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ANSWERS TO INQUIRIES CORRESPONDENCE. J. Masterman, Old Broad-street; for. WHEEL CARRIAGES. an improved method of corking bottles. - March 5.

· Mechanics' Magazine, Vol. III. p. 340. A. H. Chambers, and E. Chambers. Sir, I would reconimend to your Stratford-place, Mary-la-bome; and C. Correspondent, “ Fore-wheel,” to Jearrard, ' Adam - street, Manchester- look into page 444 of the first volume square; for a new filtering apparatus. of your valuable work, and also the March 5. i

99th, 138th, 145th, and 189th pages W. Halley, Holland-street, Black

of the second volume. Let him pay friars-road, iron-founder and blowingmachine maker; for improvements in

attention to the observations which forges, and on bellows or apparatus to he will there meet with, and avoid be used therewith or separate.-March 5. the error recommended by many, R. Winch, Steward's-buildings, Bat

Rat namely, a horizontal draught; for, tersea-fields, engineer; forimprovements to be easy, the draught must be on in rotatory pumps for raising water, &c. . an angle, and the best line is imme-March 5.

diately from the axle. Although W. H. James, Cobourg-place, Winson- there is no objection to the splintergreen, near Birmingham, engineer; for bar or the shafts being raised accordimprovements on railways, and carriages ing to the pleasure of the proprietor, to be employed thereon.—March 5.

yet they should be so high as to leave W. Hirst and J. Wood, Leeds; for in. no chance of their being broken by provements in cleaning, milling, or full- the fall of the horse, should such an ing cloth.-March 5.

accident occur. If “Fore-wheel” J. L. Bond, Newman-street, Mary-la- will employ a person who will follow bonne, architect, and J. Turner, Well

these rules, I am confident he will street, Mary-la-bonne, builder ; for improvements in the construction of win

have a very safe and easy-drawn, dows, casements, folding sashes, and chariot. doors, by means of which the same are

I am, Sir, hung and hinged in a manner adapteri

Your constant reader, znore effectually to exclude rain and

G- Gwind, and to afford a free circulation of air.-March 9.

T. Hancock,Goswell-mews, St. Luke's, patent cork-manufacturer; for a new manufacture which may be used as a sub

CORRESPONDENCE.
stitute for leather and otherwise.--
March 15.
T. Hancock, Goswell mews; for im-

M. W.'s reply to “ the Old Manufacprovements in making ships' bottoms,

turer" did not come to hand till the vovessels and utensils of different descrip

lunteer reply, inserted in the present tions and various manufactures, and po- Number, was in print. He may now rous or fibrous substances, impervious to probably wish to make some alterations air and water, and for coating and pro- in his paper; if so, we shall be glad to tecting the furnaces of different metallic and other bodies.- March 15.

* receive them before Tuesday.

The information so much desired by several Correspondents from “ Abel

Handy,” will appear in our next. ANSWERS TO INQUIRIES. Communications received from-G.

Wilson-Tudor-A. B.-A Subscriber at

Deptford-X. Y. 2.-Another BlackNO. 73.-SHARPING KNIVES. smith-Minor-W.R.Y.-Kappa --GasoStrap your penknife on a good meter--Peter Q.--A Stove-maker-razor strap, taking care to have the H. A. C.-D. B.-W. B.-Emilius. edge somewhat round, as a thin edge (although the blade be of the best steel) will not answer for cutting a Communications (post paid) to be addressed to pen. The advice, founded on prac- the Editor, at the Publishers’, KNIGHT and tical experience, of,

LACEY, 55, Paternoster-row, London.
A CUTLER. " Printed by B. BENSLEY, Bolt-court, Fleet-street.

Mechanics' Magazine, MUSEUM, REGISTER, JOURNAL, AND GAZETTE.

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eye.”

VESSEL TO SAIL AGAINST THE seen that the vessel will proceed in any
WIND.

direction in which her head may be

placed. SIR, I send you the plan of a Vessel to sail against the Wind, or, Fig. 3 is a transverse section of the as the sailors term it, “ in the wind's vessel in midships. A, the shaft. BBB,

&c. the vanes or sails. ('The wind-guides I am, Sir,

are not shown in this figure, as they

would obscure the vanes.) D, a cogYour obedient servant, .

· wheel, which, working in the truudle, E, ROBINSON CRUSOE. turning the shaft, F, and giving motion

to the paddle-wheels, GG, propels the Description.

vessel. HH, the wind-box. Fig. 1 iş a view of the vessel complete.

