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50 HYDRAULIC PUMP-STATE OF SCIENCE IN OUR DOCKYARDS.

Bloody-bones of his maturer years; and BINGLE-BARREL HYDRAULIO PUMP.

the Calculus (oh! poor Calculus !) a phanSir,-As an admirer of your inte tom dreadful to his imagination. But, resting publication, and a Member

amidst all his vituperation of the calcuof the Mechanics’ Institution, I can- bu

lus, I would ask, Does he know what he not withhold any suggestion which I meansIs he aware in what way it may not withhold any suggestion wnicht be applied to the study of naval architecthink may tend to promote your ture and is he aware of the value of views. The many excellent articles this naughty calculus in other sciences ? which appear in your Magazine must if he be aware-if he do know, I shonld

mitivation of have expected that he might have been greatly add to the cultivation of

led to indulge the innocent hope, that science, and elucidate much abstruse

poor Naval Architecture, too, may be matter : permit me, therefore, to offer benefited by its almost infinite powers. you the above Drawing and Section If he he not aware of these things, it was of a Single-Barrel Hydraulic Pump, not quite wise in him to expose himself with a double action, which is both by this abuse. But I suppose Anti

Calculus was very happy before this horsimple and easy, and may be appli. rific calculus was ever heard of in a dockcable for many purposes where a yard; and subscribing to the poet's maxim, double barrel cannot be conveniently where ignorance is bliss,”' &c. he would fixed, or for deep wells. It may be again be very happy if it should never be pked by a crank or water-wheel. heard of more.

The question, however, is of too much and will keep a continual stream, as

importance to be discussed merely with the pistons act alternately.

a reference to the opinions and tastes of

H. C., or of the class (unhappily a very Description.

large one) which he represents, viz.

all those who wish the good old days Fig. 1 represeuts the pump in full play.

pumpurun play. were never to pass away—those whose F, the fly-wheel.

interest it was for them to remain-10EE, the plates in which the cog-wheels gether with those whose yearnings for

the benefit of past times are easily transtravel.

formed by them into fearful anticipations B, the pistons in the barrel, A, draw. for the future. ing from a tank, D.

This matter is of much higher interest;.

it is a national question, whether we Fig. 2 is a section of the plates, with shall remain the most ignorant of the the cog-wheel.

maritime nations of Europe in the sciFig. 3, the same, with the side plates ence of nidst importance to us, or whe

ther we shall make some struggle to rescrewed on to keep the wheels in their

deem our character ? Let us see what place.

the Commissioners for the Revision of Fig. 4, the wheel cogged half round, the Civil Affairs of the Nary, in 1804, said

on this subject : so that it travels up one side and down

" In this country too little attention the other, which gives the two an alter

has been paid to naval architecture; nate motion.

and, unfortnuately, what was given to I am, Sir,

it a few years ago seems to have been Your obedient servant,

discontinued, without having yet been

turned to much practical use." '* * *

B. H. “ Where we have built exactly after Church-street, Camberwell.

the form of the best of the French ships that have been taken, thus adding our dexterity in building to their knowledge

in theory, the ships, it is generally alSTATE OF SCIENCE IN OUR DOCK

lowed, have proved the best in our navy;

but whenever our builders have been 80 YARDS.

far misled by their little attainments in Sır, -I was much amused by a little the science of naval architecture, as to ebullition of spleen which appeared in depart from the model before them in one of your late Papers, under the signa any material degree, and attempt imture“ Anti-Calculus;" the writer of provements, the true principles on which which has been at much pains to prove, ships ought to be constructed being inithat because our ships have been good, perfectly known to them, have been they ought never to be better, and apé mistaken or counteracted, and the alpears to think it little less than high trea- terations, according to the information son to attempt at improving them. Sci. given us, have in many cases done harm. ence and mathematics, in naval archi- “ While, therefore, our rivals in naval tocture, are to him the Raw-head and power were employing men of the greatest

STATE OF SCIENCE IN OUR DOCKYARDS talents, and mostextensive acquirements, must be highly gratifying to its mem. to call in the aid of science, we have con- bers, that those whose opinions are tented ourselves with groping on in the most valuable to them, and who havo dark, in quest of such discoveries as the best means of information, are the chance night bring in our way.”

best satisfied with their exertious, the The names attached to this document most content with their progress. Vide are, perhaps, icarly of as much weight the notices from time to time of Lord as that of A. C., even supposing the real Melville, and Preface to Knowles on game itself given.

