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INQUIRIES—ANSWERS TO INQUIRIES. . more or less, according to the size engine; or, in other words, what of the vessel, thus filling a space of increase in the diameter of the cylinperhaps three feet and a half on each der will compensate a decrease in side ; and though, by being placed the stroke? For instance, a cylinder lower, it probably would not increase of 24 inches diameter, with a stroke the width of the vessel more than of five feet, equals about 20 horse paddle-wheels now do, yet that cir- power; what diameter of cylinder is cumstance would render it inconve- required if the stroke is only three nient in difficult navigations, and feet ? may much restrict its use in rivers Blackfriars-road. and canals, though I do not appre. hend that this will be a material objection to vessels navigating on the sea.
NO. 113.-COMPARATIVE COST OF A second objection may be founded
STEAM ENGINES. on the velocity of the rotatory motion SIR, I should be thankful to any required to produce a given pro of your Correspondents who could gressive motion. It is easily per- give a table of the comparative exceived, that the progressive motion pense of the Purchase of Steam Enacquired in one revolution of the gines of various construction, and spiral wheel cannot exceed the dis- say of 15 horse power; and also of tance of its threads from each other, the expense of working the same--say but must indeed be somewhat less, for one week, night and day, without owing to the yielding nature of the intermission. In the latter, of course, water; whilst that obtained by one I allude to the cost of coals, oil, or revolution of a paddle-wheel bears a any other combustible substance or great proportion to its circumfe. fluid that may be requisite; as also rence : but this objection, I think, to the wear of machinery and hire will be overbalanced by the dimi- of labourers. nished force required to turn the
I am, Sir, spiral wheel, and the small propor
. An Old Correspondent, tion of it that will be inefficient. I will not trouble you with any far
: 17th March, 1825.
Xx. ther observations, my object being to draw the attention of your Correspondents to this subject, for the purpose of ascertaining its practica- ANSWERS TO INQUIRIES. bility. If you think the suggestion, worth publicity, a page of your very No. 110.-ELECTRIFYING MACHINES. useful Magazine will oblige, Yours, &c.
Sir,-Your Correspondent, “ Ju
nior,” may make his caps of wood or -, near Boston. T.M.-S.
brass. I have turned one pair out of box-wood. The cement for fixing them on the necks of the cylinder,
is made by melting equal parts of INQUIRIES
rosin and bees-wax, and one-fourth of their weight of red ochre. It will
be necessary to drill a small hole no.112.-POWER OF STEAM ENGINES. Clongitudinally) through the cap that
SIR,-Seeing in your valuable is first fixed (which may be done Journal several methods of calcu- while the cap is yet in the chuck), to lating the Power of Steam Engines, suffer the air in the cylinder to escape, but that not any of them pay any re-' which the heat of the cement will spect to the length of the stroke, I cause to be rarefied, on fixing the should feel obliged if some of your in- second cap, otherwise the cylinder genious Correspondents will inform will be in danger of being burst to me, what effect the shortening of the pieces. The rubber consists of a stroke has upon the power of the cushion, stuffed evenly with curled 16 . ANSWERS. TO INQUIRIES-CORRESPONDENCE. hair, a little concave on the face, close up with paper; dry it by a gen. that it may lay flat against the cylin- tle heat; beat it in a stone mortar to der ; tho outside to be made of wood, a very fine powder. Take one pound with the roughnesses taken off. The of fine parchment glue, the finest guin side next the cylinder is covered tragacanth, and gum Arabic, of each with red basil, and to the lower edge four ounces; boil the whole in clean, of the cushion is glued a piece of pump-water, and filter it; add as silk,called black mode, of the breadth much of the wood as will make it a of the cushion, and is brought up thick paste; set it, in a glazed pan, between the cushion and the cylin- in hot sand, till the moisture evapo. der, and lies about half over the lat. rates, and it is fit for casting. Pour ter. But the cylinders made at the or mix your colours with the puste ; glass-manufactories are generally ir- scent with oil of cloves or roses, &c. regular on their surfaces, and of un- The moulds should be made of pew, equal diameters, and consequently ter, and well oiled; when dry, it will do not receive a constant and steady be as hard as ivory; it may be turned, pressure; but by means of a plain carved, or planed, like other wood, bent metallic spring (invented by Knaresborough. .. M.. Mr. Jones, the optician, in Holborn), acting between two narrow boards, to which the stuffed cushion is glued,
NO. 80.--NEW IMPERIAL MEASURE. a steady pressure is obtained, and
• Sir, I send you, in answer to the spring will readily yield to the irregularities on the surface of the
T. H.'s proposition (Number 80,
p. 382), the following inside dimencylinder.
sions of the Quart, Pint, and HalfI.am, Sir, yours respectfully, WM. PICKETT.
pint; also the thickness of metal Brook-street, Ratcliff. .
of the top and bottom, and thickness of the bottoms, all in inches. I must beg leave to observe, that T. H.
