(6 real



PRIZE CHRONOMETERS. this objection on proper grounds, After having been actively

engaged in there might be a counterpoise fixed the operative department of my business in such a manner as to remove this

for thirty years, commencing with an

apprenticeship of seren laborious ones, inconvenience. For example, the and being at this moment a' manufaciron rod, B, might be connected to turer, to a large extent, of chronomeBF, curved as represented in the ters of all descriptions (whichi, I need figure, and

having the metal ball, A, chine for the admeasurement of time), attached to it, so as to slide out or in on the rod ; in order that it may motive is too obvious to be mistaken,

I little expected such a charge'; but the be adjusted exactly to poise the and too malicious to have any effect with horse-beam, BF, it could be kept a discerning public. However, as you steady by a sinall wedge. This im- have given publicity to this attack on proveinent, which any person might me, I have no doubt you will see the

necessity of joining with me in calling suggest, I mention merely because

on your Correspondent to come forward no one has hitherto (as far as I know) and avow himself. If he is a laid the matter before the public. workman," I shall feel litile difficulty in

convincing Irim of the injustice of his I am, Sir,

charge. Your obedient servant,

Having made these observations in de

ference to you. I must declare uy intenJ. M. M-N. tiou not again to notice any auonymous

attacks; and, in conclusion, allow me to remark, that your valuable Magaziye would give inore satisfaction to its numerous readers, if you insisted on the

vame and abode of such a Correspondeut We are informed by a French Gen

as this, before you gave wide circulation tleinan, now resident in London

to an attack on professioual merit or ac

quirement, however humble. (No. 20, Newman-street, Oxford

I'remain, Sir, street), that he has discovered a pe

Your obedient humble servant, culiar composition, which is pos

J. M. FRENCH, sessed of the admirable property both of preventing and extinguishing

Royal Exchange, June 9th, 1825, fire. It is said not to be expensive, and may be indiscriminately applied to any object whatever. By means In inserting the letter referred to by of this discovery, not only wood and Mr. French, we did not act so uvad cloth, but paper and straw, can be visedly as he seems to suppose. We had

heard that, among actually rendered flame-proof.

" real workmen," it was a subject of very general complaint, that they were outstripped in the competition for the prize chronometers by mas

ters who were not workmen; and being PRIZE CHRONOMETERS.

earnestly requested by one of their uuni

ber, who gave us his name and address SIR,-My attention has been directed (for we did not, as Mr. French takes to an article in your valuable Publication for granted, neglect that necessary preof the 4th instant, headed “ Prize Chro- caution), to bring the matter before the nometers," wherein it is declared most public, by the insertion of the letter in unceremoniously, aud as a matter of question, we thought that by doing so fact, that I never made a chronometer, we could do injustice to no one; since and am a mere“ dealer and chapman.' the necessary consequence of agitating Now, Sir, although, in my own judy- the matter must be to silence the murment, I do not feel inyself bound to 10 murings of the one party, should they tice this most infounded attack of your prove unfounded, and to make more hoanonymous Correspondent, vet, as you nourable the triumph of the other, should seem to think otherwise, I bey leave, for it prove to have been fairly achiered. the information of such of your readers Mr. French has met the charge of not as might have been imposed upon, to being a real manufacturer by the most say, shortly and strongly, thut it is positive devial of its truth. He appeals wholly false and unfounded; and I io a life spent in the arduous pursuit of challenge your nameless Correspond- his profession; and he has, besides, ent to arow himsell, and attempt to been at the pains to satisfy us personally, prove what he has so umuurruntably at a visit which we made to his works asserted,

shop, that he is, in truth, what all the

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171 world gives him credit for being, a mnost

Nearer approximations to absolute expert and ingenious workman. But it correctness can scarcely, be hoped for, is said, that he never made a chronot than has been exhibited in these difmeter himself. It by this it is meant fcrent instances ; and while they do ho-, to be asserted, that he never, with his nour to Mr. Freuch, they serve to exown hands, manufactured all the parts plaiu why he is so unjustly an object of of a chronometer, and put them together, jealousy and animadversion to his rivals. no more is asserted of Mr. French than may, with equal truth, be asserted of the rate of Mr. French's Chronomerei,

