a. Extent of primeval woodlands in the United States.
b. Early use and destruction, when forests were regarded as obstructions

to settlement.
c. Use and destruction with increasing settlement, including losses by (1)

waste and (2) fires. d Present extent and value of forests. e. Rate of consumption and increasing cost of and demand for forest products. f. Estimated duration of forests and prospective prices of forest products. g. Relations between forests and other resources, including (1) mineral

fuels, (2) iron and copper, (3) building stone, brick-clay, cement

materials, etc. h. Direct influence of forests on (1) soil and mulch, (2) stream-flow, (3)

ground water and springs, and (4) the clarity and purity of rivers. į. Direct influence of forests on (1) floods and low waters, (2) power, and

(3) community water supply. j. Indirect influence of forests on waterway improvement and navigation. k. Relation between forest control and (1) crop production, (2) commerce,

and (3) population. SANITATION: a. Development of systems of community water supply, (1) past, and (2)

present. b. Methods and extent of the securing of community water supply in this

and other countries. c. Relation between purity and clarity of water for community supply. d. Mortality and disease due to impure water supply, with estimated loss

to communities and the country. e. Diminution in rate of increase in population and production by reason

of impure water supply for communities. f. Increase in loss from impure water supply attending growth in popula

tion and industries.
9. Action required in the interests of the public health.

a. Extent of arid and semi-arid regions.
b. Development of irrigation, (1) private and corporate, (2) State, and

(3) National.
c. Extent of irrigation, (1) present, and (2) prospective.
d. Growth of concepts concerning water rights and water as a basis of

property. e. Influence of irrigation on (1) production, (2) commerce, and (3) popula

tion. f. Influence of irrigation on the consumption of water and other resources. g. Reclamation and stream control by drainage. h. Extent of swamp and overflow lands and increased value available by

drainage, protection, and flood prevention. i. Influence of drainage and flood prevention on navigation, production,

and population. LAND LAWS:

a. Early policy of land disposal.
b. Transfer of lands under State charters, by special grants, and otherwise

LAND RESOURCES—Continued. LAND Laws—Continued. c. Development of land laws, through (1) squatter sovereignty, (2) land

surveys, (3) entry, (4) homesteading, (5) timber claim, (6) stone and

mineral claim, etc. d. Effect of special land laws on settlement, production, and population,

including (1) war and other land scrip, (2) railway and other land

grants, (3) the lieu land law, (4) timber and stone act, etc. e. Effect of creation of national forests, parks, and other reserves. f. Tendency toward large holdings and their influence on production and

population. g. Relative benefits of tenantry and freehold systems. h. Advantages of making this a nation of homes and home owners. i. State and Federal action required. j. Prospective influence on production, commerce, and the conservation of


GRAZING AND STOCK RAISING: a. Development of grazing and stock raising in the United States, including

(1) home pasturing, (2) breeding, and (3) herding. b. Extent and value of the industries. c. Grazing in the arid and semi-arid regions, considered with reference to

stock, including (1) cattle, (2) sheep, (3) goats, (4) horses and mules,

and (5) miscellaneous stock. d. Methods and results, including (1) selection of stock, (2) breeding, (3)

handling, and (4) marketing, with (5) capital, (6) prices, and (7)

profits and losses. e. Bearing of land laws on stock industries. f. Comparative cost and profit of grazing and other industries in different

regions. 9. Influence of stock raising on (1) pasturage, (2) conservation of soil, (3)

growth and use of forests, (4) farming, (5) prevention of floods and

maintenance of stream flow, and (6) rate of settlement.

h. Relation between stock raising and commerce.

a. Growth of transportation in the United States.
b. Rail transportation, including (1) number, distribution, and extent of

systems, (2) cost and present value, (3) traffic and earnings, (4)
capacity, (5) prospective capacity required in different sections, (6)
estimated cost of increasing railways to meet prospective require-

ments, and (7) estimated prospective cost of traffic. c. Water transportation, including (1) general statement of present facili

ties, (2) cost of water traffic, (3) pressing lines of development, and

(4) influence of water traffic on rail traffic. d. Terminals and their control. e. Relations between railway agencies and waterway agencies, including (1)

competition, (2) cooperation, and (3) regulation by business interests

or by law.
1. Necessity for waterway development to meet transportation require-

ments, as viewed by railway interests.
g. Influence of cheapened transportation on production.

