from designs given by Mr. Telford, the celebrated civil engineer, who recommended him to that situation, and as an architect for the County of Cumberland. Mr. Nicholson returned to London in 1819, when he commenced his “ Architectural Dictionary."

His book of “Mechanical Exercises” was produced soon after his return to London, the object of which is to give a familiar description of such parts of a building as are susceptible of being explained without the aid of geometrical lines.

In April, 1814, the Society of Arts voted to Mr. Nicholson their gold Isis medal, for a new improvement in hand-railing; and in May (the same year) that Society rewarded him with the sum of twenty guineas, for the invention of the Centrolinead.

In the year 1815 he was rewarded with the silver medal of the same Society, for the invention of another Centrolinead, which is now brought into general use amongst those artists who make perspective drawings in architecture and machinery.

The numerous articles which his “ Architectural Dictionary” contained led him to many curious investigations, and induced him once more to turn his attention to analytical science, the result of which was, that during the publication of that work he produced a small tract on the “ Method of Increments, Essays on the Combinatorial Analysis," and his “Rudiments of Algebra,” all within the short space of two years. The last of these three works was published on the 1st of July, 1819, and the “Architectural Dictionary” was completed about two months afterwards.

Mr. Nicholson's “Essays on Involution and Evolution" were honoured with the approbation of the French Institute and Royal Academy of Sciences. That work, and bis “ Analytical and Arithmetical Essays," were published in the year 1820.

Mr. Nicholson's latest production is entitled, “The Builder and Workman's New Director,” from a Memoir prefixed to which we have extracted our present brief notice of the ingenious author. This work was called for by the great improvements that have been recently made in every branch of architecture with regard to geometrical construction, and is one of his ablest and most complete performances. It embodies as much of Geometry, Conic Sections, Trigonometry, Projection, and Perspective, as will enable the student to comprehend with facility, and represent with accuracy, all the constructive departments of building, with the application of those principles to Masonry, Carpentry, Joinery, and Hand-railing.

The whole of Mr. Nicholson's active and scientific labours have been directed towards applying science to useful purposes--an object beyond all praise, being generally too much neglected by men who are given to study.

Mechanics Magazine,


No. 85.]


[Price 3d.

“If we examine our own feelings, and judge of Science by its influence on ourselves, we shall be obliged to confess, that although less obviously, it is, in fact, as much recommended to us by the pleasures to which it ministers, as those Arts that we regard as entirely devoted to the excitement of agreeable emotions.”—Ferro on the Fine Arts.

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propel a steam vessel twenty-five yaras

per minute, * in any current, the mechaSir, I observe, in a Number of nical power increasing as the velocity of the Mechanics' Magazine for Janu- the water increases. Though not deeply ary, a Plan for Warping Vessels up Rapids, and now in operation on the ciple, we venture to predict that it will be

found to answer all that is above attriDelaware. The principle is pre- buted to it; an ingenious mechanic, not cisely that which occurred to me five, the inventor, being confidently of the years ago, when in Canada, and same opinion." which, by the united action of ma

The above advertisement appeared chinery and the current, I wished to for some weeks, but was unnoticed the St. Lawrence. I accordingly and I never again agitated it until inserted an advertisement in the

**Canadian Courant,” published in my return to England, when, still Montreal, addressed to the pro-provement that could be made in

considering it to be the greatest im-, prietors of those vessels. Allow me, Sir, to present you rican rivers, and highly desirable on

the mechanical navigation of Amewith the following detail

, under the the St. Lawrence, 1 sent a drawing expectation that you will insert it, and description to the Society of and, by placing it on record, do me that justice which I consider is due reward; for, to be able to add a

Arts, but without any view to to me :

single fact to science, is, I consider, “To the Proprietors of Steam-Buats a sufficient remuneration for the

navigating the St. Lawrence. trouble of its discovery. The Proprietors of Steam-Boats

