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oath the juror recognises the right of the ingham, having embraced the Roman king under the Act of Settlement, engages Catholic religion, took and subscribed the to support him to the utmost of the juror's oath required to be taken and subscribed power, promises to disclose all traitorous by Roman Catholics.” conspiracies against him, and expressly The word Abjuratio does not occur in disclaims any right to the crown of Eng- classical Latin writers, and the verb Abland by the descendants of the Pretender. jurare, which often occurs, signifies to The juror next declares that he rejects deny a thing falsely upon oath. the opinion that princes excommuni- ABORIGINES, a term by which we cated by the Pope may be deposed or denote the primitive inhabitants of a counmurdered; that he does not believe that try. Thus, to take one of the most striking the Pope of Rome or any other foreign instances, when the continent and islands prince, prelate, or person has or ought to of America were discovered, they were have jurisdiction directly or indirectly found to be inhabited by various races of within the realm. The form of oath people, of whose immigration into those taken by Roman Catholics who sit in regions we have no historical accounts. either House of Parliament is given in all the tribes, then, of North America 10 Geo. IV. c. 7 (the Roman Catholic may, for the present, be considered as Relief Act). The first part of the oath is aborigines. We can, indeed, since the similar in substance to the form required discovery of America, trace the moveunder 6 Geo. III. c. 53. The following ments of various tribes from one part of part of the oath is new : _“I do hereby dis- the continent to another; and, in this point claim, disavow, and solemnly abjure any of view, when we compare the tribes one intention to subvert the present Church with another, we cannot call a tribe which Establishment as settled by law within this has changed its place of abode, aborirealm; and I do solemnly swear that iginal, with reference to the new country will never exercise any privilege to which which it has occupied. The North I am or may become entitled to disturb or American tribes that have moved from weaken the Protestant religion or Pro- the east side of the Mississippi to the west testant government in the United King- of that river are not aborigines in their
and I do solemnly, in the presence new territories. But the whole mass of of God, profess, testify and declare that I American Indians must, for the present, do make this declaration, and every part be considered as aboriginal with respect thereof, in the plain and ordinary sense to the rest of the world. The English, of the words of this oath, without any French, Germans, and others, who have evasion, equivocation, or mental reserva- settled in America, are, of course, not abtion whatsoever.” Before the passing of origines with reference to that continent, this Act (10 Geo. IV. c. 7), the oath and but settlers, or colonists. declaration required to be taken and made If there is no reason to suppose that we as qualification for sitting and voting in can discover traces of any people who inParliament were the oaths of allegiance, habited England prior to and different supremacy, and abjuration, and the de- from those whom Julius Cæsar found clarations commonly called the decla- here, then the Britons of Cæsar's time are rations against transubstantiation, the in- the aborigines of this island. vocation of saints, and the sacrifice of the The term aborigines first occurs in the
Greek and Roman writers who treated of The case of a member of the House of the earlier periods of Roman history, and, Commons becoming converted to the Ro- though interpreted by Dionysius of Haliman Catholic faith after he had taken his carnassus (who writes it, in common with seat, occurred for the first time since the other Greek authors, ’ABwpirives, or ’AB0passing of 10 Geo. IV. c. 7, in the session peyives, or ’ABwproyîvou) to mean ancestors, of 1844, and is thus noticed in the Votes it is more probable that it corresponds to and Proceedings of the House, dated May the Greek word autochthones. This latter 13:-“ Charles Robert Scott Murray, designation, indeed, expresses the most esquire, member for the county of Buck / remote possible origin of a nation, for it
signifies “people coeval with the land | man, who covets the possession of land, which they inhabit.” The word abori- will follow up his victory till he has ocgines, though perhaps not derived, as cupied every portion of the continent some suppose, from the Latin words ab which he finds suitable for cultivation. and origo, still has the appearance of The red man must become a cultivator, being a general term analogous to autoch- or he must retire to places where the thones, and not the name of any people white man does not think it worth his
ally known to history. The Aborigines while to follow him. The savage aboriof the ancient legends, interwoven with gines do not pass from what we call barthe history of Rome, were, according to barism to what we call civilization withCato, the inhabitants of part of the coun- out being subjected to the force of external try south of the Tiber, called by the Ro-circumstances, that is, the presence among mans Latium, and now the Maremma of them of settlers or conquerors. There is the Campagna di Roma. (Niebuhr, Ro- no more reason for supposing that huntsman History.)