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Q. Development of navigation in the United States, including (1) navigation

and commerce on rivers, bays, and lakes, (2) canal navigation and

commerce, and (3) maritime commerce.
b. Present water transportation systems.
c. Cost of water transportation, absolute and relative.
d. Modern decline of water transportation.
e. Utilization of waterways for (1) navigation, (2) power, (3) community

supply, and (4) irrigation.
f. Influence of navigation on production and the use of other resources,

including (1) reduced consumption of coal and wood, (2) reduced con-
sumption of iron, and (3) increased production of crops through

cheapened traffic.
a. Development of the use of water power, including (1) local use of small

streams, (2) local use of large streams, and (3) extension and use

through electric transmission.
b. Applications of power, in (1) milling, (2) general manufacturing, (3)

lighting and heating, and (4) propulsion.
c. Amount and cost of power in use in the United States, including (1) fuel-

power, (2) water power, and (3) power from other sources.
d. Rate of increase in the use of power, (1) past, and (2) prospective.
e. Current and prospective electrification of railways, including (1) cost of

substitution, and (2) economy of operation.
f. Electric propulsion of water craft.
9. Applicability of electrically transmitted power for shifting cargoes,

operating terminals, etc.
h. Use of water power on electrified railways, including estimates of (1) cost

of application, (2) economy of operation, (3) saving in consumption of
fuel, (4) saving in traffic, and (5) saving in plant, trackage, and rolling

i. Influence of the utilization of water power directly on the consumption of

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fuels and indirectly on the consumption of iron, copper, and other


j. Estimated amount and cost of development of water power in the United


a. Unity of American interests.
6. Interdependence of industries, especially (1) production (2) manufactures,

and (3) commerce, including transportation.
c. Natural bases of national development, (1) past, and (2) prospective.
d. Forecast of future population, production, commerce, and wealth, in the

light of international and historical relations.


This is primarily a conference of the Governors of the United States. In the interests of convenience, sessions have been arranged; and to bring out facts relating to the leading resources and start discussion along useful lines, the sessions will be opened with brief formal statements, limited to twenty minutes each. It is suggested that discussion be withheld at each session until the opening statements have been completed; and that the first opportunity for discussion be accorded to the Governors present.

MAY 12

7.45 p. m.-Meeting of the Governors and special guests with the President at dinner

in the White House.

MAY 13

10.00 a. m.-Assembling of Governors and their Advisors with other Conferees in the

East Room.

11.00 a. m.-Address by the President:

Conservation as a National Duty. 2.30 p. m.-Session on Mineral Resources

Opening Statements:

The Conservation of Ores and Related Minerals, by Andrew Carnegie
The Waste of Our Fuel Resources, by Dr I. C. White.

General Discussion, opened by John Mitchell. 7.30 p. m.-Meeting of Governors as guests of the Washington Board of Trade at

dinner in the New Willard Hotel.

MAY 14

10 00 a. m.-Session on Land Resources.

Opening Statements:

The Natural Wealth of the Land and its Conservation, by James J.

Soil Wastage, by Professor T. C. Chamberlain.
Forest Conservation, by R. A. Long

General Discussion. 2.30 p. m.-Session on Land Resources.

Opening Statements:

Resources related to Irrigation, by Ex-Governor George C. Pardee
Grazing and Stock Raising, by Hon. H. A. Jastro.

General Discussion, opened by Ex-Senator Carey. 9.00 p. m.-Reception to meet the Governors and the Inland Waterways Commission at the residence of Mr Gifford Pinchot, 1615 Rhode Island Avenue.


MAY 15

10.00 a. m.-Session on Water Resources.

Opening Statements:

Conservation of Life and Health by Improved Water Supply, by

Dr George M. Kober.
Navigation Resources of American Waterways, by Professor EmoryR.

Conservation of Power Resources, by H. S. Putnam

General Discussion. 2.30 p. m.-General Session. 4.00 p. m.- Mrs Roosevelt's Garden Party to the members of the Conference and

their ladies, in the White House grounds.

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