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away; which in this bustling, hurrying, money of mid-day. On Sunday they attend two Sunseeking, hard-working, sunburning country, he day Schools: one at 10 o'clock and one at 11; must often be. We have every prospect, thank then preaching at three; so that there we all God, of a fine harvest ; and now, for å first day, dine, and are only home to tea, which we enjoy I think I have scribbled a great deal, so my very much after the day. We are obliged to be dear new journal, as they say in the letters from up early during this weather, as from twelve “the same to the same,” in old novels, “ adieu o'clock until evening we can do nothing. I am for the present."

sure the heat in the kitchen is up to 100°. Dick 21st.-In our primitive society we some

and Johnnie are both obliged to give up school times, I must confess (perhaps the more readily these busy times, as my husband is reaping, and just now as it touches mysell), meet ingratitude they are both endeavouring to assist him. I as shameless as we could possibly do in the found a copy to-day among my letters of a wonmost refined. I have heard of people being derful production of Dick's, in the shape of a “polished out of their veracity," but it certainly letter to dear K—, and as this journal is all does not seem to require any degree of cultiva- my own, I will feast my motherly old eyes by tion to render some persons very unthankful. copying it, lest the valuable original should be All this is apropos to the conduct of a young lost. It is his first epistle to anyone, and cost man who arrived here some twelve-months ago, him, I remember, an infinite amount of time and came direct to us, as we had known some and trouble, as it was to be warranted all his of his friends many years back. He was utterly own composition: helpless, as he knew nothing about colonial life ; was without money or suitable clothing; and "MY DEAR AUNT Kbeing the youngest and pet of his family, was « I

am very glad to write to you. Mamma correspondingly idle and self-indulgent. We bids me tell you I am a great rough boy, and did all we could for him, lodged bim with our- she fears you will say I ought to be a better selves, and I did everything for him as if he scholar. But I am not at school as often as was my brother, taking his part even against Willie; I must help papa, and Willie is too my husband when his indolence and stupidity delicate to help him. Willie got the prize at got him into trouble. Yet the return we get the examination at school: he has a pony to ride now for all is, that when he has been shamed by to school : we all get him ready for him. Papa the example of others, even children, into some

took us to the cattle-show: mamma came: we little industry, and likely to be useful saw a beautiful white bull—such a big fellow ! during the coming season, he has just set out 80 fat he could scarcely move! A man held for the diggings, like any rough bushman, with him by a ring passed through his nose. He his blanket slung over his shoulder; and to was called after the governor, Sir Henry Barkly. make the matter worse, in company with one Then there were such great big horses! One of the most idle, good-for-nothing loafers in great one was called "The Royal Oak;” another Victoria. I tried to persuade him not to go, “Lothian Tam;" and a great ram was called and represented all the sufferings and disap-Billy." He was too lazy to stand, and lay pointments almost certainly before him, but in quite snug all day. His little lambs were in the vain; he evidently, with the cunning of a next pen. I was very glad to hear all their narrow mind, thought I was merely speaking names, as they will do nicely for our chickens. for my own benefit, and only became more de- We have so many we could not think of names termined on going. I am sure I wish him for them all. Then we went to see the poultry. success. But to one conclusion the whole thing There were fowls of all countries; there were has brought me, viz., that there is no convinc. French fowls, with their feathers turned the ing a fool; because (to quote two lines, and wrong way; Poland fowls, with great big top alter one word for the occasion) from a rather knots ; Spanish fowls, with white faces and strongly expressed political ballad, in high fa- great long red combs falling over their heads ; vour some years back in green Erin,

pretty Guinea-fowls, and little Bantams, geese,

and turkeys. Mamma has twenty-four Guinea“Like reeds on a harness of brass

fowl of her own : they are very pretty, but very Falls a volley of sense on the skull of an ass.”

noisy. It was very nice to see them all at the But in my present mood I had better lay by my show, dear Aunt; but I think they were very pen, or I may write what I should afterwards glad to get out of their coops and run about very much regret to read-as, indeed, I fear I again. We were caught in a thunder-storm, have done already.

but got home safely. I was not afraid. Frank 27th.-It has been insufferably hot here for and Kate told me to give you all the kisses the the past week. I lay on the bed all noon yester- | letter would hold. day, with only the lightest garments on; but the climate is so variable that to-day is quite cool,

“R. H. -" and I had to pat on several. I pitied the children those days back going to school, to There: I hope K- was interested in all which they have to walk two miles; but as they his