Fig. 2 is a ground-plan of a wind-box. A is a vertical shaft, which supports tlie CARMARTHEN GUNS SURPASSED. arms, BBBBBBB ; to these arms are at SIR,_Your Correspondent, signtached vanes or sails, which, when acted ing « W. R. D.", who gave his upon by the wind, cause the shaft, A, to opinion on Carmarthen Guns, in revolve. CCCC are wind-guides, or thin your 88th Number, page 57, has not, boards placed vertically in the whole cir- probably, seen a new invention of cumference of the wind-box, which al- a mechanic named Davis, which surlow the wind to pass between them in passes all others. His gun is so the direction marked by the arrows. By constructed as to have the whole of this arrangement, from whatever point the lock (except the cock) concealed, of the compass the wind may blow, the which renders it completely watervänes or sails must tup one way; and, proof, and prevents any part of the by an inspection of figure 3, it will be copper cap from endangering, the columps.

STATE OF CIVIL ARCHITECTURE.

83 loss of an eye, as is the case with the things which are already in a state of Carmarthen guns. The cap, too,

entity). We require no npw Orders in explodes quite at the end of the

architecture-they are already sufficiently

numerous ; it is the just appropriation breech, and having neither an angle of these Orders which we require, and nor an oblique direction for the fire which Omega may find has already been to pass, but lighting immediately done, in almost innumerable instances, behind, and, consequently, having in the metropolis and its environs. Let the whole body of the charge before

him visit that part of the metropolis in

which improvements are at present being it, the recoil, so much complained of

carried on, and if he really is unprejuin other guns, is prevented. Your diced, respecting the comparative merit readers' may judge for themselves, of ancient and modern architects, he will by applying at Blanch's, the gun

behold stately edifices, equalling the promaker's.

ductions of the ancients, and of which The readiness with which you give

any country would have reason to boast.

Jf Omega take any work representing publicity to every new invention, the temples of Greece, he will find them convinces me that your object is to generally of a parallelogramic form, one see true merit duly appreciated, and

of the most simple that geometry affords. it is therefore I have been induced to

The constructive parts of these temples trespass thus far on your valuable

accorded with the plan, and the chasteness pervading the whole attracted the

attention, and lulled the mind into a I remain, Sir,

state of perfect serenity, the most proper Your old Correspondent,

for meditation. Among the Romans, it TELLOC TRIGGER.

· is true, construction appears rather in a

superior light; yet we may perceive, that architecture was considered by them

more an ornamental than an useful art. STATE OF CIVIL ARCHITECTURE,

Without preserving the purity of the

Grecian style, they introduced a profuSIR,-Your Correspondent “ Omega," sion of embellisment, which presenting having shown much fraukness in his able no relief, tended rather to tire than sarefutation of the article in the Journal of tiate the eyes of the beholder. Most of Science, I trust he will peruse with the their edifices were for religious, trisame feelings the few observations which umphal, or theatrical purposes, and did I am about to offer upon his letter. It not, therefore, offer that diversification is not my intention to state any thing in of plan which is necessary in works of a opposition to his remarks upon Naval more domestic kind. The invention of Architecture, but to those upon Civil the arch has been ascribed to them, but Architecture, which appear to.

* to have been with how much reason, is a matter of written in error, rather than in the spi doubt. The indefatigable and lamented rit of error.

Belzoni discovered in Egypt what he conOmega statcs, that civil architecture sidered to have been the origin of the has not made any advancement since the arch; and should we feel unwilling to time of the ancients, and thinks “Alpha" award that country the merit of invento be the first person who would lead tion, Greece, as an intermediate claimant, men to perfect experience by the study stands forth to assert her rights. It was of theory alone (probably he is). Allow seldom used by the Grecians, but this me, Sir, to say, that hc appears to re- may have arisen from an idea of its propresent both Alphu and Omega, when ducing an effect contrary to the sublime, speaking of civil architecture, in the and not from any inability or ignorance manuer he has lately thought proper as to its application. We must, however, to do.

