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278 ON THE ADVANTAGES OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGR. adjuncts being as before, using the same din brow

a rd tattoo force, the wedge was driven under the ag.3. Protar as respective weight to the distance as

92140 signed in the first trial in only 52 0 M strokes of the bob.

The result of these two experiments suggests some obvious improvements in

- Milo the ordinary shape of the wedge, for, when of a curved form, as in the 95 916

ordw second experiment, it is propelled in

Dziqash o considerably less time. I conceive-[103

1 vody that the length of the wedge, ce, being b99bi

A met xde, the height, or, more concisely, 2911

c

ADD TO ME cdo x ce, when applied to the first in to 90 Ingaga viieb doiden stance, is a constant ratio to the mo

i ! !!n 147 mentum (M) on the end, x, but is in. Now, instead of the common form, creased in the second trial by the radius admit the sides xz and yz, to be curof the curve space on the wedge, now vilinear, then it should seem that a altered, expressed by the initial force wedge so formed will cleave the space, Czd, or R = Czd, by which means the cdz, in less tiine, using the same adpower is gained in point of time,which, 'mitted force, than a wedge of the comby analogy, is as 73 to 52, or, con- mon angled form can possibly do. If,

maisto una heino as appears from the previous experiversely, 7, making about 2-3rds, being

ments and calculation, a curved wedge 1-3rd of power gained per curve.'' will raise a weight sooner, by a given

If the radius of the proposed curva power, than one of the common form, ture were twice the length of the wedge,

it follows, by analogy, that one curved then 22-4, the effective movement; on both sides, like the above, will have because the difference between the a double effect."

I am sir.. te length of the curve, Czd, and diagonal

F line, Cd (first instance), x 4, produces

Your obedient servant,'!!" the same thing; for, by putting 8, the greater lineal space Čzd, and 1, the Fisher's-street, Sandwich Italic

Lib .471 lesser or diagonal Cd, then Min. each experiment, when inversely con- ON THE ADVANTAGES OF SCIENTIFIC sidered.

'KNOWLEDGE; 4.15 10 The improvement which I propose BY MR. ROBERT LEWTHWAITE. 11'02 in the form of the wedge, is to make one side curvilinear, a curve whose

Amongst the great variety of subradius is twice the length of any pro- jects which are presented to the posed wedge; thus, in raising of human eye, there scarcely exists one weights, &c. in less time by the same more interesting and instructive than power, or in the same time by less that which is afforded by the study power, i. e. 1-3rd of time, or 1-9th of of science, especially in tracing the power, will be gained in comparison just and wise laws throughout the with the straight-lined wedge.. :whole course of Nature, and in this

These hints furnish us with another study the mind is not only amused, consideration as to the form of a wedge but inquiry, in many cases, roused, requisite for cleaving of wood, &c.

which, if properly pursued, must which is to have both sides curved, as in the following figure.*

ultimately arrive at that desideratum

which is not only the life of the Explanation.

mind, but, in a measure, the life of ABCD is the bottom of a tree sawn the soul; for what persons are there off at AB.

who can observe the various compoxyz, a wedge, curved on both sides,

sitions and deconipositions which are in the act of cleaving.

continually going on throughout the

whole creation, the various celestial * Our engraver has scarcely done and terrestrial phenomena that are justice to the drawing--the curvilineal continually calling forth our humble figure of the wedge is not sufficiently intellect, and not feel within him a indicated.-Edit.

desire for that knowledge which can

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ON THE ADVANTAGES OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE. 279 conduct him through the world with ledge. The advantages which science credit and reputation?

produces to those who are distinThose who, during the whole course guished from the rest of mankind of their lives, have been engaged in by their exalted attaininents, are a close and unvaried pursuit of clear and undisputed—the splendour wealth, and at first, perhaps, wanted of reputation, and not unfrequently opportunity, and afterwards inclina- the real benefits of riches and station. ion, to cultivate their minds, are apt On the cases of such men it is not to despise that knowledge to which my intention to dwell, though I could they are strangers; and the con- point out the varied pleasures they tempt they feel is often rendered enjoy in the pursuit of knowledge, more strong by the various instances whilst new phenomena of the most which daily present themselves, of interesting nature are continually men most famous for their scientific being displayed before them, and researches, being able to amass but delightful reflections are perpetually a small portion of that wealth to occurring, which fill the mind enwhich others have devoted their gaged in this grand and sublime whole attention, and in which their pursuit. The advantages which I whole thoughts have centered. intend more particularly to dwell on, Foolish, indeed, is the expectation are those which may be possessed that nothing on this earth but wealth by common application, assisted by can produce happiness, for, after common abilities. having enslaved themselves through- First,--Science is valuable, as it out the whole course of their lives opens to our view and explains the in search of that delusive treasure, hidden secrets of Nature. they find that they are, at the end, Second, - It is valuable, as it as far off as at the commencement affords an entertaining and highly of their career.

