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WORKING STEAN TWICE-BREWING, ETC.
engine, may be employed to work a WORKING STEAM TWICE-BREWING
SWING condensing engine without further 30 31 O ZZANAM’S PUMPS, 11 de expense ; and if these two engines
Sir, I see three Papers in your are placed sufficiently near to eachi Journal of the 23rd July; to which I other that the same beam, pumpbeg leave to reply. "
rods, &c. &c. may serve for both, it Ist. Page * 243. 'Oni Working would then become a double-power Steam twice. In the double, cylin- engine. der steam engine, as well as in all 2d. Brewing. Page 245.-Your others, the power is gained by the Leominster Correspondent says that difference of the pressure of the steam he“ never met with any inalt that on each side of the piston. For in- would produce one hundred pounds stance suppose the ligh pressure of saccharine matter per quarter." cylinder has steam in it acting on the I think the cause of his deception is piston at 45 pounds per square inch, in his employing a common brewing the steam, on the other side of the saccharometer, which merely gives piston, counterpoises with a medium the difference of weight between a pressure of (we will say) 30 pounds barrel (36 gallons) of wort and a per square inch, in consequence of barrel of water, but this is a very its being allowed to commence ex- different thing to the quantity of dry panding by the motion of the engine, saccharine matter contained in that intobaslargestor low pressure cylin- barrel of wort, which may, however, der, the moment it has done its duty be at alb times discovered by multiin the first this expansion is con- plying the indication, per saccharostantly I decreasing what I will call meter, by 2.5; that is, two pounds the untagoriist pressure, during the and a half of the dry saccharine exwhole stroke, until it sinks to about tract of malt, when dissolved in 36 25 Or 17 pounds per inch at the end gallons of water, will merely exhibit of it, and the steam is their of suffi- one degree, or one pound, by the reient elasticity to work the second saccharonieter. It is true that 200 for larger cylinder, oon Bolton and pounds of saccharine matter from a Wato'gri principle; and this second quarter of malt are rather an excespower is gained by condensing the sive produce in country situations, steam on one side of the piston in because the maltsters will not clean this cylinder, whilst the elasticity of the malt sufficiently from the roots 15 ör 17 pounds on the other side and dust attaching to it before it is carries it through the stroke : there. measured; but the London brewers fore, the moving power in the first generally buy their malt by weight, orhigh pressure cylinder is equat, by or after ascertaining that it is suffisupposition, to (45_30) 15 pounds ciently screened to weigh from 37 to per inch, and the same steam in the 40 pounds per bushel. second cylinder produces a further 1. 3d. Ozzūnam's Pump, page 252.power, of nearly equal intensity, per I have long had a pump on this ogquare inch, but as the size of the principle at work, for the purpose of
piston in the second cylinder is inuch raising a variety of liquids, and I Clonger than the first, the power of nuch approve of it, with this single the former may considerably exceed caution, which I advise all persons the latter. It is, however, more than to keep in mind who have any intenprobable that if the steam from the tion of employing it ; viz. that the high pressure cylinder were dis- pump be always fixed sufficiently (charged into a separate vessel, suffi. Tow for the fluid to run by its own Veiently large to allow it instantly to Pressure into the working chamber, Sexpand to about 17 pounds per or 'there will be a difficulty in what
Isquare inch(or to its cominon elas- is technically called " fetching it," fticity in the boilerg' of condensing should the valves at any time leak. enginesy before it entered the low 1953 I am, Sir, pressure cylinder an extra power, ty Your obedient servant, might be gained that is, the steam, nisl ut 'I' ;'Ti J. HAM. as it escapes from a liigh pressure -}* Somerser:' -ens portas ir
GEOMETRICAL METhods of PRO. AO, OB, &c. are the sides of a hex DUCING PENTAGONS, HEPTAGONS, agon that may be inscribed in the
Sixth, half the line KL, namely KG or LG, are the sides of a heptagon that may be inscribed in the circle.
Seventh, divide the line, AC, into two equal parts in F; draw the line, OFI, cutting the circumference of the circle in 1, join Al for the side of an octagon.