I forwarded the composition are off at half-past eight in the morning, take to her, with few editorial remarks, dinner with them, and do not get back before which only his mother could supply. He had six in the afternoon, they escape the intense heat to write it at intervals, as his father called him

« Your own,

news.

at one time to look after the cattle; at another | vation, For farmers especially 'this is a to belp cut chaff; and again when the horses wretched place, the money goes as fast as it is were wanted, they bad got mixed with another got in wages, or otherwise on the land. My "mob" (as they say here), and he had to assist husband, for instance, can hardly understand in separating thein; so that, on the whole, the how I require anythiog for clothes for the poor fellow's first efforts at correspondence were children, and sometimes accuses me of extravamade under difficulties. How I wish my dear gance, although every penny I can lay iny hand Willie was as strong as he is! But he was very on goes to keep them neat (I have long since poorly all the last winter, and with such a hack given up all thought of finery), and make everying cough.

He is better again now, and thing they wear. So, whoever comes here, it is touching to see the thoughtful attention leaving a comfortable bome, expecting to drop of the other healthy noisy children to him, easily into another, or, baving won the very sparing him every little trouble and exertion best here, hopes to find it even within many they can. How can I be otherwise than happy degrees of the old one, must inevitably be disand grateful while they are spared to me, so appointed. This is the dark side, however ; loving and so good!

and as, go where we will, we cannot have everyFeb. 22nd.-- What a trilling incident occasions thing we wish for, so, I have confessed to a sensation in the Bush! Here were the boys myself, there are as many good things to be met and young ones all excitement, and I must with here as elsewhere. To set up a school it acknowledge myself a little fluttered, all because would be advantageous to bring out a piano : a new thrashing-inachine was brought home they are very dear here. If not required after a this evening, and between looking at them time, it would sell at a very good profit. trying it, asking news from Melbourne, and Chimney and table ornaments are expensive, and getting supper and beds for the men who seldom thought of in this colony. Knives, brought it, we were all pleasant confusion. So spoons, forks, table and bed linen, as well as inuch so, indeed, that I am going to bed quite blankets, all necessary for setting up a board late, and cannot write any more just now. ing-school, are best brought from home, as here

25th. A lull after the last two days' bustle. It they would cost a small fortune. The latter is strange how often I am consulted by people would be found particularly useful as the cold at home about coming out here. I had a letter of winter in this climate much exceeds that in last mail from a lady, well educated but now the old country. In short everything likely to reduced in circumstances, as to her chance add to the comfort and nice appearance of a of success if she came bringing with her about house that would pack in a small space, should one hundred and thirty pounds; her object be brought out, as people here think more of being to establish a good school. She is a eating and drinking than they do of what we Ronan Catholic, and I think she would suc- were accustomed to consider the indispensable ceed if supported by that body. I know very comforts and conveniences of life, and which little of them, but I know that priests are very I, for my part, still cling to and value as scarce here. Father H--, the priest of Q- much as ever. My friend in writing to me having no assistant, although his district in says, “I am rather subject to bronchitis :" here, cludes a circuit of thirty miles, and for that if so, she would have the advantage of getting space the greater proportion of the population completely rid of it. I am sure if I had reis Roman Catholic and Irish. I have heard mained in C--, I should by this time suffer it said that he is much respected by all deno- from asthma, a tendency to which, I inherit minations, and that a school for his district is from my mother, but in this place I have not a much wanted. I have told her so, giving her trace of it. the dark and the light side of the question; she 27th.-I have just been alarmed by a must herself try and strike the main. But succession of shouts from my husband, who is Catholic, Protestant, or Dissenting ladies who doing something to the new machine in the come bere with the intention of setting up a barn. I ran off and met the servant running boarding or day-school, must not expect to find also, and reached him out of breath, fancying their pupils among the colonial aristocracy with everything but what was really the matter, and the same manners which mark the "Lady Clare found him standing over an immense snake de Clares” of the genuine aristocracy at home. which he held to the ground with a spade, not Their pupils will be of every age; great, over. daring to move until the girl killed it with an dressed girls, who do not know the first letter of axe. The boys killed several this season. Kate the alphabet from the last : in fact, what we stepped on one twice, but (thank God) escaped would consider at home to be of the very lowest uninjured. It is a pity they are so dangerous. class; but, with plenty of money and fine They are very pretty, shading ioto the most clothes, they think themselves good enough, lovely colours, violet, rose, green, silver, and so nay, occasionally too good to associate with any. on; they are sometimes nearly six feet long, one. So much for the pupils : now for the and as thick as a man's wrist. These are the country. People sometimes write or speak full-grown ones, others are not larger than eels; about this “fine golden land”—what a mis- but all are venomous, and if the part bitlen is nomer! Money is often as scarce here as it is not very quickly cauterized or cut out, the bite at home, and never obtained, except by a fortu- 1 is always deadly. They are usually found in nate few, but by very hard work and great pri- ' grass or low scrub. The diamond snake is very beautiful, but though it was hoped that Mr. N--, a man of large family, his children all kinds of them would vanish before culti. about the ages of mine. He was a garvation, they do not seem to be doing so. I often dener, and at one time in independent wish St. Patrick would do for us what he did circumstances, but had latterly taken to drink ; for old Ireland, and drive them all away: it would and although not constantly in the habit of inbe a great blessing to us poor settlers with dulging so porniciously, he would never return young families. man