men will change their mode of life, such The word aborigines has of late come as it is, without being compelled, than that into general use to express the natives of agricultural people will change theirs. various parts of the world in which Eu- Aborigines, then, as we now understand ropeans have settled; but it seems to be them, will remain what they are until limited or to be nearly limited to such they are affected by foreign intercourse; natives as are barbarous, and do not cul- and this intercourse will either destroy tivate the ground, and have no settled ha- them in the end, a result which is conbitations. Some of the later Roman firmed by most of our experience, or it writers, as Sallust, describe the Italian will change their habits to those of their aborigines as a race of savages, not living conquerors or the settlers among them, in a regular society; a description which, and so preserve them, not as a distinct as Niebuhr remarks, is probably nothing nation, for that is impossible, but by inelse than an ancient speculation about the corporating them among the foreigners. progress of mankind from animal rude- | A nation agriculturists, though conness to civilization. Such a speculation quered, may and does endure, and may was very much to Sallust's taste, and we preserve its distinctive character; a nafind it also in Lucretius and Horace. Pro- tion of savages can only endure as such bably the modern sense of this word and by keeping free from all intercourse with the sense in which Sallust uses it agree an agricultural and commercial people. more nearly than appears at first. The ABORTION. [HOMICIDE.] aborigines of Australasia and Van Die- ABROGATION. [Law.] men's Land (if there are any left in Van ABSENTEE. This is a term applied, Diemen's Land) are so called as being generally by way of reproach, to that savages, though the name may be applied class of capitalists who derive their inwith equal propriety to cultivators of the come from one country, and reside in ground. Some benevolent people suppose another country, in which they expend that aborigines, who are not cultivators their income. We here propose to state of the ground, may become civilized like some of the more material points in the Europeans. But it has not yet been controverted question, whether the conproved satisfactorily that this change can sumption of absentees is an evil to the be effected in any large numbers; and if particular country from which they deit can be effected, it is an essential condi-rive their revenues. There is a decided tion that the aborigines must give up tendency in the progress of social intertheir present mode of life and adopt that course to loosen the ties which formerly of the settlers. But such a change is not bound an individual or a family to one easy: even in the United States of North particular spot. From the improvement America it has been only partially effected. of roads, and the rapidity and certainty The wide expanse of country between the of steam navigation, Dublin is now as Mississippi and the Atlantic is now nearly near, in point of time, to London, as Path cleared of the aborigines, and the white / was half a century ago; and the distance
between England and every part of the | an income of 10001. a year from an estate Continent is in the same way daily dimi. in one of our agricultural counties. We nishing. The inducements to absentee- leave out of the consideration whether he ism, whether from Ireland to England, resides or not upon his estate, and enor from England to the Continent, are deavours, by his moral influence, to imconstantly increasing; and it is worth prove the condition of his poorer neighwhile considering whether the evils of bours, or lets his land to a tenant. The absenteeism are so great as some suppose, landowner may reside in London, or or whether, according to a theory that Brighton, or Cheltenham. With his was much in vogue some years ago, ab- rents he probably purchases many arsenteeism is an evil at all.