Dry Rot.] Let the Commissioners also speak for But we will meet A. C. on his own themselves, as to the qualifications of ground. It is brought as a proof of failure, the Officers of Dockyards formerly, and that the Regent yacht was not the finest of their reasons for an alteration of the ship of the kind that ever sailed. It is system:

also stated, that this institution has now “In the whole course we have de been established fifteen years, and from scribed, no opportunity will be found of the way in which the very candid A. C. acqniring even the common education has put it, it may be understood that the given to men of their rank in life ; and Regent was the result of fifteen years' they rise to the complete direction of the study of naval architecture, and the last construction of ships, on which the effort made by the students of this esta. safety of the empire depends, without blishment. What is the fact? In the any care or provision having been taken, first place, it is scarcely more than fouron the part of the public, that they should teen years since the very first student have any instruction in the matheinatics, was admitted at Portsmouth, at which mechanics, or in the science or theory of time, from the newness of the thing, and naval architecture.”

the want of some particular patron, no After mentioning the way in which arrangement was made for their instrucapprentices were received in the King's tion or improvemeut-they had not even Yards, the Report says-“Those who a separate place allotted to them for have since come into our dockyards study. Professor Inman (it is now, after are, accordingly, found to be almost en his great and, it may be said, successful tirely without education.”- “ We be- exertions, no disparagement to say it) lieve the representation we have given of had never read a book on naval architecthe education of the shipwrights, as mat- ture--knew not even its terms; yet to ters are at present carried on, to be cor- him was left the whole weight of the rect; it can scarcely be necessary to add, establishment. Accordingly, some time then, that unless the plan of the present was requisite to look for a proper author: system shall be altered, even good work there was no ing shipwrights will hardly be found in was to be translated, and the difficulty of our dockyards; and it would be in vain to translating a technical work, those who expect order or regularity in the conduct have tried it alone can judge. Thus much of the business, accuracy in the accounts, time was necessarily consumed. Again, or professional skill, in those who must, the very candid A. C. has spoken of the at no great distance of time, come, of School of Naval Architecture as entirely course, to be entrusted with the manage theoretical ; let him read the course of ment of every thing respecting the con• studies, and he will there see, that one struction of the ships by which this coun: half of the time is deroted to pure matry is to be defended.”'

nual, practical ship-building, beside the After this, it will not, I think, be de- time allotted to laying-off. In fact, there nied by the most practical men, that are but three afternoons in the week apsomething was wanting, when another propriated to mathematical study. Now, system was proposed by these statesmen; the Regent yacht was ordered to be built forit would hardly, limagine, be deemed in about four years and a half after the prudent by them, that the most import- commencement of the establishment ant b

ical and theo- a time when not one of the students. retical works of this great Go ernment what with the attention to practical shipshould be ultimately entrusted tw persous, building, and the necessary preliminary for whose introduction into the service mathematical study, had commenced the not even the qualification of spelling was study of naval architecture more than a necessary; and who, during the period year; and yet A. C. makes it a matter of alluded to, were often such as to deter surprise that she was not perfect. She the more respectable of the artificers was, in fact, rather overmasted; but themselves from putting their sons as subsequently, in a trial with the Royal apprentices. To obviate these difficulties, George, the masterpiece of yachts, she the Legislature established the School of was found to be scarcely inferior to her. Naval Architecture; and it will now be But why has this solitary instance of worth while to see if this institution has, want of complete success heen brought or has not, made good, as far as could forward ? Why have the Rose and the reasonably be expected of it, the inten- Orestes been so entirely forgotten? The tions of its noble founders. And here it former, I believe, will be found to have

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STATE OF SCIENCE IN OUR DOGKIANDI. een superior to the Martin, the rival" even at the impulse of the moment, essel; and the Orestes, as far as the and although employed from six o'clock "rials have yet gone, for which we have to six, or even from five to nine | How ihe authority of Captain Hayes himself, ofteu may the practical man be seen nas lost nothing of the credit of the esta struggling with the ingenious devices blishment.

which fill his mind, yet unable to give At the Navy Office, in addition to the them form or maturity for want of this talents universally acknowledged of Sir assistance, of which A. C. is in so much Robert Seppings, there is a gentleman alarm ? The merely practical man will of first-rate ability, who has for many ever excel in old and heaten paths; put years heen employed in the constructions him in the track where he has been jógitade there; and it is not too much to ging time out of mind, and the most Sly, that the best English constructions brilliant genius, the highest calculus, of the day have gone through his hands; must hide their diminished heads. But vet has the School of Naval Architecture the time when junovatiou in ship-build