useful employment for those leisure But how different with the philoso- moments, which, at times, occur to pher! Instead of his thoughts dwelling the busiest of men. Whoever has on wealth and grandeur, which are compared his mind as it was in the but mere baubles in his sight, he is moments of thoughtless dissipation, employed in contemplating the works when time flew unheeded and undis of Nature, in which he always finds posed to any useful purpose, with some new phenomenon to account what it was after he had bestowed his for, or some more striking experi- time on the cultivation of science, will, ments to attract his attention, and I think, be sensible of its advantages; in this pursuit he unites happiness no one, indeed, can deny it if they without riches, and instruction with- only allow that the mind will be well out fatigue, whilst those in the pur- employed; for it is generally known, suit of wealth receive little or no that if a man has not objects to attract instruction in their career, and, at his attention, he will naturally turn the end, are deluded by the false aside to those vices which are injurious phantom they have been pursuing. to his morals and constitution, and

The gay and the volatile, who, by often pernicious to society., their habits, have rendered them- Science will also be found valuable selves incapable of serious appli- to a man of middle rank, as it concation, turn away from the sciences tributes more to his real happiness with contempt (as they can only be and tranquillity of mind than the acquired by study), and the neglect greatest wealth, unaccompanied with they are apt to cherish ‘is strength- a taste for those truly sublime stuened by the deficiency they observe in dies which have been so long and so the humble philosopher, with regard deservedly admired and patronized to those graces of politeness which by the world, and upon which our they have

been taught to consider of finest poets have resounded on their the highest value and importance. tuneful lyres.

To both these characters of inen It is to science we owe the arts it may be useful to see clearly stated and enjoyments of civilized life. the real merits of scientific know- Science is the parent of machinery,

280

IMPROVED FILTERING APPARATUS. universe. Take the steam-engine for morta api, pe at some time or foś which we rank the highest in the melancholy hours to which every

is example : other

It forms one British industry, where would be our of the most solid pillars of human inanufactories and commerce? How happiness, and contributes as much should we be able to compete with to virtue as to rational amusement. our neighbours in the cheapness of merchandise and the beauty of workmanship? Let only these things be

DISTILLATION OF SEA WATER. well considered, and I think every one will, with me,

The distillation of palatable water exclaim

at sea has been effected by P. Ni“Philosophia mater ompium bonarum cole, of Dieppe, by simply causing arţium est.”

the steam arising from boiling sea In conclusion I have only to re- water, in a still, to pass through a mark, that, “ next to religion," I stratum of coarsely powdered ehar: consider science the best and sweet- coal, in its way to the condenser, or est source of recreation in those

worm tub.

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Sir, I think you!

« Improved F; false bottom, to receive the Filtering Apparatus,” in Number 86, water from the ball-cock, E, and to may be reduced to one cask, by in- supply the tubé, cc.:* troducing through its centre a tube,

CC is the tube through which the

water from the cistern, W., is to pass to to convey the water from the cistern

the bottom of the cask. to the bottoin of the cask.

BB, the space to receive the water You' appear to have no means by from the tube, cc.

vis which to carry off the * aqueous abo

D, the false buttom, as you represent, mination that must remain at the five inches from the real bottom. 18769 bottom of the cask. I think the fol.

G, a cock 10 discharge the impare lowing would be an improvement on

s'uló

A, a cock to discharge the pure water. your plan.

The water should all be discharged,

G. C. "and''the cock's left open during one Manchester, April 20, 1825.

night in the weeks viii si | Description.