The following is a copy of my navigating this river, are respectfully in letter which accompanied the drawformed that the subscriber is possessed of ing, and the Secretary's reply :a plan by which the ascent of those ves

“ Alnwick, June 8, 1822. sels up the rapid below this city, may be “SIR, -I beg leave, through you, to greatly expedited. The principle is such, submit the cuclosed drawing of an imthat its extension may greatly improve the inspection of the Society for the Én

provement in mechanical navigation, to the mechanical navigation of the rivers couragement of Arts, &c. of America, open new routes for its ap- “ In my passage from Quebec to Montplication, and, by giving it action where real, in November, 1819, I observed that it has heretofore been dependent on the the power of the engine became totally operation of towing, render it superior Marie, a little below the city of Mont

ineffective in a current called Sainte to natural impediments.

real. In consequence, recourse was

« T. H. BELL. had to cattle and manual labour to tow “Montreal, June 20, 1820."

the vessel against the stream.

red to me, at the instant, that the power I explained the plan to the Editor of the engine might be applied to wind of the Canadian Courant,” Mr. the vessel up, or to render her automatic Driscol, and the following are his in any current, by a very simple arrangeremarks, which appeared in the same

ment of machinery, and an arm, as it

were, be added to mechanical navigation. Paper

To effect this I would fix the cog-wheel, “ INVENTION.-An ingenious person in

A, on the axle of the water-wheels, this city has lately favoured us with a which would drive the wheel, B, and its description of an addition to the present concentric stream, or drum, c. At the machinery of a steam-boat, by which head of the current, or a little above those vessels may be made to stom cur: where the engine would be sufficient to rents hitherto impassable. It is well impel the vessel, I would sink a kedge, kuown that, in currents of a certain ra- with a buoyant hawser attached, to repidity, the mechanical power becomes main floating in the stream. This hawser totally ineffective, the descent of the being grappled on board, and applied to water being quicker than the revolution of the paddles. In order to ascend, recourse must, therefore, be had to cattle * This remark supposes the paddleor manual labour. Tó obviate this in

wheels to perform 25 revolutions per convenience is the intention of the pre- minute, and the diameter of the drum to sent improve nent, it being calculated to be only one foot.

It occur


3 the drum, C, one map or more taking it ber 71, of your Magazine, calls him. off (in the manner represeuted in the self) full credit for his humanity, drawing), the vessel would herself ascend

but I am afraid bis .plan for airing the current with a velocity proportioned

Coal Mines will be of no farther use to the revolutions of the water-wheels and the diameter of the drum. I may

than to inform his practical readers observe, that the current itself would that he has never been in one. assist the engine, and thus the very im- It is certainly true, that hydrogen pediment to the nuvigation be made one

gas, in a state of quiescence, floats of the means of overcoming it.

at the top of atmospheric air, and is “T. H. BELL.

found at the roof or upper part of « P.S. In situations such as the cur- a mine; but when there is a current rent Sainte Marie, a kedge would be unnecessary, for the hawser could be fast- of fresh air passing through the ened on shore, and two, applied alter workings of a mine, as inust be the nately, would haul up the vessel. This case if they are to be kept pure, principle of motion might be otherwise it is well known that these gases usefully extended.

One application, mix and render a mechanical sepaperhaps of some magnitude, would be ration impossible. Had it been otherof water-wheels is injurious to the bavks. wise, this gas would have been inBoats, in canals, which at present are noxious, as it is the combination that dragged by horses, nright be towed, seve- makes it so explosive. ral together, by a single coiling-boat, To a practical reader it would be drireu by steam or horse-power. Haw. sers might be made any length, and; into a refutation of your Corre,

worse than waste of time to enter where the canal was winding, he retained in their proper position by rollers placed spondent's plan; I will content my. along the banks.

self with making a remark or two, « Arthar Aikin, Esq.".

en possunt, on some of his means of carrying it into effect. In the first

place, as to “ boring upwards." The “Society of Arts, &c. “Adelphi, London, Dec.

