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i 'COMBINATION LAWS.
was effected in the law, which, proCOMBINATION LAWS.
perly interpreted, was calculated to Our readers will do us the justice be of immense benefit to the working to remember, that when the propo- orders, when the old enactments sal for abolishing the Coinbination against combinations were wholly Laws was under discussion during erased from the Statute Book; and last Session of Parliament, we advo- by misinterpreting it in the manner cated at some length, and most un, which we deprecated, they have furreservedly, the policy of the mea- nished not only a pretext to that nusure ; but that, at the same time, merous class who, having little wiswe warned very distinctly those for dom of their own, are ever crying whose relief it was intended, against up the wisdom of their ancestors, to a dangerous inisapprehension into clamour for a restoration of the old which they were likely to be led by order of things, but have compelled the language used by certain indivi. even the wisest and most enlighteued duals, who were taking a leading and men amongst us to acknowledge, otherwise meritorious part in bring that it is become imperiously nécesing about the repeal. We stated, sary to subject to revision the new p. 212, vol. 11., that " although we state of things which the repeal in advocated the repeal of the Combi- question has produced. nation Laws, it was not in order that On the 29th of last inonth the sub. combination might be produced, but ject was brought before the House that it might be done away with entirely of Commons by Mr. Huskisson. on the part both of masters and men, After apprising the House, that and things left to find their natural though a member of the Committee level.” We cautioned the working to whom the consideration of the classes against “ secretly looking Combination Laws was last Session forward to the repeal as a measure confided, he had been prevented, by which would enable them to com- , the number of his other avocations, bine at pleasure, and have all their hoth from paying that degree of atown way ;” and we finally held it tention to their proceedings which forth as a probable result, that he could have wished to do, and “should it be the effect of the nearly from considering the Bill which was accomplished repeal of the Combi- afterwards introduced on their renation Laws to strengthen old com- port, with that care which it debinations and produce new ones served, the Right Hon. Gentleman to encourage more than hitherto as
proceeded to give an analysis of the sociations of workmen against their provisions of that Bill, which showed, masters--to produce evil rather than in a very striking manner, how the good-the old laws would be restored working classes have been betruyed (never again perhaps to be repealed), (as the Right Hon. Gentleman conor new ones would be enacted, still fessed, and we anticipated) into an more rigorous and severe in their abuse of the benefits which it was operation.”
intended to confer on them. * It was with much regret, we witnessed the alarming extent, to which
“ He was not surprised,” he said,
“ when he looked at the way in which the fears we thus expressed were
the Act of last Session was worded, and progressively realized, after the re the artful misconstruction that inight peal had taken place; nor is it with easily be put upon it by those who best any other feeling than regret, that knew how to mislead and deceive the men we see our operatiye frienäs threat
who had engaged in these combinations,
that the men should have erroneonsly ened with the very consequence which we anticipated. No 'consola ranted under this Act. Not only did the tion that we may honestly derive Act repeal • all' former statutes reiative from the reflection, that we gave to combinations and conspiracies of workthem due warning of the errors into men, but it even provided that no prowhich they have fallen, can 'equal
ceedings should be had on account of any
such combination, meeting, conspiracy, the pleasure we should have felt had or uniting together, of journeymen, &c. they been benefitted by it. A change for, in fact, almost any purpose; and
supposed their proceedings to be war
COMBINATION "LAVIS A
. . 11 thus it weut to preclude the possibility to produce on the minds of the workof applying any legal remedy to a state of ing classes? things which might become, and which had since become, a great public evil. “Since the passing of the Act in quesThe second section declared that jour- tion, there had been pumerous reports neymen, workmen, and other persous, forwarded to Mr. Secretary Peel, detailwho shall hereafter enter into any como ing acts of outrage and violence, on the bination to obtain higher rates of wages, part of workmen combined against emor to regulate the mode of carrying on ployers, of the most disgraceful characany manufacture, trade. or business, or ter.-(Hear, hear.)