from town on market days without spending March 5th. We had a very severe winter the greater part of his money. This fact bad, and spring, the rain was almost continuous, and of course, its effect on domestic affairs, so that consequently our wheat crop this harvest was gradually he got into debt, and, to crown all, the quite spoiled. All the wheat in the district, to 108s of his wheat crop this year was

a very be sure, shared the same fate; but I, with the serious one; but to come to the end--the upusual selfishness of buman nature, speak of my happy end of his career. He went to Y--a own loss first. My husband burned ours a few days ago, and did not return till night. week ago as it stood, to the value of two hund. His poor wife and children sat up for him, and, red and sixty pounds (or at least we had hoped it after a weary watching, they at last heard the would make as much for us in the beginning of the dray coming rather fast down the hill which year), as it would not pay for the labour of cut- leads to their house. Mrs. N- took out a ting it down. I was cowardly enough to spend lantern in order to let down the rails, which that day at the Mapse with our dear clergy. we use here in place of gates, and so admit him man's wife, as I did not like to see so much of into the yard ; but the horse he drove being a our hard-worked-for gain destroyed. How. young one, something had probably startled him ever, He who saw fit to deprive us of one has before, and it is not unlikely that his master had blessed us in our other crops, the oats, though drunk sufficient to render him reckless, for he partly injured by caterpillars, are very good, either did not or could not hold the animal in, and the potatoes promise fairly; so that, on the and on seeing the light he ran right off, and whole, I am ready to say with my dear gifted as unfortunately our bush roads are full of fallen and lamented friend, Mrs. James Gray, timber, the dray was upset on a log and poor

N- thrown out, and the guard-iron thrown “Let us be thankful that we have so many right across the lower part of his body. In Blessings left."

this state his wife discovered him, not thirty

yards from bis own house. With superhuman What makes the loss of the wheat the more strength she managed to drag him out, and her felt is, it is the first year of the new farm for son and the farm-servant coming up, they got a which we pay rent, and the crop was in full ear door and took him home, where he lived froin and promised a most luxuriant yield when it was Saturday night until Monday morning in the attacked with rust, which prevented the grain greatest agony. I went to see him on Sun. from ripening and shrivelled it to nothing." We day. Poor fellow, he was so glad to see me. I shall be thrashing this week, and I heartily knew he was dying then, though they would wish it well over, as we shall have twenty-four not believe it. He retained his senses to the men, in addition to our own family of twelve, to last, and was constantly attended by our dear cook for, which, considering that they are to minister. Mrs. N-sent for me when he died, have four meals a-day, will be notrifle. Beside, and I stayed with her the two days he lay tbere. Dick has not been at school since Christmas : Looking on at the kindness of all the people he is nearly as useful as a man at farm work; about, I could not help thinking what a beaubut I fret that he is not a better scholar, yet tiful world this would be were it not for sin considering everything, he has done a great there is even now so much goodness in it. The deal. My Willie continues very well : I fear he settlers gathered from far and near-for as our will monopolize all the learning of the family, as farms are large, of course we live at great dishe is nearly constantly reading.

tances from each other; and, though busy 22nd.--I had a letter from a friend of mine times for them all, they did not seem to mind it. lately come out, enclosing a pretty necktie, as a Our storekeeper, a young man one would be present to me. I should be delighted to have inclined to call rough, supplied refreshments her visit me, but the expense of the journey during the whole time. One friend brought would be too much. However, I do not mourning for the children ; another necessaries despair of seeing her yet, as she is equally for the house; and, as for the men, they thought anxious to meet me.

