there were three daily papers, six weekly, prices to the extension of the market. and ten three times a week. Provincial They also, in many cases, lessened their newspapers had already been established risk by publishing by subscription-a in several places. In 1731, Cave, at his practice now almost gone out of use from own risk, produced the first Magazine the change of fashion, but possessing great printed in England--the 'Gentleman's.' advantages for the production of costly Its success was so great, that in the fol- books. This was in many respects the lowing year the booksellers, who could golden age for publishers, when large and not understand Cave's project till they certain fortunes were made. Perhaps much knew its value by experiment, set up a of this proceeded from the publishers aimrival magazine, • The London. In 1749 ing less to produce novelty than excellence the first Review, The Monthly,' was --selling large impressions of few books, and started; and in a few years was followed not distracting the public with their poisy by “The Critical.'

competition in the manufacture of new The periodical literature of this period wares for the market of the hour. Pubgreatly reduced the number of merely lishers thus grew into higher influence temporary books; and it had thus the in society. They had long ceased to advantage of imparting to onr literature carry their books to Bristol or Stourbridge a more solid character. Making a pro- fairs, or to hawk them about the country portionate deduction for the pamphlets in auctions. The trade of books had gone inserted in the catalogues already referred into regular commercial channels. to, it still appears that the great influx of IV. The period from the accession of periodical literature, although constitut- George III. to the close of the eighteenth ing a most important branch of literary century, is marked by the rapid increase commerce, had in some degree the effect of the demand for popular literature, of narrowing the publication of new rather than by any prominent features of books; and perhaps wholesomely so. It orginality in literary production. Peappears from a Complete Catalogue of riodical literature spread on every side; Modern Books published from the begin- newspapers, magazines, reviews, were ning of the century to 1756 ;'- from multiplied; and the old system of selling which “all pamphlets and other tracts” books by hawkers was extended to the are excluded, that in these fifty-seven rural districts and small provincial towns. years 5280 new works appeared, which of the number-books thus produced, the exhibits only an average of ninety-three quality was indifferent, with a few excepnew works each year. It seems probable tions; and the cost of these works was conthat the numbers of an edition printed had siderable. The principle, however, was been increased; for, however strange it then first developed, of extending the marmay appear, the general prices of the works ket by coming into it at regular intervals in this catalogue are as low, if not lower, with fractions of a book, so that the humthan in a priced catalogue which we also blest customer might lay by each week in a have of books printed in the years 1702 savings-bank of knowledge. This was an and 1703. A quarto published in the i important step, which has produced great first half of the last century seems to have effects, but which is even now capable of averaged from 10s. to 128. per volume; a much more universal application than an octavo, from 58. to 68.; and a duodeci- it has ever yet received. Smollett's • Hismo from 2s. 6d. to 3s. In the earlier tory of England' was one of the most catalogue we have mentioned, pretty successful number-books; it sold to the much the same prices exist : and yet an extent of 20,000 copies. excise had been laid upon paper; and the The rapid growth of the publication prices of authorship, even for the hum- of new books is best shown by examining blest labours, were raised. We can only the catalogues of the latter part of the account for this upon the principle, that eighteenth century, passing over the ear the publishers of the first half of the lier years of the reign of George III. eighteenth century knew their trade, and, in the • Modern Catalogue of Books,' printing larger numbers, adapted their from 1792 to the end of 1802, eleven years, we find that 4096 new works were sires of individual purchasers for ephepublished, exclusive of reprints not al. meral works could have formed; and a tered in price, and also exclusive of very large class of books was expressly pamphlets : deducting one-fifth for re- produced for this market. prints, we have an average of 372 new But a much larger class of book-buyers books per year. This is a prodigious had sprung up, principally out of the stride beyond the average of 93 per year middle ranks. For these a new species of the previous period. From some cause of literature had to be produced,—that of or other, the selling-price of books had books conveying sterling information in increased, in most cases 50 per cent., in a popular form, and published at a very others 100 per cent. The 2s. 6d. duode- cheap rate. In the year 1827 Constacimo had become 4s.; the 6s, octavo, ble's Miscellany led the way in this 108. 6d.; and the 128. quarto, il. 1$. It novel attempt; in the same year the Son would appear from this that the exclusive ciety for the Diffusion of Useful Know. market was principally sought for new ledge, which had been formed in Ne books; that the publishers of novelties vember, 1826, commenced its operations, did not rely upon the increasing number and several publishers of eminence of readers; and that the periodical works soon directed their capital into the same constituted the principal supply of the channels. Subsequently editions of our many. The aggregate increase of the great writers have been multiplied at coinmerce in books must, however, have very reasonable prices; and many a become enormous, when compared with tradesman's and mechanic's house now the previous fifty years.