allow the Romans great merit for the I would ask him, in the first place, use which they made of this important (speaking of what he considers architec auxiliary iu constructive architecture; tural design), what is invention ? or whe- but we must, at the same time, attach ther there is any such thing in the pre- blame to them for its abuse: its applicasent day as real invention ? All the arts tion was at first very coufined, but it have arisen either from necessity, or from continued to increase until there was observation upon the works of nature; scarcely an aperture to be seen in which it aud“ the same images and incidents, was not introduced. I cannot omit stating with little variation, have served all my surprise, that Omega should have authors who have ever written," and all considered vox populi vox Dei. Had men who have ever thought. Having he not done so, and had he not been tormerl this opinion, it appears to me, prejudiced against modern architecture, that what we nono call invention, is more he would never have adduced the beuutu properly imitation (or the selecting and of the steeple of Langham-place Church, modifying to our several purposes those or the stubitity of the Custom-house, an

84

BACKS OF STOVES-FROFIT AND DISCOUNT. criteria of the state of practical experi- description myself. Perhaps he mis. ence among its professors. I shall make takes the false back for the outer very few other remarks upon his letter,

or main back. but I am sorry to find he has got hold of the common but erroneous opinion,

I am, Sir, “ that so many eyes cannot but see right,

Yours very truly, and so many understandings cannot be

A STOVE-MAKER. deceived.” With respect to the Custom

May 3rd, 1825. house, I can assure him, that he who makes his decision upon a matter with out having heard both sides of the question, will be considered far from just, even should it happen to be correct.

PROFIT AND DISCOUNT. I daily, and almost hourly, hear of the SIR.-In your 87th Number, p. 35, decline of civil architecture; and if those I find an article purporting to be on who have the power and influence to che

the same subject to which the rules rish one of the inost useful and important of the arts, are altogether indifferent

relate that I some time ago forwarded about it, we cannot be surprised (when

to you, and which were published in such persons render it unworthy the ato page 342 of your 78th Number. ! tention of the ingenious) if carpenters,

Your Birmingham Correspondent auctioneers, and others, assume to theme has condescended to adopt the examselves the enviable but misplaced title of ple given in your 78th Number, in architects. Every art depends upon pub order to show that the rule there used lic patronage, and if civil architecture is does not produce a correct answer. If yet to keep up its character, it can only you will refer to my paper, you will see do so under the superintendence of those that I assert CR + C is equal to S-SD, who are willing to sacrifice their health or, in words, that the cost price added and property to its advancement; and

to the cost price multiplied by the rate who, disdaining the mere acquirement

per cent. of profit, is equal to the difof filthy lucre, seek to obtain a niche in

ference between the sum sold for and the temple of Fame, to have the laurel of assenting Time awarded him, and be

the product arising from multiplying handed down to posterity with a Jones,

the sum sold for by the rate per cent. a Wren, and a Stuart, as ornaments of

of discount ;' or, as it may accommotheir profession, and benefactors of their

date the “Old Manufacturer," we may country:

say, that the cost price added to the l remain, Sir,

profit is equal to the selling price, less Your constant reader,

the discount : and here I take my KAPPA. ground.

The "Old Manufacturer,” after

volunteering to plead the cause of BACKS OF STOVES.

“ common sense,” happens to introSIR, Your Correspondent, “ T.

duce the letter N, to represent what

he calls the nett amount, apparently Hartshorne," No. 88, page 60, of without beiog aware that the amount your valuable Magazine, is in error of cost and profit is truly denoted by in supposing that the practice of CR+C, or S-SD, and not by N + NR, having the inside backs of stoves as erroneously stated by the “ Old perforated at certain distances is Manufacturer.” obsolete. There are scarcely any

The “ Old Manufacturer" may not, stoves, except the very common sort,

perhaps, object to take a lesson from without them (I always use them

Walkingame, one of the descendants myself). Heis likewise wrong when

of Old Cocker, whom I, therefore,

prefer to Francis Walkingame, the he says that these holes prevent the schoolmaster. In the “ Tutor's Asback breaking, by allowing it to sistant,” by Francis Walkingame, page expand. The only way in which 67, it will be found that the old schoolthey have a good effect is, that they master says "If a parcel of cloth be prevent the back from cracking à sold for 5601. at 12 per cent. gain, the greater distance at any one time than cost price was 5001.". This is the from one hole to another. If T. H. fourth question in page 67, and, from thinks the main back should have

its being in whole numbers, may be holes in it, I must differ from him,

some recommendation to the “ Old

Manufacturer." ], as above stated, and consider it a very dangerous say that C+CR is the amount of cost plan, and not at all likely to be re- and profit: now let us see whether vived. I never saw one of that that expression C + CR will accord

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