KING CHARLES'S PUZZLE-METALLIC CASTS. . must be applieil, to give a passage, is seen when a dead, fish is thrown which must considerably increase into the water, from the slowness the expense of construction. The with which it descends. I conclude plan I here propose to be laid down, I this to be his meaning, and ask him, think will be deemed worthy of ap. Can the fish raise itself without a plication, as it will be attended with purchase? If not, then, granting considerably less expense, and may his position of the question, it seeins be applied in an elevated place with that, suppose the fish, by reason of the same facility as it can be on a its weight, to exert, when stationary, horizontal.

a force upon the water beneath it Description of the Drawing. .

equal to one pound, must not its

efforts to raise itself in the fluid be Let S be the appointed station for the waggons to pass each other, and ABCD

equal to the same? a long waggon, placed on six wheels,

1 . If “T. H.” will ask himself why running at right angles with the general any body, when placed in a fluid, railway, EF, on a piece of railway, GH, floats ? he will see that the selfbelow; and across the waggon, ABCD, buoyancy of the fish can never hinder there inust be laid two pieces of rail the action of its gravitation from way, IK and LM, somewhat longer than the waggons, Nor 0, and at à couve- bemg exerted,

w. being exerted on the fluid; as, when nient distance from each other, to cor it ascends, it is the upward pressure respond exactly with the general rail; so 'of the water (either by action or re

rail, IK, and then with a winch, P, placed is no time when t

is no time when the whole weight of at one end, drawing the waggon, ABCD, far enough to bring the other piece, LM,

M: the fish does not operate in one into the general line, the other waggon,

direction or other on the fluid ; and O, may pass, ou without interruption; the pressure of fluids being in all and again, by returning the waggon, directions, any one may draw the ABCD, to its first position, the waggon, inference. be ready to act in the same manner when

As to the internal power of buoynecessary. The rail, LM, might also be ancy, almost every fish is furnished constructed as a revolving table, and with an air vessel, which is commonly serve to continue a road in any other di- called “ the swim.” But how this rection, without any connecting branches. can so much assist or accelerate their

A. B. velocity of motion, I cannot see. A

boat floats on water, but its power of

floating never accelerates its velocity. KING CHARLES'S PUZZLE.

In fact, the power of a fish's tail to Sir,- On the question, “ Whether move it, and its fins to guide it, is a vessel of water would not weigh a much greater than “T. H.” has any pound heavier by having a live fish, conception of, or he would never which weighed a pound out of water, have used the expression with which put into it?" your Correspondent, he concludes his paper. As to his 6. T. H.,” (page 62, Number 88), reasoning about the weights, it apmodestly states his opinion, “that pears “not to the purpose." .. the vessel will not weigh a pound

I am, Sir, more.” But, before any of your

Your most obedient servant, readers render up their judgments to his argument, allow me, Scotch

T. M. M - N. mian-like, to answer, by riskiny, What does he mean by saying the fish buoys itself-the water does not ? METALLIC CASTS FROM ENGRAVINGS Can he mean that the water does

ON COPPER., not assist it? If so, take away the A most important discovery has water, and where will be the fish ? lately been made, which promises to

If he mean that the specific gra- be of considerable utility in the Fine vity of the fish is greater than that Arts : some very beautiful specimens of water, he is perhaps right; though of metallic plates, of a very peculiar this property (in most fish) is very composition, have lately appeared, little greater than that of water, as under the name of 'cast engravings.'

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EQYPTIAN ORE-LEVEL OF THE SEASCRAYFORD INSTITUTION. [11] This invention consists in taking suppose, with M. de la Place, that moulds from every kind of engrav- the average depth of the sea is fings, with line, mezzotinto, or aqua 96,000 feet, and assume the dilatatinta, and pouring on this mould an tation of the earth to be equal to alloy, in a state of fusion, capable that of glass, we find, that at a temof taking the finest impression. The perature of 100 centigrade, the sea obvious utility of this invention, as would be 4000 feet higher than it is applicable to engravings which meet at present, and that it would cover with a ready sale, and of which great most of the secondary inountains. numbers are required, will be incal. The melted masses shrink during culable, as it will wholly prevent their cooling. If this happens in the expense of retracing, which large masses, cavities, garnished with forms so prominent a charge in all crystals, must result, and other siworks of an extended' sale. No milar phenomena. sooner is one cast worn out than another may be immediately procured from the original plate, so

CRAYFORD MECHANICS' that every impression will be a proof.

INSTITUTION: Thus the works of our most celebrated artists may be handed down,

handed down Sir,—You will oblige the Memad infinitum, for the improvement and bers of the Crayford Mechanics’ delight of future ages, and will afford, Institution, by giving the following at the same time, the greatest satis

Resolutions a place in your very vafaction to every lover of the Fine Arts. luable miscellany. * Nicholson's Operative Mechanic.