Eighth, divide that part of the cir. cle, LAK, into three equal parts; one-third part is from L to N; then a line drawn from L to N will be the side of a nonagon (or figure of nine sides).
Ninth, the line OE is the side of a
decagon. -L SIR, SEMr. G.A.S., in No. 77, 0 Tenth, the line NG is the side of page 324, of your valuable Maga- an undecagon that may be inscribed zine, has said, that he is not in in the circle and the lines AG, GO, possession of any method, strictly are the sides of a duodecagon that geometrical, to produce the penta- may be inscribed in the same circle. gon, heptagon, nonagon, &c." I beg
9 1 an. Siniai 31 19 leave to communicate the following
យៗប ១២ methods; not in the least disparag
sit Your humble servant,gilens ing this laudable design to simplify Pembroke Dock 6B29223 subsp geometry, and to reduee it to a level with the practical mechanic, but ra- d i ns to Seogha 2017 rol boyola ther to facilitate the saine, should 1 2941q pilus byd to erotiq the methods be approved of. His Wola 9111 WATER CHURnaq 903 to To find the side of any regular poly- Sır, --In No. 98 of your valuable ob gon, from a trigon to a duodeca- Journal, I perceive a new species of gon, that may be inscribed in any Churning Machine invented, which given circle, suppose ABCD. appears to be a useful contrivance; First, through the centre, (), draw
but it has often occurred to me, that
but i the diameter, AB, dividing the circle running water might be made use of into two equal parts.
to assist in churning, to great advanSecond, take in your compasses tage, particularly in large dairies; half the diameter, ÁO or OB, and and I should consider that a wheel, setting one foot in A, with the other on the same principle as that of a mark K and L, and draw the line water mill, would be of infinite serKL, which will be the side of a tri. vice, and save much manual labour. angle that may be inscribed in the The barrel might be formed after the circle.
model of the common barrel chum, Third, draw the line, CD, through and a bolt might be easily contrived the centre, 0, cutting the diameter, to stop the wheel at pleasure. If you AB, at right angles, and then draw consider this hint worth inserting in AC, the side of a square that may be your columns, I trust that some of inscribed in the circle. »
your able mechanical Corresponfor Fourth, set one foot of the com- dents will put the above machine in passes in G, and extend the other to motion, or treat more largely on the C, and draw the arc and chord, CE, subject, ud betonglaga yllenitaos wlrich will be the side of a pentagon, tibbb10 Jenam, pirgan easl bas that may be inscribed in the circle. 39T Your most obedient servant,
Fifth, any of the semidiameters, t haup hno992 97 S. R. C.
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1026191 to Sir, I send you the substance of The result of a mathematical in18 chapter in Venturoli's Mecha- vestigation is, that when a weight is nics, 3 as I think the subject of raised by means of a crank, the arin which it treats has not been noticed of the lever, at the end of which it in youš valuable work
acts, may be considered as constant When it is intended by the conti- and equal to 7-1 lths of the breadth nued turning of a wheel to produce of the crank. 174 an alternate motion, a crank' is fre- The ascent having been completed, quently made use of. This is most the descent follows through arc RTF, coinmonly the case in wheels em- which brings back the piston to the ployed for the purpose of raising the point whence it set out, In this depistons of hydraulic pipes. The rod scent the moving power P does not of the piston is attached to the elbow at all oppose the weight Q. When F of the crank. As the wheel turns the crank is employed to raise the round, the point Frises to R, de- pistons of tubes, the piston, after scribing the semicircle FGR; it af- reaching the highest point R, deterwards returns to P, through the scends by its own weight, and does opposite semicircle RTF, and thus not exert any force on the machine. the piston rises and sinks by turns. Hence, during the whole time em10 In this movement, even when the ployed by the crank in veturning and moving force is equivalent to a con- bringing back the elbow to the lowstaut weight P, and when also the est point, the moving force is idle : force of the piston is equivalent to a to avoid this, a double crank is used, constant weight Q, hanging from the as in the figure. arm of the crank, the inotion cannot 1. By inserting this you will oblige