It is not necessary to have a vessel

to retain the pure water, as the quantity E, a ball-cock, to regulate the filling discharged by the cock, A, will be raof the cask from the cistern, W. pidly replaced,

water:

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**SIR, -If you consider the above inven- bells, it gives the advantage, by a retion of mine, for conveying telegraphic ference to the index, of telling the intelligence, worthy a place in your use- servants what is wanted, the graduated ful Magazine, your speedy insertion of scale being marked with such things the same will give me much gratifica- as are usually wanted in a house. tion. If I am not too sanguine, this ap

This contrivance would be found of 'paratus, if carried into effect,would con- great advantage in cases of fire. Let vey intelligence to the remotest parts there be one station in every parish, of England by the darkest night as with pipes leading from thence to every well as by the brightest day, and an- engine-house in the metropolis. At "swers would be returned with nearly

the moment the men bear the alarm'the same facility and precision as two whistle at the engine-houses, let them persons can question and answer each shut the cocks and look to the index, other, sitting in the same apartment. and the point where the fluid or index It is also suited to domestic use, for, rests will mark the parish the fire is besides answering all the purposes of

in. Let them make another move ar

the spot.

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282

CALCULATING WEIGHT OF IRON PLATES. the parish station, and the place where of pumping air into the tube,SSS, in Lon. it settles the second time will point out don,it must be exhausted from it,which, the street. As all the persons on the rarefying the air within the air tubes,

SSS, the atmospheric pressure will act different stations will receive notice at

upon the fluid in glass tubes, and will the same moment, the engines may be

cause it to sink in proportion to the directed immediately to converge to quantity of air exhausted, viz. from

30 to 0 (in both places at the same I am, Sir,

instant), or any point between the two. Your obedient servant,

ClIf intelligence is to be conveyed JAMES BUTTERS.

from Portsmouth to London, what is

directed to be done in London must be 36,Wigmore-street, Cavendish-square, done at Portsmouth.

July 6th, 1825.
Description of the Drawing.

CALCULATING WEIGHT OF IROY BB are two graduated glass tubes,

PLATES. the one at London and the other at Portsmouth, charged with tinted oil. Sir, Being constantly employed

SSS, a metallic tube which connects among iron plates, range backs, &c. the two glass tubes, and extends from

and having frequently occasion to London to Portsmouth. It is proposed weigh them when I want only a rough to lay it eight feet beneath the surface

calculation of the weight, I was inof the earth, where the temperature is duced, in order to save trouble, to use always the same, so that no expansion the following manner of calculation, or contraction of pipes can take place. which I generally find comes very near CC, air-cocks, with whistles to give pound of it.

the real weight, frequeutly within a alarm.

EXAMPLE. PP, pumps for condensing or rarefying air in the air tubes.

Suppose I want to find the weight

of a cast plate which measures 32 The upper dotted line shows the

inches long, 20 inches wide, and 1 inch height or level at which the tinted oil

thick. I first multiply the length and will stand both at London and Ports. breadth together, which gives me the mouth, when the apparatus is not at number of square inches contained; work--the lower dotted line, the surface I then divide by 4, supposing four of the earth.

square inches of cast iron to be equal Having described the different parts to one pound-this gives me the weight of the apparatus, it will only be neces- in pounds; I then divide by 112, 28, sary for me to explain the manner of and 4, which brings it into cwts., as working it. Both the alarm-cocks,

under :with the whistles, must always be open

32 when the apparatus is not at work.

20 Suppose we want to make a communication from London to Portsmouth,

4) 640 shut the alarm-cock in London, and pump air into the tube SSS, and the

112) 160 (1 cwt. air injected will drive the air in the

-9761

112 tube wder ground to Portsmouth, when it will escape through the cock there and make a lond whistle; the

28) 48 (1 quarter. man, upon hearing it, will immediately

28 shut the cock, and the compressed air not being able to escape, will press

20 lbs. upon the fluid in tubes BB in both places, and raise it from 30 to 60 in ihe graduated glass columns, or any By so calculating I find the weight point between the two. The figures or is 1 cwt. I quarter, 20 lbs. If the plate characters on the corresponding gra- is one inch and a half thick, I proceed duated scales may represent letters, in the above manner, and after I have words, or sentences, as may be agreed divided it by 4, which brings it into upon. When the characters or figures pounds, 1 then add the half of it, then to be pointed to stand below 30, instead divide it by 112, &c.; but, if it is two

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