as “any the United States was consecrated in 1790. person in the said church (of Rome] of any

Bishops in partibus.- This is an ellip- higher rank or order," &c.; and, on the tical phrase, and is to be supplied with proposition of the government, this was the word Infidelium. These are bishops altered to “any archbishop or bishop, or who have no actual see, but who are con- other person in holy orders, of the Church secrated as if they had, under the fiction of Rome.” In December, 1844, a royal that they are bishops in succession to those commission was issued constituting the who were the actual bishops in cities where | Board of Charitable Bequests in Ireland, Christianity once flourished. Syria, Asia and the two Roman Catholic archbishops Minor, Greece, and the northern coast of and bishop who are appointed members Africa, present many of these extinct of the Board are styled “Most Reverend " sees, some of them the most ancient and and “Right Reverend," and are given premost interesting in the history of Chris- cedency according to their episcopal rank. tianity. When a Christian missionary The English bishops who have been is to be sent forth in the character of a sent to Nova Scotia, to Quebec, and to the bishop into a country imperfectly Chris- East and West Indies, have been named tianized, and where the converts are not from the countries placed under their brought into any regular church order, spiritual superintendency, or from the the pope does not consecrate the mission- city which contains their residence and ary as the bishop of that country in the cathedral church. which his services are required, but as Suffragan bishops.-In England, every the bishop of one of the extinct sees, who bishop is, in certain views of his chais supposed to have left his diocese and to racter and position, regarded as a suffrabe travelling in those parts. So, when gan of the archbishop in whose province England had broken off from the Roman he is. But suffragan bishops are rather Catholic Church, and yet continued its to be understood as bishops in partibus own unbroken series of bishops in the re- who were admitted by the English cognised English sees, it was, for Roman bishops before the Reformation to assist Catholic ecclesiastical affairs, divided into them in the performance of the duties of * districts,' over each of which a bishop has their office. When a bishop filled some been placed, who is a bishop in partibus. high office of state, the assistance of a When, in the time of King Charles I., suffragan was almost essential, and was Dr. Richard Smith was sent by the pope probably usually conceded by the pope, into England in the character of bishop, to whom such matters belonged, when he came as bishop of Chalcedon. The asked for. A catalogue of persons who London District is superintended by a have been suffragan bishops in England bishop who is styled the Bishop of Olena; was made by Wharton, a great ecclesiasthe Eastern District by the Bishop of tical antiquary, and is printed in an apAriopolis; the Western District by the pendix to a Dissertation on Bishops in Bishop of Pella; the Central District by partibus, published in 1784 by another disthe Bishop of Cambysopolis; the Lanca- tinguished church-antiquary, Dr. Samuel shire District by the Bishop of Tloa; the | Pegge.

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