IMPROVEMENT ON SHOEMAKERS' SIZE-STICKS. that a large portion of the powder scientific attainments, where it may used by heavy ordnance was actually still be seen. thrown out unignited, and conse- ' As the contrivance for boring out quently useless, by the sudden ex- the said chamber may be usefully plosion of that behind it, he had applied to other purposes, I should been led, by much reflection, deep thank some of your ingenious readers study, and analogical reasoning, to to favour the public with a sketch invent a cannon, to obviate the im- and description of such a one, in perfections he saw in those in com. order to ascertain if a similar coinmon use, and effect a great public cidence of thought should be devesaving of that (more especially at loped in this, as in the subject of that time) very important article. this letter. In the mean time, He suggested, therefore, to confine

I remain, Sir, nearly the whole requisite quantity of powder in a spherical chamber

Your most obedient servant, within the breach of the gun, and

J. WALKINSHAW. communicating with the main calibre by a narrow bore, only half the diameter, or one quarter of the area

P.S. As I am concerned with the of the said calibre ; judging that the

blasting of rocks, &c. and anxious to . concentrated form of most of the

discover the most economical method powder within this sphere would

of using gunpowder, I should be have a tendency to more simulta.

glad of information from some of neous ignition, and the partial confinement afforded by the small bore

your readers, whose suggestions, if

reasonable, shall be put in practice, would increase the effect of explo

to ascertain their respective merits. sion, with even a smaller quantity.

How far his reasoning is correct, I pretend not to say, though I confess to have been very sanguine of its merits at that time ; my rising

IMPROVEMENT ON SHOEMAKERS' hopes, however, suffered some de

SIZE-STICKS. pression, when he informed me of Sir,-The Shoemakers' Size-stick, his having applied to several officers as at present constructed, is useless of distinction, who all agreed that for taking measure in inches, as the no new scheme would succeed that fixed guage is placed about a quarter did not originate with the Board, or of an inch within the beginning of had the support of great capital or the first inch of the scale of inches, great interest.

and thereby the guages only describe It would be trespassing on your the length of the foot, or last, in forbearance to say more, but the sizes ; whereas, by the simple altercurious coincidence of two people ation of making both scales comhitting on the same thing so exactly, mence at the same point (the inner roused my dormant feelingsnot edge of the end guage), the sizemore alive to my brother's merits stick would give the measure both than to a love of justice-to claim in inches and sizes, and the ruler for him the priority of invention. would then answer as calipers for

If any proof were wanting of the general purposes, as well as a sizecertainty of my narrative, it may be stick for shoemakers, had by producing a small cast-iron The improvement is so obvions cannon which he made at that time, and easy, that the manufacturers boring it out of the solid by the help will doubtless adopt it, if pointed out of a foot-lathe, and tools of his own in your useful miscellany. making; but what I thought the most curious thing, was boring out

I am, Sir, the interior spherical chamber. When Your humble servant, finished, he presented it to the sons

Rof a gentleman at Coleford, of high Aberdeen.

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Sir,-It has been remarked in act in unison with and from the power your valuable and widely-extended of the foremost. Magazine, that if every man would contribute his ideas as they arise, in

BBBBBBBB are the fan or the course either of his employment paddles. or his leisure, it would be the means C is the stay for the outside of the of general improvement. In com

work. pliance with this invitation, I lay before you the above sketch of an D is one link of the bolt-chain, improvement in the Paddles of a with a rule-joint to keep it stiff when Steam-boat.

straight, and to permit it to pass In the present paddles there is over the side of the wheel when in much power lost, as, of the three motion. paddles in the water, there is but E is the fan or paddle, as fixed in one that acts with full power at one the chain. time, for the disengaging of the last counteracts the first; and, again, F is the side of the vessel. when the vessel is head to wind, in consequence of the great height of

The wheel, fan, and chain, are simi. the wheel, the resistance is much

lar to a chain-pump; the chief differgreater than according to the plan I ence consists in square fans instead of have now to propose.

round buckets. Description of the Sketch.