says, “ the top diameter and perNO. 89.- CHESS-MEN
'pendicular depth of each to be equal SIR,--I beg leave to send Inqui- to the bottom diameter in proporsitor a Composition to make his tion to the top as 7 to 10;" whereas, Chess-Men of: I must state, at the I presume, he means the top diamesame time, that I have not made a 'ter and perpendicular depth of each trial of it, though I think it will an- to be equal, and the bottom diameter swer the purpose.
in proportion to the top'as 7 to 10. Take fine saw-dust of lime-tree
Your constant Reader, wood, put it into a clean pan; tie it
B. C. Top Diam.1 Bottom Thickness of Metal. | Thickness of
& Depth. Diameter. 1. Top. Bottom. Bottoms. | Content. Quart... 4.94477 | 3.46134 | 0.6426210.44984 1.2852569.3185 Pint .... | 3.92466 2.74726 0.51005/0.35704 | 1.02011 | 34.65925 Half-pint | 3.11500 | 2.18050 | 0.40483/0.28338 | 0.80966 1.17.329625
We long to hear from T. R. L.
J.A. Whitfield will please transmit the plan he has in contemplation.
Communications received from--Dou ble Escapement-Mr. Monnom--G. W, -A. B.-W. H.
S e -B. H.-C. G.– Mr. Hall-A Resident at Lee-Islington-Pheeton--A Child--H. A. D. A. M. F. P.-Mr. Lake-Trebor Valenzine-A Foremastman-.P. Q.-T. Mason-Lux-M. R.
Mr. Speer's letter came too late to have a place in our preseut Nuinber. It shall appear in our next.
Two or three other papers intended for insertion this week, are upávoidably de!erred.
Communication (post paid) to be addressed to
the Editor, at the Publishers', KNIGHT and LACEY, 55, Paternoster-row, London,
0,nrocore Rott-court, Fleet-stamme
Mechanics' Magazine, MUSEUM, REGISTER, JOURNAL, AND GAZETTE.
SATURDAY, APRIL 16, 1825.
“Science clears the obstructions which impede the progress of Art, and Art adorns and smooths the path of Science. No discovery is made without some previous conjectural effort of the mind, some exertion of the imagination ; nor is any beauty unfolded where there has not been some preconsideration of probable effects, some exertion of the reasonable faculties.”—Ferro.
SIR,—The drawing and descrip
Description. tion, &c. of a Washing Machine, . A is the washing-trough, supported which I take the liberty of transmit- upon four legs, BBBB, by two iron straps, ting herewith, I shall be glad to see
screwed through the legs, by the nuts,
X X; the legs are let into the frame, inserted in the Mechanics Magazine.
CCCC; at the end of the trough is a I am, Sir,
cock, G, to carry off the soap suds ; in Yours respectfully, the trough is a washer similar to F, perJ. ARMSTRONG.
forated with holes, and borne by the
beam, H, upon the cross bars, hh, by Northumberland House Academy, the spindles, aa. Upon the beam, H, - Norwood.
are two iron pillars, EE, with a joint VOL IV,
near the beam, H; on each side of the of the same thickness or quantity; for, iron pillars are strong springs, DD, of if linen be laid thick in one place and four or five leaves, set very proud at the thin in auother, the thick part will be top against the iron pillars, and bolted cleansed, and the thin but little. together at the bottom upon a stout piece Ladies' dresses, laces, caps, and any of iron. The tops of the iron pillars are thing delicately fine, should be put into attached by a bolt to the beam, 1, of the a porous linen bag, or a fine meshed net crank, J;* and upon the axle-tree of the indeed, if all small things were put into crank is a tooth-wheel, K, turned by a a small meshed net, so much the better, small pinion, L, upon the axle-tree of as it would prevent them being entanthe fly-wheel, M, which is turned by the gled by being washed over the top of the handle, N.
washer), then no accident can happen to If a machine upon this plan be made
the linen. with a trough three feet long, and the
When you have put your linen into the pinion, L, to revolve three times for the
machine, pour upon it as much of the wheel 'K's once, it will first fourteen
dissolved soap as may be deemed necesor sixteen gentlemen's shirts in fifteen
sary to cleanse the quantity of linen in minutes, and second them in five minutes,
the machine ; then pour in the water making in all but twenty minutes, and
or soap suds, boiling hot, and after you the machine may be turned by a boy of
have fixed your cover on the trough, ten or eleven years of age, as it would turn the machine for one quarter of an require no more strength than one of Mr.
hour, and your linen will be cleansed, Baker's patent mangles.
unless it is very foul indeed, in which
case a little more time must be allowed ; The inventor of this machine does then take the linen out, and at the same not assert that the whole is original ; time draw off the soap suds, and charge a trough and washer similar to this your machine as before. Whilst the he saw when a boy at school, but all
machine is washing the second charge, the rest is original. He has made
get your cleansed linen wrung and the
soap suds boiled, ready for the third two machines upon this principle, charge ; and when you have gone through the second having some improve- the firsting of all your liven in this manments upon the first, and they both ner, commence and pursue your secondanswer well when properly inanaged ing in the same manner, allowing about This machine would be found most
five minutes for each machine full. Be
sure never to put any dry foul linen into valuable where there is much wash- the machine, as the boiling liquor will ing; it is simple, and easily ma- fix the dirt, which will never afterwards naged when there is a will that it be wholly eradicated : this is a very comshould answer the purpose. but if mon error in cleansing linen, where the use of it be left to careless ser
machines or washing-dollies are used.