contains a well selected stock of books, V. Of the last period—the most re- which, through an annual expenditure of markable for the great extension of the 21. or 31., has brought the means of incommerce in books—we shall present the tellectnal improvement, and all the tranaccounts of the first 27 years collectively, quil enjoyment that attends the practice and of the last 16 years in detail. of family reading, home to a man's own

The number of new publications issued fireside. from 1800 to 1827, including reprints The increasing desire for knowledge altered in size and price, but excluding among the masses of the people was, pamphlets, was, according to the London however, not yet supplied. In 1832 the catalogue, 19,860. Deducting one-fifth Penny Magazine' of the Society for for the reprints, we have 15,888 new the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, and books in 27 years; showing an average •Chambers's Jourual' commenced to be of 588 new books per year, being an in- published; and subsequently the Saturcrease of 216 per year over the last 11 day Magazine.' The Penny Sheet of the years of the previous century. Books, reign of Queen Anne was revived in the however, were still rising in price. The reign of William IV., with a much wider 48. duodecimo of the former period be- range of usefulness. It was said by some came 6s., or was converted into a small that the trade in books would be destroyed. octavo at 10s. 6d. ; the 10s. 6d. octavo be- They asserted also that the rewards of came 123. or 14s., and the guinea quarto authorship would be destroyed, necesvery commonly two guineas. The de- sarily, at the same time. “The Penny mand for new books, even at the very Cyclopedia of the Society for the Difhigh cost of those days, was principally fusion of Useful Knowledge was deemed maintained by Reading Societies and Cir- the most daring attempt at this double culating Libraries.

When these new destruction. That work has returned modes of diffusing knowledge were first about 150,0001. to the commerce of lite established, it was predicted that they rature, and 40,000l. have been distributed would destroy the trade of publishing. amongst the authors and artists engaged But the Reading Societies and the Cir- in its production, of which sum more than culating Libraries, by enabling many to three-fourths have been laboriously earned read new books at a small expense, cre- by the diligence of the writers. ated a much larger market than the de- There is a mode, however, of testing




3 3 6



whether cheap literature has destroyed | if they were sold at their publication the publication of new books, without in- price, would be 708,4981. 88. 9d., and cluding reprints and pamphlets. We that of the new editions and reprints, take the four years from 1829 to 1832, as 231,218l. 15s. We believe, however, that computed by ourselves, from the London | if we estimate the price at which the Catalogues; and the four years from 1839 entire impressions of both descriptions of to 1842, as computed by Mr. M‘Culloch works actually sells at 45. a volume, we in the last edition of his Commercial shall not be far from the mark; and if Dictionary:'

so, the real value of the books annually NEW WORKS, 1829 to 1832. produced will be 435,600l. a year.” Value of a single Copy

But the most remarkable characteristic Vols. at Publication price. of the press of this country is its periodical 1829 1413 £879 1s. Od.

literature. It might be asserted, without 1830 1592

873 5

exaggeration, that the periodical works 1831 1619


issued in Great Britain during one year 1832 1525

807 19

comprise more sheets than all the books NEW WORKS, 1839 to 1842. printed in Europe from the period of 1839 2302 £966 lls. 2d.

Gutenberg to the year 1500. 1840 2091 943 3 5

The number of weekly periodical works 1841 2011


(not newspapers) issued in London on 1842 2193

968 2 6 Saturday, May 4, 1844, was about sixty. In the four years ending 1832 were pub- important amounts to little less than

Of these the weekly sale of the more lished, of new books, 6149 volumes; in the four years ending 1842 were pub- annually. The greater number of these

300.000 copies, or about fifteen millions lished 8597 volumes. The cost of a

are devoted to the supply of persons who single copy of the 6149 volumes was 34991. ; of the 8597 volumes, 37801. The have only a very small sum to expend period was 11s. 5d.; in the second period, ent of the sale of many of them in average price per volume in the first weekly upon their home reading.

