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SIR, I herewith send you a de- B, the filtering vessel. scription of a Filtering Apparatus, C, the vessel to contain the filtered wbich I tried for rain water for se- water. veral years, and founu to answer A leaden pipe, of small bore, commuextremely well. It has, I think, nicates from A to B, in the manner reseveral advantages over the one presented in the drawing, in which, at described in No. 22, page 21, and D, is a cock, to regulate the quantity of is as complete. perhans as can be water passing through it in a given time. made. The name of the inventor.

By having the handle of this cock a lever,

six inches or a foot long, and the end I do not recollect.

which is farthest from the cock termi

nating in a point, and a scale fixed beDescription.

hind it, to show how far it is turned, A, the vessel containing the unfiltered the rate of filtration may be regulated water.

with great exactness.

STEAM VESSEL WITHOUT PADDLES, CYLINDER, PISTON, ETC. 201 E is a ball-cock fitted in the pipe, the C also, with an aperture for the ballball of which being in C, stops the pro- cock to work. cess when C is filled.

The principal advantage of this appaF is a cock, wbich will draw water

ratus or the one before-mentioned, ás from this pipe.

described in your work, is, that by stopG is a false bottom, filled with holes,

ping the cock D, and opening F, and and fixed in B, a few inches from the

thereby changing the direction of the bottom, immediately above the entrance

water in B, the sand and gravel are

easily and effectually cleaned from the imof the pipe communicating with A. From

purities they may have acquired. Another the top of B, a small pipe conveys to C the filtered water. On the false bottom,

advantage is, that by the regulating cock, G, are several strata of cleun washed

D, the rate of filtration cannot exceed gravel, the coarsest at the bottom, and

any desired limit; whereas, by the other the finest at the top; the whole occupy:

plan, the rate depends entirely on the ing, perhaps, one-third of the space be

: quantity of filtered water drawn off for tween G and the pipe at the top. On the

use. top of the gravel is a piece of strong flan

I am, Sir, yours, &c. nel, secured by nails to the sides of the

J. S. M. tub, and the tub is filled to within two inches of the pipe with five clean washed

P.S. As some of your readers sand, or, if it be preferred, for the sake of sweetening the water, as well as clear- may not be aware of it, I may ing it, with sand and charcoal, in sepa- mention, for their information, that rate layers ; taking care that the upper- rain water is much better preniost is of sand, and that another piece served sweet during the summer, of flannel is placed on the surface of the bui

by being kept in an underground charcoal, the more effectually to secure it from rising, in consequence of its

reservoir, than when exposed to lightness. B should have a loose cover, the variations of the temperature to keep out the dust, &c. I had one for of night and day.

PLAN OF A STEAM VESSEL WITHOUT PADDLES,

CYLINDER, PISTON, ETC.

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SIR,—This figure is intended to top of the boiler to convey the show the probability of Steam Ves- steaminto an air vessel, D,which has sels being propelled without pad- two valves opening inwards : one, dles, and the usual cumbrous ma- ll, to admit air after each stroke : chinery of cylinder, piston, &c. by the other, b, to receive the steam. the action of the steam, almost im- The latter is to be kept shut by a mediately against the resistance of bar fixed on a spindle turning in. the water, at any convenient depth. side, having one end coming through The part below the line AAA re- the air vessel, with a bunt handle, presents the lower outside part of having a ball, E, sufficiently heavy the vessel ; above that is the in- to keep the valve, b, shut, at any side. B shows the upper part of pressure the steam is to work at, the boiler, with the safety valve. yet so adjusted to that pressure, CC, a pipe fixed over a hole in the that a man may constantly open

202 STEAM VESSEL WITHOUT PADDLES, CYLINDER, PISTOX, ETC. and shut it, in order to work the the water, which will open the vessel. At the bottom of the air valve, u, in D, and let in fresh air vessel, D, are two pipes, passing at cach stroke, 'wbile the waste through the sides of the vessel steam will escape through this above water-level, one on each valve, ll. If there were no air vesside, as at F; to these are joined sel, D, the steam would probably the conducting pipes, G; through be too soon condensed, by coming these pipes is conveyed the impulse in contact with the water in the of the steam into a trunk on each trunks, otherwise this were the side, and as near as may be to the better mode ; and then a swingkeel of the vessel ; the months of plate, opening outwards at the these trunks may be of any form, mouth of the trunks, would close and should make an angle of about after each stroke, and a consider450 with the keel. A valve opens able suction would be felt at the inwards at the highest end of the valve, I, which would draw the trunk, to let the water pass after vessel forward almost as much as each stroke; there is a valve also the impulse of the steam would to keep the water below it,, in force her at each stroke, because order to gain all the resistance then the air vessel being away, and at once. The dotted lines show the only valve, b, working in the a piece of wood brought to an acute steam pipe, the condensation of the angle, to prevent the trunks check- steam in the trunks at each stroke ing the motion of the vessel.. would produce a vacuum in the