At a General Meeting of the Members of the Crayford Mechanics' Institution, held this 4th day of May,

1825, the following Resolutions were EGYPTIAN ORE.

unanimously agreed to: SIR-I should feel much obliged 1st. That the thanks of this Instituto any of your numerous readers and tion be presented to Professor Grecorrespondents who would favour gory, LL.D., of the Royal Military Colme with his candid and unprejudiced lege, Woolwich, for his Course of Meopinion upon a metal sold by Mr.

chanical Lectures to the Members of this

Institution. M Phail, and manufactured into va- 2nd. That the above Resolution be rious articles of jewellery, under the transmitted to the Editor of the London name of “ Egyptian Ore," and if it Mechanics' Magazine, with a request really answers the description given that it may be inserted in that work, of it by the inventor. As, firstly,

that a public testimonial may be given · whether it will wear equal to, and

of the high estimation in which the

menibers of this Institution hold the retain an appearance of, gold ? and, services and talents of Dr. Olinthus lastly, whether any person who is at Gregory. all a judge of gold can, upon a su- 3rd. That a copy of these Resolutions perficial inspection, and without sub- be transmitted to Dr. Gregory, signed mitting it to the usual test, detect it by the President. as being only an imitation of that

(Signed) : WM, WALKER, metal.

Crayford, May 13, 1825.
I am, Sir, yours truly,



RINGS. "? '

Sir, -Having often seen others, It is proved by many observations, as well as myself, inconvenienced that the level of the sea must have (at the very worst time too) in sliding been, at some ancient period, higher up the ring of an umbrella, by the than it is at present. This can be tape to which the ring is fastened easily accounted for, if we consider winding or coiling round it, I always that water heated must be more ex- make the ring for my own with a litpanded than the solid earth. If we tle swell on one side, and pierce the

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. ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE. . . same as the eye of a tape-bodkin,

Answer 2nd. and then secure the end of the tape SIR,-In answer to an inquiry in it. Not only is the inconvenience made in your 88th Number, under the of which I have spoken thus reme. title of “ Orders of Architecture,” died, but both the tape and umbrella I beg leave to state, that the reason covering are saved from being so why the Composite Order is genemuch worn by the sliding of the rally placed over the Corinthian, is, ring up and down. This is a very that the composite order is much more simple thing, yet I never saw it light and slender in its proportions adopted by any one but myself. Per. (as in the best examples, the arch of haps you will think it deserving of Titus, at Rome, and others), and .being more generally known. . I am, Sir, yours, &c.

Its composition, from which it deC.M., rives one of its names, is in the ca

pital only; the superior, or upper .part, having the two large volutes of

the Ionic, and the lower the leaves ANSWER TO

Y. of the Corinthian.'


of Six Months' date. - - NO. 114. . · · ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE. Answer ] st.

- CORRESPONDENCE. 1. SIR, -Although the Composite or Were we to ipsert P. Fi's Reply to the

Roman Order partakes of the lonic Res. Mr. Grinfield's attack on Mr. and Corinthian, and is certainly not Brougham's Pamphlet, it would only so elegant as the latter, yet it has serve to give importance to what few been thought by many to have been have heard of, and nobody cares for. used indiscriminately with the Co. It is impossible that an apostle of ignorinthian, in order upon order. · Tuisrance can now make a single proselyte.

J. T. M. need not restrain himself in opinion carries some force with it,

1, his communicatious. We shall be alsince the cornice is always Corinthian. wars glad to hear from him. There are much greater discrepancies. W.Hi's papers are under consideration. than the above to be found in the . N. and T. R., on the Balance Quesworks of the ancients (even sup- tion, are too late. We consider that posing the Composite to be of a more enough has been said upon it. Some of unassive nature than the Corinthian). Our Correspondents say“ more than In the Coliseum the same order is en

7. enough ;' and were our work iutended

to communicate new facts and ideas {0 repeated; and there are some in- learned persons alone, we, too, should stances where the intermediate order say so; but our object is, not only to make is altogether omitted, and the what is already well known still better lonic placed upon the Tuscan, or known, but to encourage a class of meu the Corinthian. upon the Doric.”

( to write on scientific subjects who never How far this may agree with good

wrote before, and much, therefore, may

be tolerated in our pages, which, under a taste, I will not venture to say, different state of circumstances, might leaving it to every person to forin justly be considered superfluous. his own opinion. The Composite is Communications received froin-Capgenerally composed from the fron tain Manby–T. C.-W. L.-A Student tispiece of Nero (Corinthian), and of the Mechanics' Class-M. P.-W.the Temple of Concord (Ionic). Vi

C-r.---An Inquisitive Apprentice-A

Provincialist-A Practical Shipwrighttruvius, in the first chapter of his frumentarius---John Street-C. W.-2. fifth book, says, that “ the columns -Cranium-T. N.-Ignoramus-F. the second story should be less Rusticus-A Goldsmith's Apprenticethan those in the first by a quarter ;

W. Lake-R. B. M.-Quietus St. John. for the inferior part being more loaded, ought to be the strongest.”

Communications (post paid) to be addressed to . .. I am, Sir, yours, &c.