be uniformly accelerated, because, your constant reader, ; whilst the piston ascends through
0. F. F. the semicircle TGR, the arm of the lever of the weight Q is continu- inte ! "ally changing it 15. nothing at the
QUICK TANNING.N point F, it is greatest at the point Sir-In your first Volume, under IG, where it is equal to the breadth the head of Quick Tapning," you give Orof the cranks and it vanishes at a short notice of an invention by a Mr. the highest point R. Whence it is Spilsbury, of Leek, of a new method Peasily seen that the motion will be of tanuiug hides, in a wonderfully short continually accelerated, but by less
un espace of time; but you have said no
thing about it ever since, although I and less degrees in the nrst quadrant have been expecting to see some notice FG, and then by greater and greater of it in almost every Number. I take degrees in the second quadrant GR. the liberty, therefore, of reqıtesting
298 WASHING MACHINES MANAGEMENT OF BEES, ETC. that, if you know any thipg, further sod: MANAGEMENT IOF BEES. 9 03 respecting this discovery, you will STR. 19 Should soul again agitate communicate the same through the medium of your valuable Magazine the inquiry concerning the best me. or if Mr. Spilsbury should see this, per thod of managing Bees, I think the haps be would be kind enough to say following may be noticed : 1g9TR something of it, as't, and numbers of “It is the common practice to place my brother chips, would be very glad the hives where the sun has the to hear more about it. If it really pere greatest influence, such as beneath forms what your first volume states it
volume states, a south wall, and to let them reddes, it must be a very curious invent main in the same situation during the tion indeed ! UW 1-nos winter. For the summer this is all 416 I am, Sir, yours respectfully, I right? but as the winter approaches, to pritzdo 31 AN OLD TANNERI' the híves should be placed where the WP.S. My attention has been more sun never appears. It is not so much particularly drawn to this subject the degree of cold that injures the lately, in consequence of my having bees as the variations. Under a been informed by a friend, that a patent south wall the sun is sometimes pow. Machine for Tauning had been some erful. even in the depth of winter ; where exhibiter in Lambeth, but that
at thus the bees are roused into action,
the was the extent of the information I
and are ill prepared to meet the excould get. Whether it was Mr. Spils. an bury's or not, or any thing further, I
treme cold of the night. Besides, could not learn. . 300
when lying in a torpid state, which
7.1,307, they do during the coldest weather, mnogome 4
", 13°46 the bees do not require so much
food ; and I am led to believe that WASHING MACHINE- EXPLANATION,
the cold is not so excessive during SIRJ-A Correspondent, signed the night where the sun has not Islington, in Number 89, page 78, shone during the day ; but even al. desirest asfurther explanation of my lowing the reverse, still I think that Washingi Instriment, described at as the degrees of cold are less variapage 424 of your thirdt volume of ble. the north side of a house or wall the Mechanics Magazine. 10 11 6945:1 is the preferable situation during the a The points, CD, rest/upon the bot- winter. Nor should the bees be reLomrand opposite side of a wasli-tub, moved into the sun until the trees which is the frustrum of a rectangu. have so far shot forth their buds that lar pyramid standing upon its lesser they may find a sufficient repast. base. The washer's brush rests upon. I think those hints may be useful the curved part, AB, and by so do- to those who would wish to become ing gives a great support and practical apiarists. My knowledge strength to the body of the washer of the matter is theoretical but I So much-water is put into the tub as to allow part of the flutes to be above
follow the practice,
I am, Sir, ... waterul Dip the linen in the water, etimhs vond hediant Cartonto 99992 and soap it upon the dry part of the soiton om
vangih atly board then with both hands rub the 19oqisasdT991119tasolle Tinen upon the flutes. By this met diw dlow to Jalo 1911 1189 1992 and thod the washier fig/enabled to do BCAST TOP RAT stermindering if double the work, coinpared with the
Sur_The insertion of my Letter aisual method of rubbing onet hand against the other. The Autes also in Number 96, published June 25th tend to keep the lather suspended
has produced replies from Modeuntil the dirt is removed conse- ratolsóds Friend to Truth,"sand quently there will be a saving of
