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deficient children whose needs can not be properly cared for in regular public schools.” (Cripples not expressly mentioned.) Children assigned to such classes must attend. The course of study in such classes shall be approved by the State board of education.

Quadrennial enumeration of crippled children implied from regular schoolcensus provision.

II. State regulation.—The course of study in special classes shall be approved by the State board of education.

III. State aid.-Authorized: The State is authorized to aid in the support of special classes or schools out of any available funds at its disposal.

Maryland

(1914 Laws, ch. 165)

I. Local aid.-Authorized: Where physical disability tending to prevent receiving full benefit of school work, or requiring modification of school work, or to prevent injury to child, or to secure best educational results, county boards of education are authorized to establish special classes and may employ additional teachers for this purpose. (Crippled children not specifically mentioned.) ! Biennial enumeration of such children implied from regular school-census provision.

II. State regulation.-None mentioned.
III. State aid.-None mentioned.

Massachusetts

(1904 Laws, ch. 446; 1907 Laws, ch. 226; 1924 Laws, ch. 344) I. Local aid. Required: When "such (crippled) children as have a legal settlement in a town” and who are in the State hospital the town corporation wherein such children reside is required to pay board not exceeding $6 per week for such children in State hospital.

Annual enumeration of crippled children is implied from regular school-census provision.

II. State regulation.-Crippled children are admitted to a State hospital school upon approval of trustees thereof.

III. State aid.Authorized: To admit crippled children to State hospital school upon application of any crippled child or parent or guardian.

Required: To maintain State hospital school for the education and care of crippled and deformed children.

To furnish tuition and board in said State school when not otherwise provided.

If any town with approval of department pays for high-school instruction of pupil of “physical disability" and unable to attend such school in another town the State is required to reimburse such town therefor under the same conditions and to the same amount as for tuition in such school and for transportation thereto, but not more than $100 a year in lieu of tuition plus $1.50 per week of actual instruction in lieu of transportation.

Michigan

(1923 Laws, Act 313; 1927 Laws, Act 236) 1. Local aid.-Authorized: District boards of education when not maintaining a special class for crippled children are authorized to pay tuition of any such children to a school maintaining such classes.

Required: Upon petition of parents or guardians of five or more crippled children, 6 and 20 years, who can not profitably or safely be educated with other classes, the district board of education shall establish and maintain one or more classes which shall be in rooms properly equipped and shall be maintained as long as five are in actual attendance.

If any crippled children are within any district separate instruction therefor must be provided.

District boards of education when maintaining one or more special classes shall report annually to the State superintendent showing itemized cost of such classes; and to include in annual budget sufficient sum to provide special service to such pupils, maintain said classes, and to pay teachers monthly.

County superintendents, upon receipt of reports from State showing crippled child in county, shall investigate and secure personal history of child, information as to environment and ability of parents or guardians to contribute financially to the cost of child's care, treatment, and education and report thereon to State superintendent.

The enumeration of crippled children under 21 years must be reported to State superintendent who shall forward such information by counties, to Michigan Crippled Children Commission, to the respective county superintendents, and to school superintendents of districts of 3,000 or more population; he may furnish copies to volunteer organizations doing work for crippled children.

II. State regulation.-Courses of study, methods of instruction, qualifications of teachers, and condition of their employment and equipment, must comply with State requirements.

Teachers must have special training, including those in hospital schools.

III. State aid.--Required: Where local district or city maintains separate classes approved by State superintendent such district or city is entitled to State reimbursement for expenditure for necessary special equipment and instruction the difference between the average per capita cost of instruction and equipment for other children in the first eight grades in said district and the average per capita cost of instruction in special classes; but the amount to be paid by the State shall not exceed $200 a year per pupil.

When it is deemed advisable by the State crippled children commission "hospital schools for academic instruction (including bedside teaching) and vocational training * * * shall be provided by Michigan Crippled Children Commission” in State university hospital and other hospitals of the State receiving such children.