3, 1822. operation of boring is done by chisels

and inflexible iron bars or rods, called “Sir, I am directed to inform you, that your Plan for Warping

Steam-Boats boring-rods, about three feet long, up Rapids has been considered by a Com- with alternate screws and sockets at mittee appointed for the purpose, and the ends; the uppermost one having their opinion confirmed by the Society; a cross-head or handle to it, for the the result of which is, that your endea

convenience of the workman. These vours, in this instance, are not entitled to their reward, but that they cousider rods are of considerable weight, and themselves obliged to you for your good this weight, when they have bored a intention and exertions.

few yards down, is the power ap“ ARTHUR AIKIN, Şec. plied to drive the chisel into the “ Mr. T. H. Bell,”

stone below; the workmen's employI remain, Sir,

ment being to raise them a little way Your most obedient servant, out of the hole, and, after turning

THOMAS H. BELL. them partially round, to let them Alnwick, March 4th, 1825.

descend by their own weight. Now, [The principle of Mr. Bell's plan how your "Correspondent

could imais evidently the very same as that of gine that a ton or more weight ot Colonel Clark (described in our 71st rods could be held in a vertical posiNumber), whose success, in

tion, to bore upwards, I am at a loss

reducing it to practice, furnishes the best to imagine. Boring upwards is cer. commentary that can be offered on tainly done to explore dikes, &c. the soundness of the judgment passed for a few feet, but beyond that it is upon it by the Society of Arts. found impractitable. EDIT]

With regard to your Correspondent's strong box, &c. it is so absurd

that I only notice it to remark, that PURIFYING COAL-MINES. the most general cause of explosion SIR, I give “ A Staffordshire in coal-mines is the falling of strata Farmer and Land-Drainer” (as your composing the roof of the mine, Correspondent, at page 317, Num- wbich stops up the air-courses, and


4 HYDROSTATICAL PARADOX, WEIGHT OF THE ATMOSPHERE, ETC. grávity) can be made to exert a greater of seven millions and a half of pounds, of less pressure than each of its remain or three thousand three hundred and ing equal parts ; consequently, if the fifty tons within the small compass of water in the tube compress a given little uiore than four cubic inchesweight upon half an inch of the surface force that may be yet increased, ad infiol the water in the hogshead, there will nitum, by merely lengthening the lever be an instant counter-exertion of an applied tu the screw. With this, as a equal force by each remaining half-inch momentary power, perhaps steam, gas; of the whole surface; and the effect or gunpowder, can never be made to would be the same were a solid body compete; and may it not, in time, be einployed, of a proper construction, in found in human ingenuity to make it, as place of the Auid. Thus, take any closed a power, answer the purposes of all ? iessel, of sufficient strength, containing At least it appears intended to serve the say an internal surface of 100 square purposes of man in some way yet unIniches, fill it with water, and let a small known, else why is such omnipotence

ylinder, with a piston, be properly in placed in his hands? scrted, the end of the former circum. To the remaiving part of his first scribing, say an area of half an inch, and question, Why au hall-inch column, of the latter exactly fitting. Then, upon ten feet in height. should have greater the piston, a force of fifty pounds being effect than a three-inch column of five compressed, there will be an instant feet in height? + W. X. may find his exertion of ten thousaud pounds within answer in the law in hydrostatics, of The whole of the confining vessel ; or, which he seeins to be aware, namely, if instead of this apparatus, a male that all columns of water, however varyand female screw be used, of one ing in circunference, being of the same sixteenth thread, and an inch in diame altitude, have equal pressure on equal ter, put into effect by a crow or handle spaces at equal heights. But, doubting 12 inches in length, with a force of 50 my ability to be sufficiently clear by mere pounds, then will the amazing, pressure words, I beg leave to introduce the folof 60318,72 pounds be sustained by every lowing figures :1884th parts of an inch, or upwards

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