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250 : ADVANTAGE OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE TO MECHANICS. ADVANTAGE OF SCIENTIFIC KNOW

upon the ground, the whole length of

.. the piece of cloth. Upon this rude maLEDGE TO MECHANICS.

chine, worked in the way I have medtioned, the Indians produce those mus

lins which have long been such objects We extract the following con.

of curiosity, from the exquisite beauty vincing arguments in favour of the and fineness of their texture. But mark spread of scientific knowledge among

the other effects of this adherence to the

same practice from generation to generathe working classes, from the Inau tion, to which, by their superstition, gural Address of Mr. Heywood, the

these poor Indians are bound. In India

this manufacture has existed, almost in President of the Manchester Me

the same degree of perfection, for some chanics’ Institution.

thousand years, yet it has given birth to no inventions, to nothing calculated to

improve the condition of the people" It has already been stated to you in those who carry it on are in poverty and the Prospectus, that the Institution is abject dependence. formed for the purpose of enabling me. " In our own country, on the contrary, chanics and artisans, of whatever trade the cotton manufacture, as compared they may be, to become acquainted with with the ages it las existed in India, is such branches of science as are of practical only of yesterday, yet it already constiapplicatiou in the exercise of that trade;' tutes more that one-half of our whole and again, that there is no art which trade; and you may estimate its prodoes not depend more or less on scien gress from the fact recently stated by tific principles, and to teach what these Mr. Huskisson, in the House of Comare, and to point out their practical ap- mons, that in the year 1765, the value plication, will form the chief objects of of cotton goods exported from this counthe Institution. Some of you may pos- try was 200,0001. ; in the last year it was sibly think, that scientific principles can upwards of 30,000,0001. It has giren have little to do with your occupation; birth to inventions to which we are that, to learn your business thoroughly, mainly indebted for our present prenothing more can be necessary than to eminent station and prosperity; and, be diligent, during your apprenticeship, what is more to the point in this case, in your endeavours to imitate the skil which have enabled us to receive from fulness of those under whom you work. the Indian the cotton which grows at I will vot deny that, by this means, you his door, to manufacture it into a shirt may acquire great dexterity in your oc to cover him, and to send it back to his cupation :-it is thus that the Indians, own country, and sell it to him, cheaper with whom the cotton manufacture ori than he can provide it himself. ginated, produce their beautiful muslins.

" I need not say more to convince you All the implements they use, in the dif

that the undeviating adherence to estaferent processes of the manufacture,

blished practice-the mere imitation of from the cleaning of the cotton, to the what others have done before-precludes converting of it into the finest muslin,

all advancement; it reduces man to the may be purchased for the value of a few

condition of a machine. Skill thus acshillings. With the exception of their

quired is little better than an instinct, loom, there exists among them no ma

and it has been well observed, that you nufacturiuginstrument that can bear the

are as little entitled to expect improveuame of a machine; nor is there any

ment in such a case, as in the architectrace of the Hindoos having ever dis

ture of the bee and the beaver. played any mechanical ingenuity. They

"If this course had been pursued in spin their yarn upon the distaff; the

our own country, we might now have loom upon which their cloth is woveni,

had no other mode of spinuing cotton is composed of a few sticks or reeds,

than on the cottage wheel-no other which the weaver, carrying them alout with him, puts up in the fields, under the

mode of bleaching a piece of cloth, than

by the tedious process of exposure for shade of a tree, digging a hole large enough to contain his legs and the lower

months in the open air. part of the geer, the balances of which "Butif, wlien you are at your work,you he fastens to some convenient branch are not satisfied with merely doing what over his head. Two loops underneath you have seen others do, but try to find the geer, in which he inserts his great out the reason for each operation that toes, serve as treadles, aud the shuttle, passes tbrough your hands, and the priuformed like a large netting-needle, but ciple on which it depends, you are then of a length somewhat

t exceeding the in the sure way of making iinprovemeuts breadth of the cloth, he employs also as in your trade. Nay, if you only ohserve batton, using it alternately to draw accurately each operation in which you through the weft, and strike it 11). The are engaged, you are already on the loom has no beam; the warp is laid out threshold of improvement.