no distance too far to travel for the poor widow. May 24th.—This month is very cold, and The doctor, the coroner, and her brother-inthis morning very frosty, but very fine. The law lived in y, a distance of ten miles treacherous white-faced sun is shining brightly from her home, yet horsemen were not wanting while I sit writing, with feet on footstool beside to go for them. The worst part was also unthe fire, and an improvised desk in the shape of dertaken and got through for her, which was a large book on my knee; but even if it were the the putting him in the coffin, which, in conheight of summer, as trouble of any kind chille sequence of the inquest, could not be done unul me, I should be cold now, as a very unhappy the ond day, when the body-but I will not occurrence has just taken place. I had since enter into details, sufficient that the two stout I ca ne to live here two friends, one being a men who managed it were very ill after, and we

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could not even enter the house for some days. of desponding madness, took his own life. Ab, Many a kind heart beat during this sad time these are indeed dark pages in (Bush Life : under a rough exterior-nor has the kindness God grant that their number may be few! It worn itself out yet. Although a gardener, he was Mrs. N—'s son who found him: the boy also held a large farm, which he cultivated, and was sent to borrow a pair of harrows very early which was his principal means of living; so, after in the morning, and when he opened the door his funeral, his neighbours held a meeting to see of the house there lay our poor friend, moaning. what could be done for his family. The mother The boy, frightened, ran to the farm-servant to being a most industrious woman, they decided ask what was the matter with the Captain. on ploughing her ground for her, wbich is now The man went to learn, as he had left him quite done, all to a few acres; so I think the poor well, and immediately discovered that he had woman will get on pretty well. I shall miss shot himself. It seems that he had got up at the very much : he

al kind, daybreak, made a large fire, dressed for work, obliging neighbour ; he taught me all I know and called his man to prepare the horses ; he of gardening, planted my fruit-trees, and pruned then laid down the horse-feed, returned to the them yearly for me. It is a great relief that all house, and committed the rash act. It must the sad bustle is over: I feel quite worn out. have been the impulse of a moinent, as he does

June 7th.-The last entry in this journal was not seem to have meditated it before. And now a sad one, but this will prove much worse. we have lost two old friends thus sadly. We Tears are in my eyes as I write the name of dear will miss them for a long time : they were Captain R--. During Mrs. N--'s troubles certain to come over on wet days, and stay he was the foremost to help her : bis plough chatting to my husband. How awfully they was first on the land, and now he lies in an un- have been cut off! I am too depressed to write hallowed grave! I can hardly bring myself to any more just now, so will stop for the present. record his dreadful fate. He was poor N-'s

(To be concluded in our next.) near neighbour, and the very first acquaintance we had here that grew into intimacy. Before he settled here he had been captain of a steamer, but came out first from Europe in command of the emigrant ship in which the N-8 came as passengers. He unfortunately, after a

VISITATIONS-A SONNET. time, thought fit to give up the sea, and took a farm here, where he settled with an only son. They soon, however, disagreed so seriously, that the son went to the diggings, and the father lived alone. About three years ago he had a The mind's great doors are opened wide sometimes, splendid crop, and with the money made by it, And grand processions enter silent there, he speculated largely; but, unluckily, since then Mount to the council chambers swept out fair the seasons proved very unproductive, and he

From all defilements and unholy slimes; could never recover himself: he was forced to

Then on the silence break ecstatic chimes raise a mortgage on bis farm, and this year the total loss of his wheat, which was his principal

Which fill the soul with music! Earthly care crop, preyed sadly on his mind. He was a Shrinks pale and shrivelled in the ether rare, very sensitive and nervous as well as a highly But dies not-waiting for less lustrous times. honourable man. Ours, and one other family,

Alas ! too soon returns life's fitful hour the only intimate friends he had,

When the soul's grandeur fades, its music rests, and he usually spent the Sunday with one or the other of us; but, as my husband is so

And yet the echoes vibrate—and a dower much away from home, I saw nothing of the Of fragrance, lingering incense like, attests Captain for nearly a fortnight, and was getting The vanished glory, telling of the power quite anxious about him, as I knew he was Of those Anointed Lords who were the guests. dreadfully uneasy about some, bills he had to meet, and for which he found it impossible to provide funds; when, to my utter horror one morning a week since, all the children came VERBAL INSTRUCTION.- Boys of tender age gain crowding to my bedside, exclaiming, "Mamma, more from verbal instruction than from books. A mamma, Captain R-has shot himself !” And man speaks with more sympathy than he writes; and 80 it was; my kind, warm-hearted friend had the tone of voice, expression of feature and gesture, suffered trouble to press on his mind so as to convey meanings which are not to be expressed by exclude the light of reason, and, in a moment words alone.-English Journal of Education.

BY MRS. NEWTON CROSLAND,

were

IGNEOUS ACTION IN THE EARTH.