We subjoin, as a matter of curiosity, every other workman. A more extraordinary instance caunot be adduced of the No. 720, as taken at the Royal Obsersubdivision of labour, and of the bene- ratory for seven months previous to its fits arising from it, than this very mat

being made the stoneira. The uniforin.

computing ter of watchmaking. No less than 34 the longitude of different classes of workmen are em- ity of its operation is very remarkable. ployed in making a plain watch (see Mechanics' Magazine, vol. 11, p. 170), while a repeater requires many more; and it

December 4 (1821) -1, i is owing to the excellence which each is

10 enabled to attain in his distinct depart

-1, 9

15 ment, that ihis branch of art has reached

-1,3 such a state of perfectiun as it has done


-1,4 in this country. The circumstances by

Jamuary 2 (1822) -1, 7 which one, master manufacturer may


-1, 9 fairly, hope to be distinguished beyond

28 others, consist in a better choice of ma

-1, 6 terials and workpen, and in a more

February 7 -1, 3 skilful combination of the different parts,


-1, 5 however manufactured or procured; and


1 to every paise that belongs to great emi

22 nence in this respect, we think Mr. French is most justly entitled.


I, 3 The chronometer, No. 1640, made by

5, -1, 2 this gentleman, and which gained the


el, 3 prize of 2001. awarded this year' by the

28 Board of Loriģitude, varied only one se

April 4 cond and 85-100ths of a second, on its

+1, 2

13 mean daily rate, during the whole twelve months it was ou trial at the Royal Ob


-1,5 servatory; and for the last six inonths of the us 45 noths Cond.

27 was reduced

May 3

11 It is also greatly the credit of Mr. French, that his chronovieters have been

17 twice adopted as the standard in surveys


1, 2 made by Dr. Tiarks, by order of Gorern


-1,5 ment, for ascertaining the longitude of

June 6s

-1, 5 different places; first of Madeira, and

13 then of Dover, Falmouth, and Ports

-1,6 mouth; and that, in both these instances,


-), 9 they fully sustained the well-earned re


1,9 putation of their maker. The result in

July 6

7 the former instance was particularly re

11 markable. There were seventeen other

1,7 chronometers employed on the occasion, and the standard gave the same time as the mean of all these seventeen, within two hundredths of a second.

ENCOURAGEMENT OF INVENTIONS. Mr. French has once more entered the lists (which, it is worth observing, are

We have much pleasure in informopen to every one, whether master or

ing our readers, that the Company man) for the prizes to be awarded next which, in our 87th Number, we anyear; and from the first monthly report nouncerl as being in the course of (for May) now before us, it appears that formation for this purpose, has out of forty-eight chronometers ou trial, formed a junction with another So


is that which hus ciety, which had been commenced raried the least ; the greatest variation by other individłuals for precisely the from its mean daily rate being one second

same objects, in consequence of a and 3-10ths of a second,

similar feeling of the necessity of

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one of his, No. 3912


172 rescuing inventive genius from the and that many designs of the best numerous difficulties by which it is promise are, in consequence of the at present surrounded ; and that difficulties which the existing state nearly all the more eminent men of of things opposes to their developscience in the three kingdoms have ment, altogether lost to the world. promised to give the Association the Is an inventor humble and poor, benefit of their counsel and assist who is there to advise and befriend ance. From the following copy of him? He has no access to men of the Prospectus which they have is- science-no patrons among men of sued, it will be seen more precisely


he cannot himself defray what their views are, and what the the heavy expense of securing by suécess which they anticipate. patents the property of his invention,

nor even, in many cases, the cost of

those preliminary experiments nePROSPECTUS.

cessary to deterinine its real value. The prosperity of nations depends He seeks among strangers for pecuon nothing more than the encourage- niary aid, perhaps too for scientific ment of the inventive powers of in- advice, and either falls into the dividuals. It is to invention we are hands of persons who plunder and indebted, not only for all the arts, then forsake him, or, from a natural but for the most valuable, because reluctance to give his entire confithe most original, descriptions of dence to a stranger, makes such an public and private wealth. Every imperfect revelation of his plans, other species of property is some- that nobody can be induced to pathing gained by individuals from the tronize them. Is an inventor, on the common stock; but the productions contrary, in easy

circumstances ? of invention are positive additions Although able to pay all the exmade to that stock by individuals. penses of experimental investigation,