--His Right Honourthe management thereof, shall not be able Friend bad permitted him to inspect subject or liable to any indictment or those reports; and he could state tha prosecution for a criminal conspiracy or they manifested, in all those classes or combination, or to any other proceeding workmen who had misconceived the real or punishment whatever, under the coni- object of the legislature in the late Act, a mon or statute law.' Would not any disposition to combine against the masbody, on reading this sentence, suppose ters, and a tendency to proceedings deit was something really fit and almost structive of the property and business of commendable for workmen to combine the latter, which, 'if left to itself, and and couspire together to regulate and permitted to remain unchecked, must control the management of any manu- terminate in producing the greatest misfacture? He did not doubt that a great chiefs to the country. Indeed, those misproportion of the associated and com- chiefs were rapidly growing in some disbined workmen in the country did, in tricts to so alarming a pitch, that if their fact, believe, that so far from violating progress were not speedily repressed and the law by their late proceedings, they interrupted, they would very soon behad been only pursuing a course that come rather a subject for his Right H )was strictly conformable with the mean- nourable Friend to deal with in the exering of the legislature. It was, moreover, cise of his official functions, than for him provided by section 6th, that if any per- (Mr. Huskisson) to call the attention of son shall hereafter, by threats, deter a the House to in this manner. These man from his hiring, or engage in any things could not remain much longer in combination or conspiracy to destroy any their present condition, unless Parljamachinery, goods, wares, or merchan- ment should interfere to place them ou dizes, he shall, upon being convicted of a different footing. His Right Hononrsuch offence before a Magistrate, on the able Friend(Nir. Peel)-armed, as he was, evidence of any two witnesses, be pu- by the state, with the authority of calling nished with two months' imprisonment.' in aid to the civil power, for the protec- (Hear.)—Now, it surely did not re tion of the property and liberty of the quire any Act of Parliament to declare, King's subjects-must sointerposeagainst that to deter a man by threats from his what he (Mr. Huskisson) could not but hiring, or to combine and conspire for consider a very formidable conspiracy in the destruction of goods or machinery, certain bodies of men, calculated to place was an offence to be made punishable in that liberty and property, and perhaps a certain way upon conviction. Such life itself, in the greatest jeopardy, as re. acts were already offences by the law of garded certain individuals who employed the land, independent of any thing like large numbers of labourers and journeycombination; and in so far, at least, the men." declarations and provisions of this Act
· The evil consequences of such pro
. The evilcons were quite supererogatory. By the old law of the lavd, however, some of these ceedings, as regarded the men theinoffences would be actual felonies; others selves, were also very justly and misdemeanours of the worst sort; while forcibly adverted to by the Right the Act of last Session reduced the whole Honourable Gentleman : to the class of the most ordinary misdemeanours, punishable, at the utmost, " He did conceive, that if these mis. with only two inonths' imprisonment. guided men could be induced, for one Even plotting together for the destruc- moment, to reflect upon what must be tion of machinery and merchandize, the inevitable consequences of the course and deterring men from the exercise they were pursuing, they must see that of their callings by threats of loss of such a course of proceeding, it continued, life and limb, were no longer to be would render it impossible for any person considered as offences of any deeper to embark his capital under risks so die than the commonest assault or pet- great as those which he had pointed out, tiest larceny!!!"
or to submit its application to a system
of tyranny and control that nobody with What had been the consequence of endure
capital would for a moment choose to the misconceptions which these nro endure. If they would reflect on these the misconceptions which these pro. facts, they would perceive the impossivisions were so naturally calculated bility of their being left at liberty to pur
12 "SCIENTIFIC MISCELLANY."-WEIGHT OF CARRIAGES IN MOTION. sue the career of violence and combina. From the several articles (which tion in which they were now proceeding; are nearly 100 in number) I shall and that they must soon cease altogether to procure employment for their own
select as specimens the following, subsistence. For so soon as they perse
namely :vered in these measures, capital must de Article 12.-Light always seeks sert the districts in which they were car the most rare medium, and thereried on; and ultimately, unless the evil
fore acts in straight lines only when was arrested, the kingdom itself, for
cutting the surfaces of the mediums other countries.'
at right angles, or when passing · For all these reasons, and with the
through one and the same medium. hope of doing better justice to both
· Art. 16.-If a liquid drops, or is parties the workmen and their em
spilled, whilst being carried, it will ployers-Mr. Huskisson concluded
branch out in the direction in which by moving
it was carried, and hence the porter 66 For the appointment of a Select of it may be thus traced. Committee to inquire into the effect of the Act of the 5th Geo. IV. cap. 95, in
Art. 26.-A force given to a body respect to the conduct of workmen and diverges out in e: aight lines from others in different parts of the United the centre of gravity of the striking Kingdom ; and to report to this House body into the body which receives it; their opinion as to how far it may be ne hence the force becomes scattered cessary to repeal or amend the provisions
in the receiving body inversely in the of the said Act.'-(Hear.)" (Further observations in our next.)
squares of its effect.