When approved hospital schools are maintained the State is required to reimburse such institutions for necessary expenditures, but not to exceed $200 per annum for each child.

Minnesota

(1921 Laws, ch. 141 [G. S. 1923, sec. 2899))

I. Local aid.--Authorized: District school boards where there are five crippled children of school age and upon permission of the State commissioner of education may establish and maintain one or more special classes providing there shall be five or more in each class.

Annual enumeration of crippled children is implied from the regular schoolcensus provision.

II. State regulation.—Courses, instruction, supervision, employment of teachers, and equipment must comply with State requirements. Teachers must have usual requirements plus such special training as the commissioner of education may require. Nurses in such schools shall be registered and subject only to such additional examination as the commissioner of education may require.

III. State aid.Required: Where any district maintains a special class for crippled children the State shall pay annually $200 for necessary school expenses, including salary of teachers and nurses, transportation, special supplies and equipment, on account of each child instructed for nine months in such classes; a proportionate amount for less time.

Missouri

(1921 Laws, H. B. 214 [R. S. 1919, secs. 11147 to 11150]) I. Local aid.-Authorized: School boards in districts having 10 or more crippled children are authorized to provide appropriate instruction in special classes in elementary grades; to provide transportation to and from school.

Districts having fewer than 10 crippled children, and in which there is no accommodation in appropriate State establishment, may join in forming special classes.

Annual enumeration of crippled children is implied from the regular schoolcensus provision.

II. State regulation.—The State superintendent is authorized to inspect and approve special classes; and instruction in such classes must be approved by the State department.

III. State aid.— Authorized: Where no special class or instruction is provided for children under 16 who have not completed the eighth grade, the State is authorized to provide instruction through the State board of charities.

Required: If any district maintains a State-approved special class or classes, the State must pay $750 per annum for each teacher employed wholly in such instruction, but not more than two-thirds of the teacher's full salary shall be paid; provided the teacher is especially trained for such work, in accordance with requirements established by the State superintendent.

New Jersey

(1921 Laws, ch. 239; 1918 Laws, ch. 31 and 32; 1928 Laws, ch. 53 and 54)

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I. Local aid.-Authorized: Board of education, with the approval of the commissioner of education, may establish special classes in hospitals, convalescent homes, and other institutions, when eight or more physically handicapped children shall be available for such instruction. County and State moneys shall be available for such classes also in the same manner as provided by law for those special classes in the regular public schools

* Districts having any crippled children are authorized to provide transportation to and from school. Required: The board of education of every school district

shall provide special equipment and facilities adapted to the accommodation, care, physical restoration, and instruction of children of school age who are physically crippled to such an extent, or who possess such bodily deformities that they can not, in the opinion of an orthopedic surgeon of recognized standing, or of the director of medical inspection, or of the medical inspector erly accommodated and instructed in the classrooms regularly or usaully provided; such special facilities for crippled * * * shall include, when recommended or approved by the commissioner of education, (a) home-teaching,

* * be prop

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bedside instruction, and transportation; (b) the payment of tuition in and transportation to a special class for crippled children, or maintenance while being away from home to attend a special class in another district; and (c) scholarships in vocational and technical schools: Provided, That not less than five hours of individual home or bedside teaching shall be given each week and be considered equal to one school week's work in special classes or the regular school classes; and, if there are eight or more such crippled children in any district, the board of education thereof shall establish a special class or classes for their proper and adequate accommodation and instruction; provided that no class shall contain more pupils than shall be approved by the commissioner of education; And provided further, That the board of education

may, by arrangement with

another school district in this State provide for the accommodation and instruction of such crippled children in the special class or classes of such other district.

It is the duty of boards of education to make a register of “physically handicapped children from birth to 21 years” and forward a list of such annually to the commissioner of education.

Whenever any school district establishes a special class for crippled children the superintendent of county in which said district is situated shall, in his annual apportionment of school moneys, apportion to said district $500 for each teacher of such class.