ADVANTAGE OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE TO MECHANICS. 251 "Hargreaves, the weaver, who invented year 1805 he commenced preparations the spinning jenny, was first directed to for lighting with gas the large factory of the invention by seeing a cominon spin- Messrs. Philips aud Lee, iu this town ning-wheel, which had been accidentally (Nianchester), in which he completely overturned, continue its motion while it succeeded. The example was soon follay on the ground. This was the first lowed by others, and how generally it great improvement in spinning, and it has been extended, and with what beneresulted merely from the attentive ob- ficial effects, I need not tell you. servation of an active and inquiring, but altogether uneducated mind.

“ There are two very beautiful exam

ples of the union of science with art in “ The ingenious contrivance for regn- the safety lamp, and in Hall's singeing lating the values of the steam engine, machine. To the construction of the was discovered by a sharp lad, who set first, Sir Humphry Davy was led by fiudhis wits to work to see if he could not ing that flame would not, under ordinary lessen his own labour.

circumstances, pass through an aperture “Mr.Watt was led to his firstimprove

less than one-twentieth of an inch in ment in the steam engine from his ob

diameter. In the other, by the interservations when he was employed to put

vention of a partial vacuuni, Mr. Hall in order a working model of an engine

las cansedd flame to pass through the inon Newcomen's construction. He soon

terstices of the finest muslin. discovered some material defects in its “But I wish to bring

“But I wish to bring more immediately principle : one of these defects he reme

home to you the application of science died before the model left his hands;

to your occupatious. The mechanic, others he was not at the moment able to

whose knowledge of his business is couaccount for: his vigorous mind, how

fined to the skilful handling of his tools, ever, applied itself at once to their tho- is in so way of improvement: he must rough investigation. Science, ere long, learn also the nature and properties of removed his difficulties, and led him to thos

those materials on which he worksthe invention of the separate condenser; their relative weight, hardness, toughaffor na st

he vess, strength-the effects upon them of practical application of the principle of heat, gravity, position, &c.; these inlatent heat.

volve principles upon which his art de“ I fear the minute details of the suc- pends, and these will be taught him cessive steps, by which Mr. Watt pro here, ceeded in this, and his other greater im “The art of the carpenter is directed, provements of the steam engine, might

almost wholly, to the support of weight occupy too much of your time at present.

or pressure, and, therefore, its princiThey will be found in his life, and are

ples must be found in mechanical science. very interesting: nothing can convey to you a stronger idea of his sagacity, in “ The great improvements in the art genuity, and scientific attainment, or of bleaching depend immediately on cermore strongly enforce what I wish now tain principles of chemical science, which to impress upon you-the connexion of Mr. Watt, and your late venerable and the principles of science with manual la- enlightened townsman, Mr. Henry, were bour. There cannot, indeed, be a more the first practically to apply in this beautiful and striking exemplification of country. the anion of science and art, than is ex- " The improvements in the art of cahibited in the steam engine.

lico-printing and dying have the same “You have another (in two senses of immediate dependence on chemical printhe word) bright example of the same ciples. with which this thea

“ These examples inay suffice to shew tre is illuminated. To the jutroduction

you, that the principles of science are of this admirable practical application of

applicable to your business. It matters the gas from coal, we are indebted to

not what that business is : I have taken Mr. Wm. Murdoch. He was first led to

my examples from those trades in which his experiments on the subject, by ob

the improvements are prominent, but serving the brilliant flame, which you

similar reasoning applies to all. must all have frequently seen issue from coals ou the fire at the commencemcut " It is the great object of this Instituof their ignition. He pursued his inqui- . tion to put you in the way of acquiring ries with great ability and perseverance the knowledge of these principles, and for sereral years, by subjecting a great to show you how you may most readily variety of substances to distillation by make this knowledge available to your ardent heat, and carefully investigating advantage—to remove the difficulties their various products; but he inade no which now obstrnct your further adattempt to carry his discovery practically vance--to teach you so to observe, that into effect, until he had, in a great mea- your observation may be profitable to Eure, brought it to perfection. In the you."