The dotted line shows the height of AA are two octagons, or a circle re- the case above the whole. duced to a greater number of sides,

I remain, Sir, placed at a certain distance on the side

Your obedient servant, of the vessel, according to the number of sides; the foremost to act from the

W - Gx. power of the engine, the after one to

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Sır,-Your Correspondent, “T GIR,-İn Number 104 of your va. C-n," of Derby (p. 345, vol. 1v.), luable work, I perceive an excellent may obtain such information as he invention of Mr. H. Matthews, for requires, on referring to Gregory's counteracting the danger to which Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, many are, and ever must be exposed article • Pedometer.' Stuart, in his (in the present construction of gigs), very interesting History of the Steam occasioned by the horse falling, or Engine, page 124, mentions an aperen stumbling; both which circum- paratus of this sort being used by stances more particularly occur in the celebrated Watt to tell the going down hill, which, for many number of strokes made by his reasons, often renders the accident engines. Such an apparatus in a of a very serious nature. Now, Sir, printing-office would, no doubt, be I am one of those“ thinking persons,” very useful; and as one to count as who, as Mr. M. observes, would high as ten thousand need not cost “ doubtless adopt his plan.” But it more than twenty or five-and-twenty appears to me, that the beauty of shillings, we may expect soon to see his vehicle might yet be improved, them in general use. If T. C-n is not by an alteration in the principle, a printer, and will tell us so, he but merely, in the first place, by shall be supplied. building the gig lower, to agree with

I remain, Sir, the fashion of the times; and secondly, by causing the step to reach

Yours sincerely, as near the ground as possible, which

HENRY RUSSELL. would render the safety-irons less

London, September 5th, 1825. perceptible. No doubt, many who use fashionable gigs would at once condemn Mr. M.'s plan, as offensive to the eye; but if a vehicle were con


HOUSES. structed, according in every respect with the gig of the present day (ex Sir,-As the Chinese method of cept when the safety-irons inter warming their houses appears apvened), even those very individu- plicable to our green-houses, and, als who so much regard outward perhaps, the room of the artisan, appearance, and set safety in the with a little improvement, I beg the background, would probably se insertion of this account of it in cond Mr. M. in his opinion, and your very valuable Magazine. eventually “ adopt his plan.” He in building a house they make must be aware, however, that some two stove-holes, one in each sidegentlemen would object to his plan, wall, about three feet from the gable as it would appear that they were end. The holes are a foot square; driving a horse that was not able to one serves for receiving the fuel, and keep on his legs. But though some the other to let out the smoke, when will risk their neck, rather than be the stove is tinished. There is a forehand attempt to save it, let partition of brick, which runs from " thinking persons” put up with the one side of the house to the other, singularity of having two or three about five or six feet from the gable, extra pounds of iron attached to and only eighteen inches high, which their gig, as, one day or other, this may be called the front of the stovevery extra metal may possibly be of hench. Between this and the gable infinite value, though it be inerely are built several other thin partitions

of brick, in a direction at right angles I am, Sir,

to the first, having a small opening

at the extremity of each. For ex· Your most obedient servant,

ample, suppose the passage in the S. R. C. first partition to the right hand, and



363 in the second to the left, and so on,

GAS-LIGHT PIPES. alternately, to the last, which communicates with the hole on the other

Sir, I would, agreeably to your side of the room, for letting out the smoke. These divisions being made,

few inches to spare) something that, the whole is arched, or otherwise'

erwies has come under my observation when covered with brick, above which

employed in the gas-fitting way, and is laid a layer of clay or plaster,

when practically employed in that to prevent the smoke from rising

· department twelve months ago in through the surface. It is plain

London. that, below this bench, there will be

Having been called to rectify a a winding channel for the smoke,

gas light that would not burn, in the from one side of the room to the

house of Mr. More, Serle's cutfeeother. A few handfuls of brush

house, Carey-street, I commenced wood. straw, or any kind of fuel, pulling down the pipe leading to the will warm the bench as much as is light, and found that it was very necessary to work or sleep without much corroded with, as I thought, feeling cold. It is generally covered

the common dry sort of incrustation with inats. felts, or other thick that adheres to the sides of the pipe. stuffs, according to the ability of pursued the usual ineans of clean

ing it, which is with common iron the owner. I am, Sir,

wire, annealed, drove through it,

and, to my astonishment, on my apYour obedient servant,

plying the wire to the inside of the * * * * * * pipe, and driving it up and down,

the contents (tlie corroded matter) exploded with the report of a musket

through the opposite end resting on MACHINE FOR LOWERING Corfins. the ground : the smell was that of