steam pipe, which would be felt Operation.

immediately by the valve, I, openWhen the steam is produced in ing, and the vessel being drawn the boiler, B, by listing the weight. towards the front water in the same ed ball, E, the steam will rush into ratio as that water is drawn tothe air vessel, D, and drive the air wards the trunks caused by the out of it (being heavier than steam) vacuum. There might be two i down through the pipe, G, into trunks on cach side the vessel, the trunks, one on each side the acting alternately. It is keel; there it will be resisted by The trunks may be made of the pressure of the water outside strong oak; and suppose each of the trunks, and that resistance them to be three feet high by two will be thrown against the valve, I, feet and a half, and six feet below and thus propel the vessel. The water-level on an average, I take continual opening and shutting the gross pressure at about 3 lbs. the valve, b, in the air vessel, D, to each square inch of the mouth will cause a continual reaction of of the trunks.

Then, 3 feet, or 36 inches x 30 inches=1080 inches x 3 lbs. =3240 lbs.

There being one on each side, multiply by ?

6480 lbs.

Taking a horse power at 300lbs. and paddles, and their unavoidable shows 21 horses' power of resist. friction. ance at the mouths of the trunks I observe the steam-vessels, at employed to work the vessel. Ex. Bristol have paddles five feet long : periment would best determine the by 18 inches decp in the water; length of the trunks; all I aim at that is, 60 inches x 18 inches=1080 here is to establish the principle, square inches ; taking the average by which it does appear, that all resistance of the water at 12 inches, the force of the steanı may be em- or lb. each inch, gives only 540lbs. ployed without the intervention of resistance, or 1080lbs., there being a working cylinder, and its closely oue on each side of the vessel. packed piston, with all the heavy,

I am, Sir, yours, &c. costly machinery of wheels, cranks,

CUSTOMS CONSIDERED SUPERSTITIOUS ARE NOT ALWAYS SUCH. 203 PATTERN-DRAWING CATERPILLARS. buildings now going on on the

A gentleman at Munich, named City lands on the Surrey side, as Hebenstreit, is said to have in

in well as on the adjacent and distant vented a process by which he

country. At present a person enmakes a species of caterpillar spin gaged in business cannot get over a kind of wadding, which is of a

· the old bridge, during several fine white colour, and waterproof.

of hours in the day, in any reasonable He made a balloon of this stuff,

time without danger, from being and raised it, by means of a chafing

obliged to go into the carriage-way dish with spirits of wine, in the

ho to pass some idler or slow timelarge warehouse where he keeps Keeper; a

ne keeper; and if the case is so now, his caterpillars at work. He makes

what will it be if the population them trace ciphers and figures in

increases for another half-century? the wadding. He accomplishes

I am, Sir, this by moistening outlines of Your obedient servant, figures or letters with spirits of wine. The caterpillars avoid these A PROMOTER OF IMPROVEMENTS. tracings, and spin their web around East-place, Lambeth, them: thus any tine figure which has 13th June, 1825. been drawn is represented in the stuff. A piece of wadding, seven feet square, persectly pure, and as brilliant as taffeta, was made by

CUSTOMS CONSIDERED SIPERSTI. about fifty caterpillars between the

TIOUS ARE NOT ALWAYS SUCH. 5th and 26th of June.. .,

SIR, -As nothing whatever can take place in the system but what

is naturul, thc minutest and most " WIDTH OF THE NEW LONDON

familiar transaction is an object of

scientific inquiry. It may likewise BRIDGE.