union

( 252 )

DOUBLE PUMP,'
[ DESCRIBED BY M. O Z ZANAM. ]

SIR,—The annexed figure repre. and descending stroke of the piston, sents a Pump, described by M. Oza and therefore affords a continued nam in his Récréations Mathému- stream of water. Pumps with double tiques et Pliysiques (Paris, 1750), action have been in use some time, which appears to be much superior but the one above described is more to the pumps now in use, though I simple and powerful than those on have never met with a notice of it the usual construction. in any other work. Its action and

I am, Sir, construction may be easily under

Your constant reader, stood by the figure. A is the work

E- Aing cylinder ; B, the piston, or London, 18th June, 1825. plunger, the rod of which, D, works, in an air-tight manner, through the stuffing-box, C. E is the suctionpipe, or pipe leading from the well;

PRIZE CHRONOMETERS. and H, the discharging-pipe. FF SIR-I am induced to trouble you and GG are valves, all opening up again with a few observations, in wards. The piston is represented consequence of an article in your Maas ascending, and therefore the gazine, Number 98, headed “ Prize valves at FF are open, and at GG Chronometers," although it ill acshut. I is the plate closing the bot. cords with my numerous engagetom of the cylinder, and by which ments. the whole may be securely bolted Your new Correspondent, I condown to the work supporting it. It ceive, steps rather out of his way to will easily be seen, that this pump charge me with the warınth of temraises water both in the ascending per, which, according to his opinion, 253

true.”

PRIZE CHRONOMETERS. I have exhibited in defending my his contract, and received his wages, conduct against the unmerited asper- he is at liberty to work for another, sions that have been cast upon it. or on his own account, if he thinks How far the honest indignation I proper. Nay, as the Royal Observahave expressed will admit of such a tory is open alike to all, he inay go charge, I leave your discerning and compete with the rest; and, readers to determine ; but I can as- therefore, he can have no just cause sure this gentleman, that I shall be of complaint. f, indeed, a case ocgoverned by no man's advice in re- curred, where a master bound over gulating the language which I may a valuable workman to work for himthink proper to use against an indi- self exclusively, such an advantage vidual who attempts anonymously taken of talent might excite com. to vilify his neighbour. Nor do I plaint; but as no such case has oc. envy any man his feelings, who can curred within my knowledge, I aptamely suffer his character to he prehend the object of your Corretraduced, without exposing the au- spondent must fail of the effect which thor to the contempt he merits. he seems so desirous to produce.

This Correspondent, who calls But while my workmen are satisfied himself a real workman, but not a with me, I feel no regret in having rival of mine, thinks I am bound thus excited the jealousy of those in candour to come forward and with whom I have no connexion; for avow whether I am, or am not, the their jealousy only proves, that real juaker of all the chronome. « Envo

“Envy will merit, as its shade, pursue, ters which have appeared at the

But,like the shadow, prove the substance Royal Observatory in iny name, that I may thereby silence the complaints of “real workmen.” I know of no Your Correspondent wishes farsuch complaints. Certain it is, that ther to insinuate, that I am ignorant none of my workmen have complained, of the instrument which the term and with those of others I have no chronometer is intended to express ; thing to do. But I must protest but had he made himself acquainted against the right of any man to inter with the derivation of the word, he fere either with myself or my men; nor would not have risked such an asdo I feel myself bound to answer in- sertion. Chronometer is derived from terrogatories which are manifestly Xpovos, time, and jetpw, to measure : impertinent. It is well known that a and, therefore, every machine for the chronometer is not the production of admeasurement of time is, in the a single mechanic, but the result of most rigid acceptation of the term, the combined labours of many: I a chronometer. "But I am as welí must, therefore, protest, on general aware as your Correspondent, or any grounds, against the right of any in- other man, that the word chronodividual workman to claim to himself meter is applied by the scientific the honours that exclusively belong world to those machines only that to his employer; and if workmen measure time most correctly, as hox cannot complain individually, they and pocket chronometers, astronocannot collectively. Moreover, as mical clocks, &c. Indeed, every workmen cannot have their names machine to which the compensation attached to their employers' ma- for heat and cold is PROPERLY apchines, they can have no responsi- plied, whether it be in the balance bility; and, consequently, it is he or the pendulum, may be strictly alone who makes himself responsible, termed a chronometer; and in the and who must bear the obloquy of bad knowledge and experience of this performance, that is justly entitled to application, as well as every other wháterer credit may attach to the good department of my business, I yield performance of his machines. The to no man. I would, however, evince laws that regulate master and work- little prudence in imparting this man are perfectly well understood ; knowledge and experience to the it is a voluntary compact, and the public, through any other medium moment the workman has completed than that of my machines ; and I