Whenever a home teacher for physically handicapped pupils is furnished as provided by law, the county superintendent shall apportion in same manner for such teacher an amount to be approved by the commissioner of education.

If any crippled child attends special class in nonresident district with approval of district in which child is resident, the superintendent of county shall apportion to the latter district $25 for every such child.

II. State regulation.—The commissioner of education is authorized to recommend and approve equipment facilities and method of instruction employed in instructing crippled children. Compliance with State minimum standard requirements is necessary for State aid.

III. State aid.-Authorized: None mentioned.

Required: Whenever the cost of educating crippled children exceeds that of educating same number of normal children, the district shall be entitled to State reimbursement for one-half of such excess cost; provided that the commissioner of education shall order State money withheld from any district failing to comply with law and State minimum standards.

New York

(1917 Laws, ch. 559, Amended by 1925 Laws, ch. 227) I. Local aid.-Authorized: Any city or district board of education is authorized to contract with incorporated schools (incorporated under State laws) or with another board of education for the education of crippled children in special classes.

If there are fewer than 10 crippled children in any city or district school corporation, the said corporation may furnish suitable educational facilities by means of home teaching or transportation to school. Individual needs shall determine which service shall be rendered.

Required: Any city or district school corporation having 10 or more crippled children is required to establish special classes necessary to provide instruction adapted to the mental attainments and physical conditions; unless there exists, or may hereafter be established in the district, a suitable incorporated school adequate to provide special instruction.

Annual enumeration of crippled children is implied from the regular schoolcensus provision.

II. State regulation. Teachers must be qualified to teach special classes. Certification to teach such classes or qualification prescribed by the commissioner of education is a condition upon which State aid is granted.

III. State aid.-Required: If any school board establishes one or more special classes and employs one or more teachers approved by the State for that purpose the commissioner of education shall apportion in the same manner as teachers quotas, amount equal to one-half the salary paid to each said teacher but not to exceed $1,000 per teacher.

Ohio

(1925 Laws, H. B. 119 (sec. 7755 to 7761 of G. C.))

1. Local aid.--Authorized: When any resident crippled child attends special class or instruction in another district the district of which the child is a resident may pay tuition to the district in which the class is located equal to that for a child of normal needs of the same school grade; also transportation.

Required: Upon direction of the director of education school districts are required (1) to pay transportation and tuition of crippled child attending special instruction outside of district; (2) to arrange for home teaching of any crippled child not able with the help of transportation to be assembled in school, counting five hours of such teaching equal to attendance of one child five days at school.

Upon petition of parents or guardians of eight crippled children over 5 years the school district shall apply to the director of education for permission to establish a special class, and if such is granted, shall establish such class by beginning of the next school year. If the district board fails to perform its duty, the county board of education may do so.

Where any child is unable to walk to school transportation shall be provided. In case of a dispute whether any child is unable to walk to school, the district health commissioner shall be the judge.

II. State regulation.--The director of education shall select some competent person or persons to inspect all special classes once a year and to report conditions; prescribe standard requirements of classes or instruction entitled to State reimbursement, including conditions, methods of instruction, supervision, qualification of teacher, special equipment, etc.

III. State aid. Required: Upon receipt by and approval of the director of education of financial statement from district maintaining special classes and instruction, the State shall pay to such district the cost of said classes and instruction, minus the cost of instruction of the same number of normal children but not to exceed $300 per pupil for nine months, and a proportionate amount for less time.

Oregon

(1923 Laws, ch. 88)

I. Local aid.Authorized: If there is reported one or more crippled children in any school district, the school board thereof shall set aside, in the annual budget, a crippled children's fund equal to the per capita cost of educating said crippled children, to be used to promote education, civic and vocational intelligence,

? The school board is authorized to make such arrangements for the instruction of crippled children as it may deem to their best advantage, and the law does not restrict them to the place where such instruction may be given. (Opinion of the attorney general, Nov. 20, 1924.)

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