ticles of foreign production, which have The expenditure of a fanded proprietor been exchanged for the productions of resident upon his estate calls into action our own country. There are few people the industry of a number of labourers, now who do not understand that if we domestics, artisans, and tradesmen. If did not take from foreigners the goods the landlord remove to another part of which they can produce cheaper and the same country, the labourers remain; better than we can, we should not send the domestic servants probably remove to foreigners the goods which we can with him; but the artisans and tradesmen produce cheaper and better than they whom he formerly employed lose that If we did not take wines from the profit which they once derived by the continental nations, for instance, we exchange of their skill or commodities should not send to the continental nations for a portion of the landlord's capital. It our cottons and hardware; and the same never occurs to those who observe and principle applies to all the countries of perhaps deplore these changes, that the the earth with which we have commerlandlord ought to be prevented from cial intercourse. The landlord, therespending his money in what part of his fore, by consuming the foreign wines own country he pleases. They conclude encourages our own manufactures of that there is only a fresh distribution of cotton and hardware, as much as if, the landlord's revenues, and that new drinking no foreign wine at all, he aptradesmen and mechanics have obtained plied the money so saved to the direct the custom which the old ones have lost. purchases of cotton and hardware at But if the same landlord go to reside in home. But he even bestows a greater a foreign country—if the Englishman go encouragement upon native industry, by to France or Italy, or the Irishman to consuming wine which has been exEngland-it is sometimes asserted that changed for cotton and hardware, than if the amount of revenue which he spends he abstained from drinking the wine; for in the foreign country is so much clear he uses as much cotton and hardware as loss to the country from which he derives he wants, as well as the wine; and by his property, and so much encouragement using the wine he enables other people withdrawn from its industry; and that he in Europe to use the cotton and hardought, therefore, to be compelled to stay ware, who would otherwise have gone at home, instead of draining his native without it. For all that he consumes of land for the support of foreign rivals. foreign produce, some English produce Some economists maintain that this is a has been sent in exchange. Whatever popular delusion, and that, in point of may be the difference between the gofact, the revenue spent by the landlord in vernment accounts of exports and imports a foreign country has precisely the same (than which nothing can be more fallaeffect upon the industry of his own coun- cious), there is a real balance between try as if his consumption took place at the goods we send away and the goods home, for that, in either case, it is un- we receive; and thus the intrinsic value productive consumption. We willen- of all foreign trade is this.--that it opens deavour to state their arguments as briefly a larger store of commodities to the con
sumers, whilst it develops a wider field We will suppose a landowner to derive , of industry for the producers. There used to be a notion, which for many | the risk of sending money from one part years affected our legislation, that unless of the kingdom to another. we sent away to foreigners a great many If the landlord becomes an absentee, more goods than we received from them, the process of remitting his rental assumes or, in other words, unless our exports a more complicated shape. We will supwere much greater in value than our im- pose that he settles in the Netherlands. ports, the balance of trade was against us. His means of living there depend upon (BALANCE OF TRADE.) This notion was the punctual transmission of the value of founded upon the belief that if we sent his share of the corn, cattle, and other away a greater amount of goods than produce which grow upon his estate in those we received in exchange, we should England. To make the remittance in be paid the difference in bullion; and bullion would not only be expensive, but that the nation would be rich, not in the unsafe; and, indeed, remittances in bulproportion in which it was industrious at lion can never be made to any considerhome, and in which its industry obtained able extent (such as the demands of abforeign products in exchange for native sentees would require) from one country products, but as it got a surplus of gold, to another; for these large remittances year by year, through its foreign trade. would produce a scarcity of money at Now, in point of fact, no such surplus home, and then the bullion being raised ever did accrue, or ever could have in value, its remittance would conseaccrued ; for the commercial transactions quently cease. Although the expenses of between one country and another are in our armies in the Peninsula, in 1812-13, fact a series of exchanges or barter, and / amounted to nearly 32,000,0001., the regold is only the standard by which those mittances in coin were little more than exchanges are regulated. We shall see 3,000,000l. Nearly all foreign remithow these considerations bear upon the tances are carried on by bills of exrelations of the English landlord to his change. The operation of a bill of exnative country when he becomes an change, in connection with the absentee absentee.
28 we can.