This effect may be best seen by striking a hard blow on clear ice, of
about five inches thick. “ SCIENTIFIC MISCELLANY."
Art. 92.-To find the power gained SIR -As you occasionally notice by a train of clock-work, &c. call works that in any way tend to ad.
the power unity, then take the convance the Arts as well as disseminate tinued product of the diameter of all useful knowledge, I beg to call the the wheels, and divide by that of all attention of your readers to a small the pinions. pamphlet which has just appeared, I will not intrude farther on your and which contains many truths with pages, but shall leave it in the hands regard to mechanical and philoso of those who may peruse the woi k to phical subjects, in the form of short appreciate its merits, or criticise its propositions, the investigation of defects, feeling I have done my duty which is left to the ingenuity of the in endeavouring to make more gene. reader, forining, as it were, a manual rally known a subject connected with of natural philosophy, and embracing the advancement of knowledge. a variety of subjects, the application of which is necessary to the mechanic as well as the man of science.
The work I allude to is entitled, WEIGHT OF ÇARRIAGES IN MOTION. “The Scientific Miscellany,” by W. Sır,--Your indefatigable CorreShires, and sold by J. T. Setchell, spondent, G. A. S., will excuse me 23, King-street, Covent-garden, as for checking a principle he has adwell as at most mathematical instru- vanced in your 83d Number. He ment inakers. In my perambula- thinks, by resolving the two forces, tions, I was struck with the title, as represented by the sides of his and induced to purchase, in the hope right-angled triangle, into the hypoof finding something new or inte.' thenusal line, that, owing to the resting, and in which, I assure you, oblique direction of that force, it I have not been disappointed. As will press less upon the weigh-bridge the work will speak for itself, I will than the perpendicular force ; but I not intrude on your valuable columns would beg to remind him, that the more than by making two or three oblique force being equivalent to extracts, to show that this pamphlet the other two, must be greater, in is not devoid of interest, but worthy the exact direction in which it acts, of being more generally known than either force singly. But since,
G. A. S. DESCRIPTION OF A PORTABLE GAS LAMP.'. from the oblique position in which proportion erısting in the terms of his the resultant of the forces acts on analogy; for the oblique force, being the weigh-bridge, it must be less actually less than the direct force than if the compounded force acted (or the man's weight), can never perpendicular to its plane (the plane bear the same relation to it which of the weigh-bridge), and this in the radius of a circle bears to any exact proportion to its obliquity ; it sine less than 90°. The thing is follows, then, that the oblique com- absurd ; consequently, instead of pounded force ererts the sume pres. saying that the man's weight grew sure upon the weigh-bridge (AND less in proportion to the oblique NBITHER MORE NOR LESS THAN THE force exerted by the hand, I would SAME) as if the perpendiculur force have been fairly borne out, if I had acted singly. Indeed, we may assert even said, the mun's weight gravitated it as a general rule, that the effects towards the moon !! of forces, when estimated in given directions, are not altered by composition or resolution.
DESCRIPTION OF A PORTABLE GAS I am the more anxious to check
LAMP, INVENTED BY MR. JAMES this error of your Correspondent,
JONES, OF EDINBURGH. because, from the superior talents with which that gentleman appears gifted, many of your readers would metamorphose those blemishes into the most sound orthodox principles. So true is this remark, that the celebrated Fontenelle lias openly asserted, that he would undertake to persuade the whole republic of readers to believe that the sun was neither the cause of light nor heat, if he could only get six philosophers on his side. « That man, therefore,” says an elegant writer of the last age, “although clothed in rags, who is capable of deceiving even indolence into wisdom, and who professes amusement while he aims at reformation, is more useful in refined society than twenty Cardinals, with ABCD represent the lamp; E, the all their scarlet, and tricked out opening at which the gas is forced in, by in all the fopperies of scholastic means of a pump, and F the jet at which
it escapes and is consumed. H. l. is a finery."
bar to support the glass tube, KSL, open I may hereafter give you my opi. only at one end. The space from k to nion on Mr. Sam. Yelsap's question; the float P contains mercury. The two for the present I can only say that floats, P and R, are connected by the G. A. S.'s is not the only solution
ution string or chain, XY; aud to the top of that can be given to it.
the toat, R, the stout wire, Il, is at
tached perpendicularly. To the top of I am, Sir,
this wire is affixed a cubical piece of me. Your humble servant,
tal, shaped on all sides like a wedge.