That Great Britain has been pros- he has rarely the conveniences reperous beyond all other countries, quisite for conducting it; and from is to be ascribed, however, less to the

not subjecting his designs to this neexpress encouragement given by her cessary test, he finds, too late, that institutions to useful inventions and they are either not worth proseimprovements, than to the fewer ob

cuting or visionary. Even when he stacles which genius has bad to en- has acted most advisedly in taking counter on British ground, and to out a patent, it is seldom that he the profits of successful adventure

possesses the facilities requisite, to being greater than in foreign states. turn it to a profitable account. It is not speaking too severely of our It will be the object of this Society existing laws on the subject of pa- to remedy the various evils here tent rights, to say that they are not pointed out; to rescue mechanical among the least absurd and injurious and scientific genius from unmerited portions of that mass of unwise le- neglect and oblivion ; to stimulate gislation respecting trade and ma- the energies of those to whom sucnufactures, which the more enlight- cess has hitherto appeared hopeless; ened policy of modern times is now to give to persons of all classes every engaged in effacing from the Sta

possible chance of profiting by their tute Book. They have operated inventions and improvements, and solely as dead weights, and in no re- thus to call into life and full actispect as first movers ; nor can it be vity the whole inventive powers, not doubted that, but for these laws, the only of the native-born British subBritish people would have been now ject, but of all who niay choose to much farther advanced than they make this country their home. even are in the arts of peace and in The Society propose to make such genuine prosperity.

pecuniary advances as may be necesInstead of genius being cherished sary in each instance; to establish and rewarded as it deserves, it is mat- workshops, where trials and experiter of notoriety that it but rarely ments may be made with secrecy reaps the harvest of its own sowing, and dispatch ; to procure the confi


173 dential advice, in all cases of diffi- than two pounds on each share shall culty, of those men of science who be called for in the course of the first are most competent to decide upon year, and not more than four pounds them, and finally to promote, by an in any one year thereafter. As there active and extensive agency, the in- are, however, already many valuable troduction into general use of every plans awaiting the acceptance of the patent or other invention and im- Society, it is not improbable that provement which they shall be the the calls on the share-holders may means of bringing forward.

be less. It must be obvious, that an asso- From the sketch which has been ciation like this can never be influ

now given of the objects of the soenced by any of those motives which ciety for the Encouragement of In, occasionally tempt individuals to de- ventions, it will be seen that it will fraud those whom they pretend to interfere with the interests of no assist and patronize. It must depend class of persons, and ought therefor its prosperity on attaining and fore to excite the jealousy of none. upholding such a character for ho- It will supply exactly what has been nour and liberality, that all may, long much wanted, and what will be without the slightest hesitation, en- alike beneficial to all: to the ingetrust it with the most candid dis- nious and industrious mechanic, closure of their designs, in the per- whose only impediment is his pofect assurance, that if these designs verty, it will afford all the advanmerit support, they will obtain it to tages of a large capital and powerful the fullest extent.

connexion; io the gentleman of sciThe Society will depend for its re- entific or mechanical pursuits it will muneration entirely on the success furnish fircilities which few can at of each plan in the prosecution of present command; while the public which it may embark; it will expect at large will be essentially benefitted no indemnity in case of failure, and by a combination of these advanstipulate only, that when an inventor tages, since it will bring to an earlier begins, through their ageney, to de- maturity the fruits of genius, and rive profit from his invention, he

every improvement in the arts will shall make a suitable return for the be more rapidly followed by an inbenefit he has received.

crease of production. It will, in As the Society, however, is esta- short, become the connecting link blished equally with a view to public between genius and fortune. as private good, it is proposed, that as soon as the dividends to the shareholders exceed eight per cent., they shall be limited to one-half of the