froin John Gast, Shipwright.?? The soap. 1 16) bi r s first of these L
190booms: stiliui ngo't an answers his talents resemble chis Dils tri n t ! ! Gail: 11918 testu Your humble servant ! Insold
trades and unless he makes a better
use of them, are likely 10 /remain it is !Rp. Burton. stationarihov Next in order itcomes
Cottingham, July lathi, 1825. runding A Friend to Truth. He appears
to be not exactly a shipwright; but subject, should like to see them we may call him a carpenter, if we maintaining superiority, but the cara may judge by, his ships, and a tales penters of America, I grieve to say, bearer, according to his own story, leave them behind an immeasurable His reply forms no extenuation distance; and on the Continent, work palliates nothing ; but, on the con- has been done (barring the ornamen. trary, develops more fully the igno, tal) equal to the work of the river rance and self-willed obstinacy of the Thames in durability, if not altoge. operative sliipwright, in striving to thers so pleasing in appearance, gain an ascendancy totally at yari- Practice, according to one of the ance with their calling and station. soundest axioms of political ecoThe object of their ambition, accord- nomy, leads to perfection and we ing to this writer, or tale-bearer, is may, ere long, from the obstinacy of to be no longer men dependent upon our own workmen, see those of our their masters, the medium through Continental neighbours surpass our which they derive ernployment from wishes and expectations. Hitherto the public, but to make their mas- repairs, to any considerable extent, ters entirely subservient to their will. could not be effected abroad without Last in order comes John Gast, losing the privileges of British regisShipwright;" to whose letter I shall ters; but the Legislature has granted proceed to reply, less from respect a great relief, by suffering repairs, for him, than for a set of nien who, to any extent, to be accomplislied I firmly believe, are grossly misled, abroad, for the space of two years ; and might, and can do well, if they a measure which the evidence on only follow the dictates of their own the combination laws rendered highly minds, John Gast premises, by expedient. But I will not pollute stating, that shipowners have not your pages by-making/ quotations suffered loss by the combination of from evidence so disgrateful to the shipwrights for increased wages, and operative mechanics. Next coines as, by his showing, wages did not a violent tirade against shipowners,
because reference was made to the maller of right founded upon recipro- wages workinen obtain Shipowners; city such as employing men whom according to Mr.John Gast, get from they consider best qualified for their seventy, to ninety hundreds a year, contract work. This explanation, and that through the mental and pliye so vastly intelligible, might do for the sical acquirements of the operative ship London stationer, Moderator ; ” wrights. He might, in his zeal for but what will your readers think first causes, have stated with equal when I assert, without fear of con- truth, ihat they gained this sum per tradiction, that carpenters have been, annum through the mental and physiby these Union men, continued so, cal requirements of the tool-manufacs with as much pertinacity as the ab- turers. I, as a shipowner, know of sence of actual force would admit, none who have made money through who did not possess the qualification this instrumentality.Some few, by of a raw apprentice. The Shipowner their talent, connexion, and informahas seen caulkers also at work with tion, have made money as shipown. like pretensions. This glaring mis- ers; but for one that has been suc: conduct, coupled with other regula- cessful, ten have been the reversé. tions as to hours, according to John But further, it is said, shipowners Gast, justifies, by no means, any titt etu yotein complaint from a shipowner. | We Fit
e F # We läve read the evidence, and can have also rápiteous story about at- see no pretence whatever for thus chatending to dock ships, without being racterising it. On the contrary, we think paid for their fide's work; this, to that, in general, it does great credit to use homely language, is like the boy the intelligence and good sense of the quarrelling with his bread and but men ; displaying, of course, much of the
blunt honielness of expression common ter 19 We have next an exordium
to their walk of lite, but nothing of upon the superiority of workmanship which they have the least occasion to be in the river Thames. I, as a British ashamed of. EDIT.