This is contained in a kind of box, JAMES YULE. marked 3333, which is also shaped P.S. Let these remarks apply also
wedge-like, but with a greater angle at
the bottom; 44 are two metal plates, to your Correspondents G.G., C.E, each exactly the same size as one side of and S. Y., whose errors 1 formerly the box. These plates are to be pushed pointed out to you. I do not mean backwards or forwards by the screws 55, to press my suit, but, in addition till the aperture is adjusted, when the to that letter, I may add, that in
in ends of thie screws may be cut off.. G. Gi's trigonometrical solution of ABCD, empty of gas, the mercury in
Now, suppose the cubical vessel, the Balance Question, there is not a the tube is alike bigh' at both surfaces.
SPIRAL WHEELS PROPOSED IN STEAM NAVIGATION. The forcing pump is applied at E; and immersed when either the water is as the gas is condensed, it compresses much agitated, or the wind acts, the air in the end of the tube at K : of
forcibly on one side of the vessel : tivat, P, up along with it; the other ball the consequence of this is, that one is drawn down, and brings down with it of the wheels suffers the impediment the wire, 2, which gradually stops the last mentioned in a greater degree, opening at the top of the wire; and as and is turned with a greater loss of the gas contained is diminished, the pressure will be taken off the surface of power ;
en off the surface of power ; whilst the other has not sufthe mercury at R, the air at K will ex- ficient hold of the water to produce pand, and raise the wire, Z, and enlarge its maximum of effect. the opening.
The mode of propelling steam vessels to which I would call the at.
tention of your intelligent CorrePROPOSAL FOR USING SPIRAL WHEELS Spondents, particularly those engaged IN STEAM NAVIGATION.
in constructing or navigating them, SIR,—The imperfections of Pad is to substitute for paddle-wheels a dle -Wheels for propelling steam- worm-like spiral wheel (if it may be vessels are generally known, and so called), that shall work in the have given rise to various con- water in the manner of a screw, to trivances for obviating them, for be formed by a flat board or ledge some of which patents have been wound spirally round an axle, just obtained. These contrivances, it like the screw of Archimedes, withshould seem, have not been very out its external rim : one of these on successful, as paddle-wheels appear each side of the vessel, placed with to be universally in use; it is, there their axles longitudinally, at any fore, desirable that this subject should depth that may be found convenient, have the continued attention of me. but somewhat below the water's surchanics, as their enlightened dili. face, would produce a progressive gence cannot fail to have very bene- motion, accompanied by very little ficial results; and it is for the pur. collateral resistance, with a very genpose of communicating an idea, tle agitation of the water, and with which I conceive may contribute to very small loss of power. produce an improved method of pro- The pressure of these spiral wheels pelling such vessels, that I now ad- upon the water being an oblique one, dress you.
which may beresolved into two forces, The most obvious imperfections one of which acts in the direction of of padelle-wheels are, first, the great the axle, and the other perpendiculoss of power occasioned by the lar to it, it is obvious that this latter oblique pressure of the paddles on force would soon drive the vessel the water when they first enter it; against one of the banks in rivers, and which, though gradually dimi- and athwart the keel in the open sea, nishing, is not wholly lost till the pad were they both to work the same dle becomes vertical. This oblique, way; but by making them turn in pressure may be resolved into two different directions, the lateral force forces, the one vertical, the reaction of each would be counteracted by to which raises the vessel, and the the other : but whether it would be other horizontal, which propels it better to drive the water in a direcforward, and it is obvious that the tion diverging from the sides of the whole power of the engine is excited vessel, or converging towards its in the latter direction only at the rudder, will be best determined by moment when the paddle is vertical; practice. after this the vertical pressure begins The objection which I foresee to in the opposite direction, and con- this machinery is, first and princitributes to press the vessel into the pally, the room which it would ocwater, and thus counteracts the little cupy on the sides of the vessel under advantage that the first might pro- the surface of the water, being equal duce, by lessening the draught. to the diameter of the spiral, the ra
And, secondly, the unequal depth dius of which would probably be not to which the paddles are frequently less than eighteen or twenty inches,