landlord, would be this :He is a conWhen the landlord, whose case we sumer now, in great part, of foreign prohave supposed, resided upon his estate, duce; he may require many articles of he probably received his rental direct | English produce, through the effect of from his tenants. That rental was the habit; but whether or no, there must be landlord's share of as many quarters of an export of Euglish goods to some councorn, as many head of oxen and sheep, try, to the amount of the foreign goods as many fleeces of wool, as many fowls, which he consumes, otherwise his remitas many pounds of butter, and so forth, tances could not be made to him. He as the estate produced. Three or four draws a bill upon England, which he centuries ago the landlord's share was pays, through a banker, to a merchant at paid in kind: for the convenience of all Antwerp. This bill represents his share parties it is now paid in money, or, in of the corn and cattle upon his farm; but other words, the tenant sells the land- the merchant at Antwerp, who does not lord's share, as well as his own share, want corn and cattle, transmits it to a and pays over the amount of his share to merchant at London, in payment for the landlord, in a money-rent, instead of cotton goods and hardware, which he in produce. When the landlord removes does want. Or there may be another to a distant part of the country, this ar- process. The agent, in England, of the rangement of modern times becomes absentee landlord, may procure a bill doubly convenient. The rental is col- upon the merchant at Antwerp, which lected by a steward, and is remitted, he transmits to the English landlord ; usually through a banker, to the land and the merchant at Antwerp, recognising lord. By this process, the produce of the in that bill the representation of a debt land may be most advantageously sold ; which he has incurred to England, hands and the landlord receives the amount of over the proceeds to the bearer of the bill. his share at his own door, without even In either case the bill represents the value
of English commodities exported to fo- | is, in nearly every case, invested at reigners. It is alleged that the consump-home. It is the same thing whether tion of an English resident in a foreign the absentee improves his own estate by state, out of a capital derived from Eng- the accumulation, or lends the amount land, produces, in principle, the same of the capital so saved to other encouindirect effects upon English industry, ragers of industry at home. Nor could as his partial or entire consumption of the political economists ever have inforeign goods in England. His con- tended, in maintaining, as a mere quessumption of foreign goods abroad is equi- tion of wealth, that it was a matter of valent to an importation of foreign goods indifference where an income was spent, into England; and that consumption, it to put out of view the moral advantages is said, produces a correspondent expor- which arise out of a rational course of tation of English goods to the foreigner. individual expenditure. If England sends out a thousand pounds' (M‘Culloch's Evidence before the Select worth of her exports in consequence of Committee on the State of Ireland, 1825, the absentee's residence abroad, it is Fourth Report, pp. 813-815; also his maintained that it cannot be said that she Evidence before the Select Committee on gets nothing in return. She would have the State of the Poor in Ireland, 1830, had to pay a thousand pounds to the land- p. 592, &c.-Leslie Foster's Essay upon lord wherever he resided ; and the only Commercial Exchange, 1804, quoted in question is, whether she pays the amount the last-mentioned Report, p. 597 ; Say, less advantageously for the national wel. Cours Complet d' Economie Politique, tom. fare to the absentee, than to the resident v. chap. 6; Chalmers on Political Ecoat home. The political economists, whose nomy, p. 200, 1832 ; Quarterly Review, opinions we have endeavoured to exhibit, vol. xxxiii. p. 459, for a hostile examinamaintain that she does not. It is probabletion of Mr. M'Culloch's opinions.) that a good deal of the cfficulty which So far we have given the arguments of this question presents has arisen from the those economists who have contended circumstance that the subtraction of a that absenteeism is no injury to the particular amount of expenditure from country from which the rent of the a particular district is felt in the imme- absentee is derived. It must be admitted diate locality as an evil, while the benefit that the evil is not so serious as many which still remains to the whole country people suppose, and if we take everything is not perceived, because it is universally into the account, it may be that the evil diffused.
is inconsiderable. So complicated are But it would be a widely different the relations of modern society, that any question if the absentee landlord, who restraint upon the mode in which a man had been accustomed to expend a certain spends his income would probably do portion of his income in the improvement much more mischief, even to the country of his estate in England, were to suspend from which an absentee derives his income, those improvements, and invest his sur- than the absenteeism itself does, whatever plus capital in undertakings in a foreign that amount of mischief may be. country. This the political economists, Still, as a mere scientific question, the who have been most consistent in their opinion of those who maintain that abopinions as to the effects of absentee con- senteeism is no loss to the country of the sumption, never maintained : if they had, absentee, requires some limitation. It is they would have confounded the great | easy to show that its direct effect is to distinction between accumulation and diminish accumulation in the country of consumption, upon which the very foun- the absentee, and it is not easy to show dations of their science rest. In many that this direct effect is counteracted to its cases the smaller consumption of an full amount in any indirect way. absentee, in a country where the neces- It cannot be proved, as it has been saries of life are cheap, enables him to stated above, that the absentee's consumpaccumulate with greater ease than he | tion of foreign goods abroad is equivalent could at home; and this accumulation to an importation of foreign goods into