STEAM ENGINE, further profits, and that the other Sir --Among the various imhalf shall be devoted, in the first provements which have marked the place, to the establishment of a Na- progress of scientific information in tional Museum of Machines and Mo- the United Kingdom, none are more dels, and next to the promotion of calculated to fix the attention of the scientific knowledge among those British public, or to excite that spiclasses engaged in our arts and ma- rit of inquiry which necessarily prenufactures.

cedes and accompanies all speculative In order that mechanics, who are projects, than that powerful facililikely to contribute most to the bu- tator of commercial intercourse, the siness of the Society, may be still Steam Engine, when applied to the further participators in its profits, it purposes of navigation. is proposed to call for the capital re- That this spirit of inquiry has been quired by instalments, so moderate most successfully directed to that in amount, and on such long notices, important branch of our national that even persons of very humble enterprise, is strikingly apparent in means may find it an eligible me- the rapid advancement towards perdium for the investment of their fection which has been made in that savings. It is intended that not more almost “

almost " all-powerful" machine.

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Surely, then, it must have been a succession of them) is gratluated subject of regret with others, as well through the whole arc, 5 degrees as myself, that the application of this excepted, that being the only point extraordinary power should not have at which the power is simply a prokept pace with the power itself-I pelling

this the resist

the headway paddle-wheels, as the mode hy which of the ship very much increases,' for the propelling force of steam vessels it is of no use to sing out,“ Feather is applied.

your oar, Jack !" and another strong That the process of rowing origi- objection to the paddle-wheel will nally suggested the idea, and that present itself. the paddle-wheel, by its rotatory Perhaps, by going to extremes, I motion, and consequent facility of can give a more decided character to application, should have appeared the argument. Suppose, then, the and been adopted in the first instance, vessel was laden so that the axle of as not only the most

simple, but the the paddle-wheels was at the water's closest and most effective copy of edge, in that case, the whole lifting that process, I can readily imagine; and depressing force would be equal but that it really is a close and effec- to the whole propelling; so that if tive copy, I shall endeavour, in the an engine of twenty-horse power briefest manner I can, to disprove. could, on the simple rowing princi

For example, suppose the paddle- ple, move a vessel at the rate of eight wheels to be 15 feet in diameter, knots per hour, it would require one three of which are immersed in of forty to gain the same pelocity by water (and, I believe, they are often such an application of the paddlemuch more than that), ench'float, at wheel. the time it strikes the surface, would And now, to put conviction within be at the angle of 34 degrees, and the reach of that portion of your from thence to 44, it must necessa- readers who will be convinced of the rily act upon the vessel more as a disparity of power only by practical lifting than a propelling power. At demonstration, I'would recommend 45 the force is equal ; from 45 to the following experiment in rowing. 134, therefore, are the only degrees Instead of taking the water with the through which the propelling power blade or paddle of your oar at right predominates. At 135, in rising, it angles, passing through and leaving is again equal; from thence, until it it the same, as all good rowers do, leaves the water, at 146, its ten- suppose you feather it to the angle of dency must be to depress the vessel 34 or 35, the consequence would aft; and although the resistance be- be, that it would either skim the comes less as the float ascends to- surface, or fiy out of the tholes, unwards the surface, yet a consider- less secured by a clasp, or something able power is required to overcome of that kind, and even then it would that resistance, which does not con- require the force of two men to make tribute its share to the progress of it take and leave the water, at the the slip. !

same angles which the floats of the It may be objected, that as the paddle-wheels do, and the requital lifting and depressing power predo- for all your extra labour will be a minates only in 20 out of 110 de- loss of speed. grees, through which the floats pass, My object in addressing this paper and that the principal force through to you, is merely to show that a conthe remaining 90 degrees is a pro- siderable loss of power dues take pelling one, the balance must be place in the operation of paddlestrongly in favour of the latter. So wheels; but should these remarks be it is; yet it will be well to recollect, thought worthy of a place in your that this sacrifice of power inde- interesting Magazine, I will, at an pendently of the shock which the early period, explain myself more machinery must sustain when the float fully, by sending drawings of an apfirst strikes the water, and the deaf- paratus, which appear to me calcuening roar occasioned by the rapid lated to increase the velocity, byren

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