be assertéd, that not only many of SIR,It may be thought pre- the customs of antiquity, which we sumptuous in an humble individual are pleased to call superstitious, to make any remark on the judg- have rationality connected with ment of the gentlemen managing their origin ; but, even in the the affairs of the New London sciences, more correct ideas may Bridge; but if there is any thing have hitherto been maintained than wrong, or that can be improved, the present modes of philosophiz. and there be yet time to make it ing among the illuminati permit us right, it surely matters not from to appreciate. Under this impreswhom the suggestion proceeds. sion I always feel happy to light

Since this bridge has been so upon the most ancient opinions to much spoken of, I have oftentimes be met with on philosophical subironically said, “Well, I hope we jects, and, as respects modern disshall have a better passway than coveries, I find no ideas so correct the present, otherwise we shall as those formed at the time of dishave the bridge down again." covery. Second editions leave Now, from what I can make out many valuable circumstances omitfrom the plans wbich I have seen ted; and opinion formed on opinion of this bridge, the footway will be (not upon the minutie attendant bat seveu feet wide or thereabouts. on experiment, which are parts of I would ask if this is at all ade- the fact, and wherein the truth is quate to the increasing population best discoverable) is substituted, that is likely to pass over it? In until, at length, established opi. all probability, before this bridge nion, in too many instances, has is opened for passengers, there no better foundation than that of will be five or ten thousand addi- being the hypothesis of some protional persons who will have to fessional dictator. pass over it daily, Look at the In no instance are these senti. 204

JOINTING STEAM-PIPES. ments morc manifestly truc than piece of linen between, moistened the modern practice, in all intro with some fuid, similar to that ductory treatises, of taunting the which promotes galvanic circuancients with their little knowledge lation. in experimental philosophy, and Having been oftentimes edified their idle speculations after first by the “Mechanics' Magazine," I principles. The fact however is,

was, submit the above pro bono publico. that'notwithstanding the high value set on experimental proof, with

Tout some better knowledge of the acting power of nature than what modern philosophy hypothetically maintains, we may go on for ages

JOINTING STEAM-Pipes. experimenting, without forming any SIR,-Permit me, through the thing like a system to correspond medium of the “ Mechanics’ Mawith nature. It is general princi- gazine," to return my thanks to ples only, and not insulated cases, Mr. Way, and your Correspondthat can be said to agree with the ent at Bow, for their answers to system, wherein a few species of my inquiry respecting the best elementary matter, and unity of method of making the joints of means of action, alone exist. steam-pipes, at the same time to

But to the point-It is consi- make a few remarks on the plans dered nothing less than the result proposed of low, vulgar superstition, the With respect to Mr. Way's custom of applying the hand of a method of using Parker's cement man, recently hung, to a wen. for making the joints of waterWhence the practice originated, pipes, it may aoswer the purpose or how it was performed, even tra. very well; but that gentleman can dition does not say; but that it have little idea of the power and might have been, in some degree, effect of steam, if he thinks it would efficacious, and would be still, answer the same purpose for steam. if scientifically pursued, I think pipes. I have no hesitation in sayis nothing unreasonable to con ing, although I have not tried the ceive.

experiment, that the joints would • A wen does not consist of such not stand good fiv. minutes after morbid matter as not to depend the steam was turned into the pipes; for its existence and growth on for, as soon as the pipes become organization and on ciroulation, warm, they would expand, which and when we reflect on the very Would loosen the cement, and, of great ingress or egress of the ethe course, spoil the joint. real fluids of a human body, sud- The method adopted with the denly deprived of life, and the pipes I made the inquiry about, possibility of a wen, brought in was the one proposed by your Bow contact with the body, being acted Correspondent; for, previous to resimilarly on, so as to promote cir- ceiving his information, the iron culation or destroy organization, ceinent was made as he has dithere appears evidently more rea- rected, with the addition of a little son than superstition in the prac. dried clay, pounded and sifted, and tice ; at the same time, any other mixed with the other ingredients, animal, under similar circum- which is considered to bind them stances in all respects, would an- together better. Between the ends swer equally well. Failure of of the pipes was put an iron ring, effect may, probably, arise froin about 3-8ths of an inch thick, and want of opportunity to make the of the same diameter as the pipes ; application the instant vitality is the two ends were then screwed subverted, and also from want of firmly together, and the space beknowing that the parts brought in tween the flanches caused by the contact should have been pre- ring was filled up with iron cement, viously made humid, or have a and well rammed with a caulking

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