Of the weekly publications, independ8s. 91d. Mr. M‘Culloch has also given the that the annual returns are little short

monthly parts, we may fairly estimate following table of reprints, from 1839 to of 100,000l. 1842 :

The monthly issue of periodical literaREPRINTS AND NEW EDITIONS. ture from London is unequalled by any No. of Vols. Value at Publication price. similar commercial operation in Europe. 773 £296 78. 8d.

227 monthly periodical works were sent 821

327 16 10

out on the last day of May, 1844, to every 741

314 12 7

corner of the United Kingdom, from 684

295 96

Paternoster Row. There are also 38 Mr. M‘Culloch adds: “From inquiries periodical works published quarterly: we have made with much care and labour, making a total of 265. we find that, at an average of the four A bookseller, who has been many years ending with 1842, 2149 volumes of years conversant with the industry of the new works, and 755 volumes of new great literary hive of London on Magaeditions and reprints (exclusive of pam- zine-day, has favoured us with the folphlets and periodical publications), were lowing computations, which we have annually published in Great Britain ; and every reason to believe perfectly accuwe have further ascertained that the publication price of the former was The periodical works sold on the last 8s. 94d., and of the latter 8s. 2d. a volume. day of the month amount to 500,000 Hence, if we suppose the average im- copies. pression of each work to have been 750 The amount of cash expended in the copies, it will be seen that the total value purchase of these 500,000 copies is of the new works annually produced, I 25,0001.

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The parcels dispatched into the country, What has multiplied them twenty-fold ? of which very few remain over the day, Is it the contraction or the widening of are 2000,

the market—the exclusion or the difThe annual returns of periodical works, fusion of knowledge? The whole course according to our estimate, amount to of our literature has been that of a gradual 300,0001. Mr. M Culloch estimates them and certain spread from the few to the at 264,0001.

many-from a luxury to a necessary-as The number of newspapers published much so as the spread of the cotton or in the United Kingdom, in the year 1843, the silk trade. Henry VIII. paid 128. a the returns of which can be obtained with yard for a silk gown for Anne Boleyn-a the greatest accuracy through the Stamp sum equal to five guineas a yard of our Office, was 447. The stamps consumed day. Upon whom do the silk-mercers by them in that year were 60,592,001. now rely-- upon the few Anne Boleyns, Their proportions are as follows:- or the thousands who can buy a silk 1843.

gown at half-a-crown a yard? The

printing-machine has done for the com79 London newspapers . 31,692,092

merce of literature what the mule and 212 English provincial 17,058,056

the Jacquard-loom have done for the 8 Welsh


commerce of silk. It has made literature 69 Scotch


accessible to all. 79 Irish



BORDA'RII, one of the classes of 447


agricultural occupiers of land mentioned The average price of these papers is, as in the Domesday Survey, and, with the near as may be, fivepence; so that the exception of the villani, the largest. The sum annually expended in newspapers is origin of their name, and the exact naabout 1,250,000l. The quantity of ture of their tenure, are doubtful. Coke paper required for the annual supply of (Inst. lib. i. $ i. fol. 5 b, edit. 1628) calls these newspapers is 121,184 reams, some them “ boors holding a little house with of which paper is of an enormous size. some land of husbandry, bigger than a In a petition to the pope in 1471, from cottage.” Nichols, in his . Introduction to Sweynheim and Pannartz, printers at the History of Leicestershire,' p. xlv., Rome, they bitterly complain of the want considers them as cottagers, and that of demand for their books, their stock they took their name from living amounting to 12,000 volumes; and they on the borders of a village or manor ; say, “ You will admire how and where but this is sufficiently refuted by Domeswe could procure a sufficient quantity of day itself, where we find them not only paper, or even rags, for such a number of mentioned generally among the agriculvolumes.” About 1200 reams of paper tural occupiers of land, but in one inwould have produced all the poor stance as “ circa aulam manentes,” dwellprinters' stock. Such are the changes of ing near the manor house; and even four centuries.