out any thing by the contact ? And is it ing was looked upon with sacred horror, noi hing for an infant establishment, de when every nail was to be driven in sancpressed by neglect, awed by the opposi- tified reverence to former nails, has tion universally given to things new, and some time gone by; the reiterated athaving to sustain the weight of all the tacks of Seppings have burst the tenfold attacks which old prejudices, old inte- ehain in which the improvetrents of our rests, and “old human nature,” could pavy, even practically, seemed almost bring against it-is it pothing, I ask, to spell-bound; and now, when proposihave contended with these master-spi- tions of every kind are issuing from every rits of the time, and to have come off, not quarter, it requires somithing beyond a only without dishonour, but with merited krowledge of fornier rutes to decide on praise? It will not-it cannot be denied, what should be received and what rethat those ships are evidences of the im- jected, and, at the same time, to carry provement of the School; and if, under into effect that which is received with such circumstances, so much has been the greatest advantage to the end prodone in so short a time, is it not fair to posed, and to the public service. Were, hope that, when consolidated in its foun- indeed, any evidence wanting as to the Jations, its patrons determined in their benefit of the School of Naval Architecprotection, and its members incited by ture, the impulse which this interesting hope and encouragement, naval architec- branch of science has of late received, ture may yet receive the benefit antici- and which might be proved to have repated by those who projected the esta- sulted from it, would alone be sufficient. blishment?

Every publication is teeming with ques. A. C., however, seems to imagine, tions on the subject--the spirit of inthat discoteries in naval architecture, quiry is atlvat, and even this letter of confessedly the most difficult and com. 4. C. will add to the flood; proving, too, plicated of the arts, are to be obtained by the violence of the resistance, the as eggs are got-put a cock and hen 10- strength of the tide in the opposite digether, and eggs will be the probable re- rection. sult; 80 he appears to expect, that put As to the attack on Alpha, that is a master and pupil together at naval ar

werely the vehicle by which the School chitecture, and in about the same time of Naval Architecture was to be brought (hey presto!) our ships ought to sail to to account, though there the geuera! ihe moon. But Dr. Johnson said, a long candour of A. C. breaks forth. Alpha time ago," that the expectations of ig- does not say that “a calculus is now norauče are indefinite," and every day's formed and applied by the Academy, by experience proves its truth. If Anti- which the sailing and other qualities of Calculus believes that learning will give a ship may be predicted, previous to her genius, he has only fallen into the error being built ;" he ovly asserts that it is of the countryman who expected to read taught there, and speaks of the general because of his spectacles : but if he does utility likely to result from its application not know that education alone enables to the phenomena of uaval architecture. its possessor to turn his talents to the Anti-Calculus alsoinsinuates thatFrench, best account, he must be more ignorant dancing, and fencing, are among the subthan he appears to be, or than he even jects taught at fortsmouth. He must wishes the shipwright to remain.

know but little of the matter, if he be Anti-Calculus passes a high eulogium not aware that neither one nor the other on the practical shipwright-i certainly have a place in their employment : 50 agree with him ; perhaps there is not to far from it, that only a day aud a half in be found in the service of the state a the week are employed in theoretical more valuable class of men. But would study; and that the remainder is de. they hare done less if they had had more voted to practical ship-building and its power-that additional power which tlie dependencies; draughting, laying-off, and couteplation of mechanine prineiples drawing. Far is it froni them, then, to fines direeting the effort is.banding depreciate the merit of the practical me. 16

.64

ORTARE AND CUBR NUMBER: chanic, for it is on the union of that result; but I did not know of any law and theoretica! knowledge that their, which governed those results, until I stand, in the estimation of the Goveru-, sat down to study the matter of the ment and their country, must be made., communication alluded to. I then imItis true, thatiu consequence of the peace, mediately discovered what I had never they have not been frequently called upon

met with in any work on the subject to make the extraordinary exertion quoted

(very few, indeed, have fallen in my by A. C., but never have they been found

way), that the following principle exista backward when so required. Still they are not wholly without some clain to the

in the case, viz. the product of any two favour and protection of the public, if it

numbers of the same power will be were only in consideratiou of the seven the power of the product of their roots. years of hard and laborious study at from which we derive the following Portsmouth, to which, in more than corollary :-The successive product of one instance, health, if not life, has any number of numbers, of any power, been the sacrifice : nor does there appear will be the power of the successive proto be any just ground to disturb that duct of the roots; for, when each prozeal, in one of their duties, which in duct is obtained, it will amount to the another has led many of these students original proposition, viz. a root and its to restrict themselves to three or four power. hours rest only for many successive nights.

