Barlow, Milton, chief steward, St. Joe Lead Co., Herculaneum plant.-.-.
Blacksher, Mrs. Martha, schoolteacher, Madison, Ill. -----
Bogle, James H., chairman, St. Louis, Mo., Air Conservation Commission,

Jefferson City, Mo.--
Cervantes, Hon. A. J., mayor, City of St. Louis, Mo..
Commoner, Barry, director, Center for the Biology of Natural Systems,

Washington University, St. Louis, Mo...
Copley, Charles M., Jr., air pollution control commissioner, St. Louis, Mo.

Dessert, Louis C., Jr., chairman, environmental committee, Chemical

Industry Council of Greater St. Louis.-

Drey, Leo A., president, Coalition for the Environment-St. Louis Region.

Dyer, Gerald, graduate engineer--

Eagleton, Hon. Thomas F., member, Subcommittee on Public Works and

chairman, St. Louis field hearing: Opening remarks.


Flance, Dr. I. Jerome, associate director, Department of Medicine, St.

Louis Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, Mo..

Francis, Mrs. Jean, chairman, Citizens for Clean Air, Granite City, Ill..

French, Robert F., chief, Bureau of Air Pollution Control, Division of

Sanitary Engineering, Illinois Department of Public Health, Springfield,


Gates, Dr. David M., director, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Mo.-

Green, Lewis, C., former chairman of the Air Conservation Commission of


Hardy, Robert, news director KMOX Radio, St. Louis, Mo..
Hausch, Mrs. Henry, a director of the Metropolitan Council of the League

of Women Voters...
Hungate, Hon. William L., a Representative in Congress from the Ninth

Congressional District of the State of Missouri..

Kahn, Alfred, vice president, Coalition for the Environment-St. Louis


Keehner, Jim D., assistant attorney general, State of Illinois, and chief of

the attorney general's Southern Illinois Air and Water Pollution Control


Kerstetter, Mrs. J. H., chairman, Citizens' Clean Air Committee, St.

Louis, Mo..

Kester, Bruce E., director of research, Missouri Portland Cement Co., and

president of the Industrial Waste Council .-

Kickham, Michael F., member, Missouri Air Conservation Commission,

Florissant, Mo.

King, Richard, member, Teamsters Local 688.

Knight, Britton K., resident, Granite City, Ill.

Kohn, Dr. Robert E., assistant professor of economics, Southern Illinois

University, Edwardsville, and member, scientific division, Committee

for Environmental Information..

Kuster, Mrs. Richard E., American Association of University Women,

Missouri State Division, St. Louis, Mo.---

Lanter, Mrs. Carole, co-chairman, Citizens for Clean Air, Granite City,


Mann, William L., director, Environmental Health Department, National

Lead Co.-

McLaughlin, John F., member of the board of directors, Industrial Waste

Control Council, St. Louis, Mo.--.

Moon, Harry A., manager, titanium division, National Lead Co.

Meisner, James E., on behalf of the South County Citizens for Better















Pace, James, director, Community Action, Teamsters Local 688.
Price, Hon. Melvin, a Representative in Congress from the 24th Congres-

sional District of the State of Illinois...

Rockoff, Dr. S. David, chairman, executive committee, Lung Specialists

of St. Louis Against Air Pollution.-

Roesch, James, executive secretary, Illinois Citizens' Clean Air League...
Roos, Lawrence K., supervisor of St. Louis County, Mo.----
Ryckman, Dr. D. W., P.E., on behalf of the Consulting Engineers Council

of the U.S.A.

Shell, Harvey, acting executive director, Missouri Air Conservation Com-

mission, Jefferson City, Mo.---

Slavin,_Dr. Raymond, chairman, Air Pollution Committee, Committee

for Environmental Information, and assistant professor of internal

medicine, St. Louis University, St. Louis, Mo.-

Stites, Joseph G., manager, Air Pollution Control Department, Monsanto

Co., St. Louis, Mo...
Symington, Hon. James W., a Representative in Congress from the Second

Congressional District of the State of Missouri.-
Symington, Hon. Stuart, a U.S. Senator from the State of Missouri.
Tudor, Dr. William J., Southern Illinois University -
Worley, Kenneth L., director, Region 5, UAW-
Yoder, Franklin D., M.D., director of the Illinois Department of Public

Health and member of the Illinois Air Pollution Control Board, Spring-

field, Ill..
Zielinski, Raymond S., mayor, City of Bellefontaine Neighbors, Mo.--

Dialogs: Bob Hardy, KMOX, and Dr. Bertram Carnow, professor of pre-

ventive medicine, University of Illinois College of Medicine..