254

Viator's “PERPETUAL PUMP." rejoice to say, that the charactersity, stop; because the two weights which they have obtained for me, has will have found the point of equiliplaced me beyond the reach of any brium, from which there is nothing influence which jealousy or envy to disturb them. It is true, Sir, may endeavour to excite against me, that a siinilar machine, with a valve and for which I can never feel too in the bottom or side, might be made grateful to an enlightened and dis to act (with a supply of water) percerning public.

petually ; but this Viator does not J. M. FRENCH. appear to have thought of. Royal Exchange, July 14th.

Should you deem this worth in.

serting in your valuable Magazine, · [We are sorry that the above let

I will describe the nature of the neter reached us a few hours too late to

cessary valve, &c. in another comhave a place in our last Number. To

munication. communications which involve the

Montis, Jun. vindication of character, or correc

A similar objection has been made tion of error, we make it an invaria. by N. H.; but let our rea

varia. by N. H.; but let our readers atble rule to give immediate inser. tend to what follows, from a third tion. Edit.)

Correspondent.

Sir, In the Analytical Essay on the VIATOR'S « PERPETUAL PUMP" Construction of Machines, of M.M. Lanz

and Betancourt, is described a machine Sir,--As the motto of your 93rd similar to the “ Perpetual Pump" in Number, and immediately over its your 93rd Number. I send you a Drawfrontispiece. “ the Perpetual Pump” ing and Description, extracted from the

work.

R. CRUSOE. of Viator, stands the truly philosophical sentiment-" It is always requisite to think justly, even in matters of small importance.” Subscribing most fully to the Fontenellean maxim, and perceiving your Correspondent, “ Viator,” to be in error in this “ matter of small importance," I take the liberty of addressing to you a letter, for the purpose of pointing it out.

By the design (and explanation), it is proposed that a sort of box shall be divided into two parts, and placed about the centre upon an axis; one Water is made to fall, as at C, in the part to be filled with stones, and figure, into the vessel, D, which is coninto the other to run a stream of

structed to turn, or swing on an axis,

M, and is divided in the middle into two water (the other end of the box,

equal parts by a partition. When the with the stones in, to be attached to base of this vessel is in an horizontal a pump-handle). When the said position, the water falls so as to divide compartment has a quantity of water itself equally by the partition before. in it creater than the weiht of the mentioned; and in any inclined posi

tion the whole quantity of falling water stones in the other, that half of the

will be received by that side of the vessel box will begin to descend (and, of which is elevated. In the position shown course, the other to rise), but it will by the figure, this entire quantity is renot, as supposed by Viator, empty it- ceived by the side, B, of the vessel; when self; but, on the contrary, only such

on that side of the vessel becomes full, it a quantity of water will flow out of

turns on its axis in the direction of that

side, and descends till it reaches and it, as that which remains will have rests on the stop or support, F, pouring just sufficient power to keep the out, by this change of position, the quan. box in that inclined position, in tity of water which produced the motion. which exactly as much water will

: The opposite side fills in its turn, and

brings the vessel into its first position, run out as runs in, and then theresting on the support, G; and the ope“ perpetual pump" must, of necess ration is repeated.

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