Let 40 As to the question respecting “ the students being employed in the superintendenceof house carpenters and joiners," there can be but one opipion; it is an entire misapplication of the education

96 on which the public money has been expended. It is worse still as it regards the

32€ object about which so much is said the

1024 acquisition of practical knowledge, by

36 wholly absorbing their exertions in a different direction. This is knocking a

192

6144 man down with a bludgeon, and then quarrelling with him for not keeping his

3072 legs. There are some other points in A.C.'s

1922 - 36,864 letter on which I would wish to offer some remarks; but having already, i fear, exceeded the limits you may be able to afford to this discussion, I shall reserve them for some future occasion.

64 : In conclusion, then, Sir, I should be very sorry if that which I have been led to say, in vindication of this national in

216 stitution, should be capable of being con. 'strued into any thing like disrespect for the talents of those who have gone before;

3072 on the contrary, I highly appreciate and

512 ,respect them: and though alive to the

· 1024 hopes for the future given by the one, I also feel gratitude and veneration for the other; for I, too, thongh without any

485 110,592 exclusive title, am A SHIPWRIGHT.

It is the same with the biquadrate,

and, of course, all the higher powers. SQUARE AND CUBE NUMBERS.

Let 24 =

16 SIR, I read with much pleasure the

256 i communication of your ingenious Correspondent, respecting the production of Square and Cube Numbers by multiplication of others. I have long

256 known that the product of any square. number x 4 was equal to the square. of double the root, and that a cube sumber multiplied by 8 gave the same

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BAKING MACHINERY WANTED. The fl 2.5 numbers are both gest ideas not very encouraging to quare, and ). bes, yiz.

the general use of that article. I Square root. Cube root. would, therefore, beg leave to call

the attention of some of your inge

nious Correspondents to this impor729

tant subject, not doubting but that 4,096

this hint will induce it to be eagerly 15,625 125

taken up, when its importance to 46,656

the public is duly considered. An216

swers to the following questions may, 117,649 343

perhaps, lead to the means by which 262,144 512

the object sought may be accom531,441 729

21

plished :1,000,000 1000 200

Ist. What sort of machinery could Our cube roots evidently exhibit the be best applied to the purpose of regular series of the perfect equare mixing (primarily) the spunge, and, numbers, and we perceive this law to thereafter, the spunge and salt liquor, exist : The cubes of the perfect square in bakeries where the business is numbers are also squares, and their done on a large scale, and now persquare roots are formed by the product formed by total immersion of the of the original square number multi- workman's hands and arms ? plied by its root, and, consequently, 2nd. In such case what must be the ihey must be cubes; and, on reference form

form of the kneading-troughs ? to our column of square roots, we find

3rd. What description of tools or it exhibits the regular series of perfect cube numbers, and the column of apparatus could be most usefully ansquares and cubes is evidently the re- plied to the mixing and incorpogular series of the sixth power, or rating the material, viz. the flour square cubed or cube squared

and liquor, and afterwards kneading The consideration of such beautiful it, without bringing the naked hands properties naturally brings to our re- and arms of the workmen in contact collection the attributes of the great therewith? Geometer who formed them-How ap- Ath whoi doserintinning annar

4th. What description of apparatus plicable, then, the term Omniscience :

could be effectually applied to the I remain, Sir,

kneading and pressing the dough, Your most obedient servant,

after being boarded for scaling, &c.? Cork. RICHARD DOWDEN. 5th. What means could be devised

for shifting it from the troughs, and from one place to another of the

bakehouse, without having recourse BAKING MACHINERY WANTED.

to the present mode of taking it up SIR, -Among the various improve- in the workman's arms ? ments which modern times have pro- . These inquiries, if satisfactorily duced, and to many of which your answered, must. accomplish three very useful Magazine has given pub- important objects—first, cleanliness licity, it is rather extraordinary that and dispatch in the manufacture of the slovenly and highly objectionable that staff of life-bread; secondly, mode of manufacturing bread, both giving to the workmen a neat, clean, in large and small bakeries, should and workman-like appearance, inhitherto be so entirely overlooked as stead of a filthy and slovenly one; not to call forth one solitary sug- thirdly, the removal of the cause of gestion towards an improvement. that infirmity or defect in the limbs l'he great desideratum is to preclude with which working bakers are somethe necessity of workmen using their times afflicted, and which has given naked hands and arms, by total im rise to the term baker-legged. inersion of thein in the material, in Next, in respect of ovens. the process of the work, which, What are the means by which the under a warm temperature, and with. expansive force of the flame issuing out the most particular attention to from the furnace may be increased, cleanliness, must, on reflection, sug- and its progress delayed from the

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