“Do You Want Clean Air?” advertisement, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Mar.

9, 1967_.

Editorials delivered by Robert Hyland, vice president, CBS, and general

manager, KMOX radio..

“Emphysema Profile in Two Mid-Western Cities in North America,

study read before ninth AMA Air Pollution Medical Research Conference,

Denver, July 24, 1968.--.
Excerpts from letters received by radio station KMOX, St. Louis, Mo.,

commenting on August air inversion --

Fact sheet on air pollution control in St. Louis County--

Interim air pollution alert plan for the St. Louis area adopted by the Air

Pollution Technical Coordinating Committee---

Lung specialists of St. Louis against air pollution: List submitted by Dr.


Muskie, Hon. Edmund S.: Letter dated October 21, 1969, to Senator


National Lead Co. in St. Louis—description.-
“New Pollution Control Can Pay for Itself,'' advertisement from St. Louis

Post-Dispatch, March 9, 1967 regarding burning of low-sulfur coal..
Review of high pollution episode in St. Louis metropolitan area, August 25–

28, 1969: Material developed by National Air Pollution Administration

at request of Senator Eagleton..

“Saving the World the Ecologist's Way,” by Robert W. Strock, article

from New York Times Magazine, Sunday, October 5, 1969, placed in

record by Senator Eagleton.--


APPENDIX I: “Opinion Split on Method To Handle Smog Crises," by

E. F. Porter, Jr.: Article from St. Louis Post-Dispatch, October 12, 1969

APPENDIX II: Air Conservation Law, revised 1967, Missouri Air Conserva-

tion Commission.-

APPENDIX III: Air Quality Standards and Air Pollution Control Regula-

tions for the St. Louis Metropolitan Area.-

APPENDIX IV: Article from the Wall Street Journal, October 21, 1969, by









Thomas Lindley Ehrich, submitted for record by Senator Eagleton...

APPENDIX V: Letters and communications submitted by Senator Eagleton..







St. Louis, Mo. The subcommittee met at 9 a.m. in assembly room No. 1, Kiel Auditorium, St. Louis, Mo., Senator Thomas F. Eagleton, presiding.

Present: Senator Eagleton.

Staff present: Leon G. Billings, professional staff member, and Tom C. Jorling, counsel for the minority.

Senator EAGLETON. Good morning, ladies and gentlemen.

The Subcommittee on Air and Water Pollution of the Senate Public Works Committee is now in session.

I have certain introductory remarks to make before we hear from the witnesses.

First off let me introduce the gentlemen to my left and my right. To my left is Mr. Leon Billings who is the professional staff member to the Senate Subcommittee on Air and Water Pollution. To my right is Mr. Tom Jorling, the minority counsel to the committee.

Senator Ed Muskie, of Maine, who is the chairman of this subcommittee, could not be with us today. He has two bills, of which he is the principal sponsor, on the floor of the U.S. Senate this afternoon and hence his presence is required in Washington. He did write a letter to me expressing his interest in these hearings and I would like to read for the record one paragraph from Senator Muskie's letter dated October 21, 1969. Senator Muskie says:

I hope that you will take this opportunity to examine the adequacy of the regional alert system, the progress in developing air quality standards, the extent and value of public participation in developing meaningful air quality goals, the intergovernmental relationship developed to assure effective implementation of air quality standards in a multijurisdictional interstate area, and the need for any additional Federal legislation to assure maximum interim public health protection during the standards development period.

I think in that one paragraph Senator Muskie has adroitly summed up some of the key points that we wish to inquire into today, and has by inference addressed himself to some of the key problems which may pertain to air quality control in the St. Louis metropolitan area. The full letter of Senator Muskie will now be made part of the record. (Senator Muskie's letter follows:)



Washington, D.C., October 21, 1969.
U.S. Senate,
Washington, D.C.

DEAR TOM: I want to thank you for agreeing to preside during the Subcommittee's hearing on air pollution problems in the St. Louis area. As you know conflicts in my schedule prohibit my attendance at this time.