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In our number of October last,* we found from the surface, is sufficient to fuse a great occasion to say that the theories started by Mr. portion of our rocks, but if this heat were perH. P. Malet in his new pages of natural history, petually working outwards it would not act on "promise to have important effects upon the an exhaustible source, for the earth would be opinions current with naturalists." In our perpetually melting, perpetually ejecting, and February number we called attention to another perpetually sinking. When any ejection of work on geological subjectst by the same author. molten matter takes place, it is a vitrified subSince reading these we bave endeavoured to cull stance very similar to glass. Mr. Forbes tells from contemporary papers or periodicals, such Mr. Malet that there are different sorts of lava, materials as bear upon the subjects touched on one like granite, and one similar to basalt in by Mr. Malet. On consulting the Advanced chemical compositions; and we find from the Text-book, by Page, we find at p. 116, “Res. same paper (Athenæum above quoted), that the pecting the origin of the pyrogenous rocks, or lava of Vesuvius “is in chemical constitution rather the cause of igneous action, with all its allied to a Staffordshire iron-furnace slag." attendant phenomena of volcanoes, earthquakes, Thus then our furnaces and our volcanoes send and other subterranean movements, geologists are forth slag or lava as their light overboiling subby no means agreed." The two great causes stances; if the action of volcanoes is similar to bave been supposed to be the chemical and that of furnaces, then their heavier fused submechanical. With the latter only do we now pro- stances would subside as the metal subsides bepose to interest ourselves, and we hope our low the furnace slag; and if the theory of Mr. readers. There are few subjects more engrossing Malet is correct, page 209, 210,

“ Circle of to the whole race of intelligent, educated buman Light,"'. as I do not think volcanic action beings, than a right understanding of the existed till the water had buried masses of inorganization of the world we live upon. Theory flammable matter," then there are two great on theory has been expounded with all the zeal truths involved in his hypothesis. One is,

that and partisanship of so exciting a subject ; and the lava ejected from volcanoes is nothing more though the apparent intention of all writers has than the slag issuing from the earthy or rocky been to discover and lay down the truth, yet substances which fall under the influence of the the book before us, which is a compilation from volcanic heat; the other, and a far more the opinions of the most scientific men upon interesting one to the struggling mass of the subject, tells us that they cannot agree! Page humanity upon earth, is that within our volcanic continues bis subject by supposing as one of mountains vast

amounts of tolerably pure the mechanical causes for the production of metallic substance would be found. Confessing igneous rocks, "that the interior of the globe is our inability to understand why lava of many

a state of high incandescence or molten aspects and compositions should be discharged fluidity;" and then, as that which is called the from volcanoes at one time, and why granite, crust cools and contracts, he tells us that basalt, and other supposed igneous rocks the least contraction of the crust "would be should be discharged at another, we would suficient to squirt out molten rock-matter from suggest it as a possibility that the similarity a hundred pores or craters." Now it seems to of their compositions is caused by the us, that to bring about this result there must fusing of these rocks under the influence of be two data to go upon, one the molten matter, volcanic fire, and this will at once account for and the other a contraction of the crust. In the Mr. D. Forbes' information, (Athenæum, 2,155) Athenæum, No. 2,155, Mr. David Forbes, that the “acid or trachytic" lava is "strikingly F.R.S., tells us, in reply to a question from analogous to the old granites in chemical compoMr. Malet, that a basaltic rock (one of the sition;"" and the basic or pyroxenic, nearly if supposed igneous ones) had, after slow cooling not quite identical with the basalts," thus refrom a molten state, reassumed the stony con- versing the theories of our great geologists, and dition, and then possessed the identical specific giving the old water formations of the earth as a gravity of the original rock.” In other words prey to the fires caused by, great accumulations this rock did not contract, and as basalt has of earth's produce. It will be obvious that this hitherto been considered of undoubted igneous system would avoid touching on that which Page origin, this contracting force is not proved. calls " an exhaustible source,for surely we have About the molten matter, at p. 118, Page calls it only got to consider the vast amount of earth's "an exhaustible source." To be sure of that, we refuse, which is yearly carried by our rivers to should know its origin, but no one tells us the ocean, to comprehend that this sourco, from wbence this molten matter comes. We though iuctuating, and perhaps decreasing as are told that the heat of the earth, at 25 miles population extends, is, as long as vegetation

grows, and rains fall, and rivers wash away, and

ocean currents carry, an inoxbaustible source of * "New pages of Natural History."

inflammable materiai. + " Circle of Light."

(To be continued.)

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