- the Editor, at the Publishers', KNIGHT and

· LACEY, 55, Paternoster-row, London. KAPPA.. Printed by B. BENSLEY. Bolt-court, Fleet-street.


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" In matters of Natural Philosophy we must not pay an absolute submission to even the
greatest authority; much less ought we to be slaves to our own prejudices, but to embrace the
truth wherever we find it, and not affect to be Newtonians at Paris, or Cartesians at London.”-
L'Abbé Nollet.

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We were favoured, last week, by The Mechanics' Magazine is, to our Captain Manby, with a very useful own knowledge, a general favourite Code of Instructions for the Preser- both in cabin and steerage, and, by vation of Lives from Shipwreck, the insertion of these instructions in drawn up by him, and sanctioned by our pages, they have a chance of the approbation of the Norfolk As being inore speedily and extensively sociation; and conceiving that the disseminated than they could be cause of humanity ought to super- through any other channel. sede all other claims on our atten-' tion, we hasten to give it insertion.

INSTRUCTIONS. We are sure none of our Correspond. After the means of communication ents will complain of a precedence have been effected between a stranded which inay, possibly, be the means vessel and the shore, by a rope atof saving the life of a fellow-creature. tached to a shot projected from a VOL. IV.


PRESERVATION OF LIVES FROM SHIPWRECK, mortar, it is often found a matter of haul her off with ; in that case they great difficulty to make the persons on will make signal No. 1. The signals, board know how they are to act, and illustrated by representations and many lives have been lost through this their distinct meanings, will be herecause alone. In order to remedy this after described. On receiving the evil, and to render this system of linė, you will secure the end to such relief mutually and immediately un- part of the vessel as may best draw derstood, the following instructions the boat into a safe lee. If the people are submitted :

on shore, after you have received the

line, make signal No. 2, you will DIRECTIONS TO PERSONS ON BOARD

bend the warp or hawser to the line, VESSELS STRANDED ON À LEE

and they will draw it on shoré, fearSHORË.

ing to trust the boat to the small line. It is your duty, as well, no doubt, When the bend is made, and you are as your inclination, to use every ho- ready, make your signal No. 1, (which nourable and manly endeavour to will be hereafter described, expresssave the vessel and cargo committed ing yes.) to your care, and to satisfy yourself If, when you have got the line, the that these have failed, before it is a people on shore find you have not a justifiable resource to run the ship warp ready, and wish you to haul on on shore, for the preservation of board by it a stouter rope to haul your own lives. On the determi. the boat off with, they will make nation being made to run for the signal No. 3, to haul away, for you beach, every exertion should be made to receive a stout rope ; secure it as to keep your vessel off the shore till before directed, and make your sighigh water, and then, if canvas is nal No. 1, which is also to denote or can be set, steer the vessel stem you are ready, or their direction is on, with as much force as possible, complied with making signals of distress to attract Remark.A boat, when it can be the notice of the people on shore, applied, is the promptest method of who will collect at the point most bringing a crew on shore. Upwards favourable for the purpose, and of twenty crews have been saved by prepare to assist you-endeavour to them. run for the spot where they are col- If, when you have received the lected. Shipmasters, on these occa- line, and observe there is no boat at sions, must enforce their authority hand, and the signal on shore (No.3) more than ever, and seamen must be is made, you will haul in, and receive more than usually obedient, as the by it the end of a stout rope, and a safety of all on board will frequently tail-block rove with a small line, depend on this.

both ends of which are kept on shore; Whether a vessel is thus run on make the end of the stout rope and shore, or is stranded, without any the tail of the block well fást round choice of time or place, the follow your mast, higher or lower as ciring directions will equally apply, and cumstances require, and the tailmust be minulely observed and prac. block close below the large rope. tised:

On your making signal No. 1, deCollect, in some safe part of the noting to have complied with the vessel, ready to apply as occasion direction of having carefully secured may require, all your small lines and the stout rope and tail-block, the ropes, buoys, pieces of cork, or small people on shore will haul taut the kegs (such as seamen keep spirits in), stout rope, and place on it a snatchsnatch, tail, and other blocks, with a block (with a sling hanging to it warp or hawser clear, axes, knives, large enough to hold a man); and &c. --all these may be of great use. making the ends of the small line

Attend to the people on shore, and fast to the lower part of the snatchobserve if they have a boat, or are block, they will work it to the ship, getting one to the spot, as their first when, on a man getting into the object would be to launch it to you, sling, he will, by pulling down the and to throw a line on board you, to slide or button, secure himself in,

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