I have reviewed the material which you have developed since the air pollition episode in St. Louis on August 25 through 28. The causes and severity of the episode, the precautions taken to lessen its intensity, the resultant adverse health effects and action now being taken to prevent recurrence are questions of broad national interest.

The Great St. Louis metropolitan area provides a classical insight into interstate urban-industrial air pollution problems. For this reason the Subcommittee held hearings in the area before enactment of the Air Quality Act of 1967. Now, because of the recent air pollution episode the Subcommittee has a unique opportunity to investigate the potential usefulness of that legislation in avoiding recurrence of this type of environmental crisis.

I hope that you will take this opportunity to examine the adequacy of the regional alert system, the progress in developing air quality standards, the extent and value of public participation in developing meaningful air quality goals, the intergovernmental relationship developed to assure effective implementation of air quality standards in a multijurisdictional interstate area, and the need for any additional Federal legislation to assure maximum interim public health protection during the standards development period.

I look forward to any comments and recommendations as a result of this hearing Sincerely,

EDMUND S. MUSKIE, Chairman, Subcommittee on Air and Water Pollution. Senator EAGLETON. In the nature of housekeeping, but terribly important in light of the fact that we have an enormous number of witnesses to hear from, I must state, as all these witnesses have been told in advance, that their presentation before questioning will be strictly limited to 10 minutes. I know this may sound abrupt, indeed perhaps to some it may be rude, but it is necessitated by the time limit that we have with us. We will then question each witness after his presentation. Each witness may put into the record extended remarks over and beyond that which he verbally articulates, but his initial presentation will be limited to 10 minutes. We have a clock or some kind of mechanism down here that will make a very distasteful noise at the end of 10 minutes.

I also wish to announce that the record of this hearing will remain open for 2 additional weeks. This means again that any witness here present who wish to expand on his remarks may do so in writing. Any witnesses, who do not have the opportunity to appear in person today because of time or because of inability to be physically present, may by letter, memorandum or whatever, send their comments and suggestions to us in Washington and they will be made part of the record in the appendix of the printed record of this hearing.

Now, I would like to read a short statement on my own behalf and we will then call our first witness.



Two months ago the St. Louis area was blanketed for 4 days by what some have called a shroud, a thick covering of noxious polluted air.

The pollution episode of late August was, fortunately, a temporary condition. However, the pollutants that filled the air during that period are anything but a passing phenomenon. They continue to be emitted daily through the St. Louis area and a recurrence of a similar set of meteorological circumstances would inevitably recreate yet another shroud.

The Senate Subcommittee on Air and Water Pollution has the responsibility for developing Federal legislation to help curb pollution, but it also has the duty of legislative oversight, of following up on legislation that is enacted to see whether it is effective, how it is being administered, whether it is being properly implemented.

This hearing serves the purpose of legislative oversight. The Air Quality Act of 1967 provides a mechanism for the establishment of jurisdictionally manageable air quality regions and for the development and enforcement of air quality standards within those regions. The St. Louis metropolitan area and some counties on the Illinois side comprise one of those regions. We need to know what progress has been made with the rather complicated interstate and multijurisdictional arrangements that are necessary if standards of air quality are to be developed and enforced uniformly throughout this and other urban areas.

We need also to discover what impact the Air Quality Act has had on industry. Are realistic plans for reducing industrial emissions being made and implemented by major industries or are they simply following a course of delay and avoidance? And if so, what steps have the responsible Government agencies taken to counter foot dragging, if such exists.

This hearing will also serve the purpose of laying the groundwork for new legislation. The Air Quality Act will expire next year, and already I have been working with Senator Muskie and other members of the subcommittee in an effort to determine what form extending legislation should take.

Is a simple extension of the present act enough, or are there substantive amendments needed? Is additional Federal legislation necessary to assure maximum interim public health protection during the current period in which standards are being developed ?

This hearing should provide information leading to the answers to these and other relevant questions. Questions such as those asked by Senator Muskie in his letter to me. The record we make here will be spread before the subcommittee and the full Senate Committee on Public Works so that the entire Nation can profit from the experience in St. Louis and by the information we gather from this experience.

I thank you for your attendance and participation here today and welcome your statements and comments.

I would like to include in the record at this point certain information prepared at my request by the National Air Pollution Control Administration. This data should assist in establishing the perspec

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