residing in some of the larger towns. In We recapitulate these estimated annual two quarters of the town of Huntingdon, returns of the commerce of the press :- at the time of forming the Survey, as well

as in King Edward the Confessor's time, New books and reprints £435,600

there were 116 burgesses, and subordiWeekly publications, not news

nate to them 100 bordarii, who aided papers


them in the payment of the geld or tax. Monthly publications


(Domesd. Book. tom. i. fol. 203.) In NorNewspapers

1,250,000 wich there were 420 bordarii : and 20

are mentioned as living in Thetford £2,085,600

(Ibid. tom. ii. fol. 116 b, 173.) The literary returns of the United Bishop Kennett states that, “ The bor Kingdom, in 1743, were unquestionably darii often mentioned in the Domesday little more than 100,0001. per annum. I Inquisition were distinct from the servi




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and villani, and seem to be those of a less case of children; in others the custom servile condition, who had a board or extends to brothers and other male colcottage with a small parcel of land lateral relations. The same custom also allowed to them, on condition they should governs the descent of copyhold land in supply the lord with poultry and eggs various manors. and other small provisions for his board The custom is alluded to by Glanville and entertainment." (Gloss. Paroch. and by Littleton, of whom the latter thas Antiq.) Such also is the interpretation explains it:“ Also for the greater part given by Bloomfield in his ‘History of such boroughes have divers customes and Norfolk.' Brady affirms "they were usages, which be not had in other towns. drudges, and performed vile services, For some boroughes have such a custome, which were reserved by the lord upon a that if a man have issue many sonnes poor little house and a small parcel of and dyeth, the youngest son shall inherit land, and might perhaps be domestic all the tenements which were his father's works, such as grinding, threshing, draw within the same borough, as heire unto ing water, cutting wood, &c." (Pref. p. his father by force of the custome; the 56.)

which is called Borough-English” (s. Bord, as Bishop Kennett has already 165). noticed, was a cottage. Bordarii, it should The origin of this custom is referred to seem, were cottagers merely. In one of the time of the Anglo-Saxons; and it the Ely Registers we find Bordarii, where does not appear to have been known by the breviate of the same entry in Domes- its present name until some time after day itself reads cotarii. Their condition the Conquest; for the Normans, having was probably different on different no experience of any such custom in their

In some entries in the Domes- own country, distinguished it as “the day Survey, the expression “ bordarii custom of the Saxon towns.” In the arantes” occurs. At Evesham, on the reigt of Edward III. the term boroughabbey demesne, 27 bordarii are described English was used in contrast with the as “servientes-curiæ.(Domesd. tom. i. fol. Norman law: thus it was said that in 175 b.)

Nottingham there were two tenuresOn the demesue appertaining to the • burgh-Engloyes” and “burgh-Frauncastle of Ewias there were 12 bordarii, çoyes,” the usages of which tenures are who are described as performing personal such that all the tenements whereof the labour on one day in every week. (Ibid. ancestor dies seised in “burgh-Engloyes” fol. 186.) At St. Edmondsbury in Suffolk, ought to descend to the youngest son, the abbot had 118 homagers, and under and all the tenements in “ burgh-Fraunthem 52 bordarii. The total number of coyes” to the eldest son, as at common bordarii noticed in the different counties law. (1 Edward III. 12 a.) of England in Domesday Book is 82,634. Primogeniture was the rule of descent (Ellis's General Introd. to Domesday in England at common law; but in the Book, edit. 1833, vol. i. p. 82: ii. p. 511; case of socage lands all the sons inherited Haywood's Dissert. upon the Ranks of the equally until long after the Conquest, People under the Anglo-Saxon Govern- wherever it appeared that such lands had, ments, pp. 303, 305.)

by custom, been anciently divisible. But BOROUGH-ENGLISH is a peculiar this general rule of descent was often custom by which lands and tenements governed by peculiar customs, and in held in ancient burgage descend to the some places the eldest son succeeded his youngest son instead of to the eldest, father by special custom, while in others wherever such custom obtains. It still (viz. those subject to borough-English) exists in many cities and ancient bo- the youngest son alone inherited. (Glanroughs, and in the adjoining districts. ville, lib. vii. c. 3, and notes by Beames.) The land is held in socage, but descends “ This custome” (of borough-English), to the youngest son in exclusion of all says Littleton, “also stands with some the other children. In some places this certaine reason, because that the younger peculiar rule of descent is confined to the son (if he lacke father and mother), he

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