Sir.-The draft of the Machine gunpowder. If any of your able to lower Coffins (No. 105) is incor. Correspondents can explain what rect. As the wheel and three nuts the mixture could have been comare at present placed, not one of posed of to inake it so highly exthem can turn the nut. H. should plosive, merely by the friction or not meet the wheel. F. but better percussion of thin soft iron wire, I without the great wheel. Suppose

should feel inuch obliged for the the nut, I, was on the cross-piece,

information. and parallel with the nuts G and H,

I am, Sir, then a small wheel in the same pa

Yours respectfully, rallel line would do the business. The three nuts and wheel may be

RE all of one size, say nine inchés dia

Abertawa. meter, which would leave 27 inches for the width of the frame; the use P.S. As the situation of the pipe of the wheel between the nuts is makes a inaterial difference in the merely to give a contrary motion to nature of the deposit, I would wish the two rollers, A and B. If the you to understand that the gas light nuts, H and G, are of the same was in the street lantern above Mr. number of teeth, the motion of the More's entrance, the pipe half-inch rollers will be uniform, whatever copper, running along the iron ornamay be the number of teeth on the ment of the lantern support ; likenut, I, or the wheel, F; for wheels wise the sinall stop-cock, belonging working tooth to tooth neither acce to the light inside the lantern, was lerate nor retard motion.

always kept open ; the light was, like I am, Sir,

four others, put out by the main

çock; therefore the pipe that is ocYours respectfully,

cupied at night by carburetted hyR--H- . drogen is, in the like way, full of


HAINAULT SCYTHE. atmospheric air in the day-time, in The improvement consists in mixing consequence of the small lantern- a small proportion of quicksilver cock being always open ; such was with the lead, by which means the the case with the present one. May shot is rendered harder and heavier, not this produce a very different and divested of the arsenic, which chemical action on the inside to what was one of the chief objections to it would if the air was excluded, the original patent shot. Other adforming some phosphorescent com- vantages are stated to be, that a shot ponent, having a fulminating nature of a smaller size is procured for

guns of smaller calibre, yet equal to larger drops; that the game killed

by it keeps better ; that it is as clean IMPROVED SHOT.

as silver to handle, and may be carA patent has just been taken out ried loose in the pocket; and that it for a new method of making shot. has less friction in firing.


Sir, I send you a rough sketch

HAINAULT SCYTHE. and description of a Simple Blow The Hainault Scythe is now unpipe, which I find to answer ex- dergoing the test of experiment in tremely well. If you think it worthy Scotland, and two farmers have been of insertion in your much-admired

brought over from Flanders for that publication, it is at your service.

purpose. It consists of a short blade I am, Sir,

of twenty inches, or nearly like the · A constant reader,

point-half of an ordinary hay-scythe, H. R. W.

and has a handle of the same length.

The blade during cutting is quite Description of the Drawing.'

level, both from point to heel, as A, a deal-board, of any convenient well as from edge to back. The hansize.

dle stands in a position nearly upB. a large bladder, to which is right, or inclines forward at the top. adapted the stop-cock and jet-pipe, C. so as to form, with the blade, an D, a piece of wood, with four cords and

de angle of 80 degrees. That portion

to attached to it (as the sketch indicates),

es of it held in the hand is turned back which pass through the board, A. .

a little, or nearly to 45 degrees, and E, a weight attached to the lines,

is longer than the breadth of the which causes the piece of wood, D, to

hand, on which overlength the arm press upon the bladder, and, of course, rests, and is strengthened during drives the air through the jet-pipe to cutting. In the left hand the onethe spirit-lamp, F.

rator holds a staff 3. feet long, at the

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