One of these machines may be seen by vants, or washerwomen, the machine, applying at Mr. W. Richards's, measurein such cases, will have to bear the maker, No. 16, William's-court, Great blame of bad washing ;t whereas, Guildford-street, Southwark, London, when used with even moderate skill, The savings of this machine areit will wash more linen in six hours two-thirds of the usual time, half the than six women can wash in twelve usual fire, soap, and, what is very hours.
desirable, the linen; for the machine Directions for Use.
does not wear the linen a tenth part Soap your linen in warm water the
so much as the hands, neither does day before washing (this mode at all times
it tear the linen. One has been in
" lear materially assists the cleansing of foul use for eight or nine years, and it e about two
· has never been known to tear or insoap (deemed necessary for cleansing jure any thing, although it has your linen) in hot water, the night before
cleansed the most delicate parts of
cleansed the most delicate you wash, to be ready for use. When you put your linen into the machine, be sure to put, as nearly as possible, the same
This machine may easily be made quantity on each side of the washer, and to wash in any pressure of steam; let it be laid regularly along the trough, and if constructed for that intent, it
would (in the humble opinion of the * If several holes are made in the iron
inventor) far surpass any steampillars, the pressure may be increased or washing machine yet made; for withdecreased at pleasure.
out pressure linen cannot be cleansed + The inventor asserts this from real in any moderate time, and cylindri, experience.
Ć cal wheels, revolving in a case, may,
ADVICE TO STAMMERERS-BROWN'S GAS VACUUM ENGINE. 19 by the linen constantly falling from continued action of the muscles of the centre, chafe the cloth nearly, if speech being so much more easy than not quite as much as the hands. One the interrupted. The same is conproof that this machine does not wear stantly observed in children on their the linen is this : if you put in stock first attempts to read. Let a stamings with holes in them, the holes merer, then, observe this rule :-Alwill not be in the least enlarged by ways to speak in a continued or flowthe machine, nor will it make holes in ing manner, avoiding carefully all thin places ; where linen, on the con- positive interruption in his speech; trary, is cleansed by chafing, and not and if he cannot effect his purpose in pressure, enlargement of the holes in this manner, let hiin even half sing stockings, and holes made in thin what lie says, until he chall, by long places, are sure consequences; this is habit and effort, have overcome his afact known to every domestic female. impediment; then let him gradually,
Should any person or persons wish as he may be able, resume the more for any farther information, with re- ' usual mode of speaking, by interspect to che mechanical construction rupted enunciation. It is underof this machine, either to wash in a stood that this is the principal means pressure of steam, or otherwise, it employed by those gentlemen who will be cheerfully given, on address. have undertaken to correct impediing a line to J. Armstrong, Northum- ments in the speech, and it is unberland House Academy, Norwood, doubtedly the most rational. In ad
dition to this rule, let the stammerer endeavour to speak in as calm and
soft a tone as possible; for in this ADVICE TO STAMMERERS.
way the muscles of speech will be It has been observed, in regard to called least forcibly into action, and stammerers, or those who have a de. that action will be least liable to fective utterance, that they can sing, those violent checks or interrupor even read, without hesitation, al. tions in which stammering appears to though they cannot speak. What is consist. the rationale of this fact? It will It is scarcely necessary to remark he found to depend on the following that there are other inducing causes principle :
of stammering, such as nervousness, Continuous muscular action is far which must be cured by different more easily effected than that which means. Of these it would be necesis interrupted. This principle is sary to treat in an essay written exeven general in physiology. It has pressly on this interesting subject. been remarked, that a drunken man, or a person affected with that disorder termed St. Vitus's dance, can run, though he cannot walk, or stand BROWN'S GAS VACUUM ENGINE. still. In the same manner, a stam- We are informed that Mr. Brown merer can sing, which is continuous has tried his engine with a piston, motion, although he cannot speak, and that it is found to answer his which is interrupted.
most sanguine expectations. Continued muscular motion is also A Company, we perceive, has been attended with less fatigue than that formed for applying this engine to which is interrupted; and this is the purposes of boat and barge naparticularly observed in regard to vigation. They have begun by ofspcech. It is on this account that fering a premium of one hundred there is a tendency, in those who guineas for the best model, exemspeak much in public, to acquire a plifying the power when applied to sort of sing-song mode of delivery, the head, stern, or sides of a vessel, which it requires good taste and con- both in shallow and deep water, in stant exertion to correct. It is on canals and rivers. A premium of this account, too, that those who cry thirty guineas is also to be given for in the streets, actually acquire a sort the second best, and twenty for the of tune, or cry, as it is termed; the third best models.