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fluence over the diet of the em- the readiness they had manifested to pire at Ratisbon. The consterna- treat with the enemy. They now lion that had overwhelmed, it at the were equally solicitous to regain the near approach of the victorious ar- good-will of the Imperial court, mies of Jourdan and Moreau, had and addressed it in terms remarkbeen marked by circumstances de- ably submissive and thankful for the noting more despondency than be protection they had received from came so respectable a body of men, its armies, and the preservation of and subjected them, in some mea- the empire, by the expulsion of the fure, to the censures of the public, French, through the valour and particularly of the court of Vienna, exertions of the archduke. which expressed high displeasure at
State of Parties in France. --A Revival of the Reign of Terror threatened ini
the Southern Departments by Freron.-The Directory desert and oppose the Jacobin Interes.-Conspiracy of Jacobins.--Discovered and defeated. Arrangements respecting the Ejiates of Emigrants.--Influence of the nonjuring or refractory Clergy troublesome to Government. Scandalous Neglect of the Execution of Justice.-Criminal Trials.-Money and Finance.— The fame Impofitionis laid on the People of the Aufirian Netherlands as on those of France.--New Plots and Infurrections.-Law for reconciling the different Fuctions in France, by the Extinction of Terior. Proposal for repealing a Low which appeared to some to bear too hard on the Relations of Emigrants. Rejected.—But an equitable Alteration made in that severe Law.---This a Matier of Triumph to the moderate Party.
T was the policy of the direc- men, bred in times before France
tory, as above observed, to fe- was seized with a rage for innovacure their own power, by enga- tion, whose prejudices were all in ging the French nation in continued favour of monarchy, though not permilitary exploits, by which the pub- baps unlimited; and of others too, lic mind might be occupied other- who, though they had originally fawise than in inquiries into their voured the principles of the reown past or present conduct; and volution, longed now, above all by which they might acquire popu- things, to enjoy the blessings of larity, in proportion to the success peace. When this peaceable party, and glory of the French arms. Yet whether inclined to monarchy, or there was, in the midst of all the republicanism, reflecied that all the successes of Buonaparte, in the heart golden dreams of the reformers had of France, a very numerous party in pasied away like visions of the night, oppofition to the measures of the go- and been followed by nothing but vernmeni; and this party, by the the accumulated evils of war; horrepulle of the French from Ger- ror on horror, disappointment on many, was daily encreased. The disappointment. When they locked French, at this period, might be back on former'times, plentiful and divided into two great clailes: the tranquil; a period too, when they one bufiling and intriguing politi- were younger than now,
knew more cians, niver fatisfied while there was, happiness, and faw
every thing anything to be done er undone; for around them in the light of joy and ever in motion, and incapable of 'gladness; they were ienible of the rest: the other party, composed of livelieft angurih and regret, and ar
dently dently wished for a return of such struments of his tyranny, and of the times as they had formerly enjoyed. many cruelties exercised upon them. This party was the most numerous They executed these schemes to in France, but they were forced to their full extent; and many
of the conceal their sentiments, and they guilty agents, in the atrocities comwere not united. They were of mitted among them, were sacrificed course, as usually happens in all to their revenge. countries, kept under by a smaller The moderation that governed number, in pofleffion of the powers the councils of those who succeeded of government. But, in the capital, to the power of Roberspierre, put where the minds of men were stimu- a stop to those executions. The lated and fortifed in their fenti- prudence of the commissioners sent ments and designs, by mutual inter- to pacify these departments, had alcourse, and which had so long been most restored them to peace and the feat of intrigues and attempts of mutual conciliation, when, unforopposite parties, there was a great tunately for their repose, a man was number of discontented individuals, lent to represent and to exercise the waiting for opportunities of pub- supreme authority of the state in licly avowing their sentiments, in op- those parts, who had already signapolition to those of the present rulers, lized himself there by his enormiand to fupport them by open force. ties. The vigilance of the directory ob- This was the famous Freron, a viated their designs, and contained man of courage and abilities, but of them within hounds. So restless a fierce and fanguinary dispofition. and determined, however, were the The people in those departments enemies to the present government, had filled the places of adminiftrathat, farther to secure the public tran- tion, in their respective districts, with quillity, they thought it expedient te persons of their own chusing. add another minister to the fix al- These were immediately displaced ready appointed by the conftitution, by Freron, who substituted to them to whom was given the official title individuals notorious for their crimes of minister of the police.
and the blood they had shed. He Through precautions of this na- reinstituted the societies, and renewture, peace was maintained at Pa- ed those revolutionary committees ris, but disturbances broke ont, occa- that had filled France with such fionally, in several parts of the re- horror; and he authorized them to public. The southern departments, break those members of the various long a prey to that warmth and inn- municipalities whose principles difpetuolity of temper which charac- ferred from their own. terize their inhabitants, were at this During several months, the optime plunged into confusions that pretled inhabitants of those departrequired the immediate interpofitionments were compelled to fubinit to of government to suppress them. the tyranny of Freron and his parti
As the people in those parts had zans, who ftrore with indefatigable been particularly ill treated by the zeal to re-establish the reign of terrorjacobin party, they had, ever since 'ilm. But the directory, who felt the fall of Roberspierre, meditated the neceility of putting an end to schemesof vengeance against the ina the influence which the jacobins
were endeavouring to recover, re- most violent rancour of that restless called Freron, and commissioned and daring party : but, heedless of two men of moderate principles, their hatred and menaces,
governIlnard and Jourdan, to inquire, in ment alleged these as realons for conjunction with others, into the putting a period to their meetings, causes of the discontents and diftur- and shutting up their places of rebances that had happened in those fort. They represented them to the departments. But the jacobin party public in the most odious light, exlaboured so earnestly to frustrate this horting all good citizens to watch commission, by calumniating the their motions, as full of danger and members that composed it, that, not- malevolence to the state. They withstanding their accusations were procured laws to be enacted, obviformally declared malicious and ill- ously, levelled at them: those, for founded, it was judged requisite, in instance, that made it a capital crime order to prevent feuds and animo- to hold feditious meetings, or to atsities in the two councils, to disolve tempt the re-establishment of the the commission. Government was constitution under Roberspierre. apprehensive it would make disco- Those members of the late convenveries that might involve persons tion and committees, reputed the high in office, and occasion jea- heads of this party, were ordered to loufies to be revived, which might leave the capital, and the major defeat the conciliatory views pro- part of those in offices of trust were posed by the new eonstitution. The dilmissed. inquiry was, therefore, entrusted to It was not without pressing mothe directory, which wisely deter- tives that the directory acted with this mined to drop retrospective mea- feverity towards the jacobins: they sures, and, by lenient means, to re- were labouring to disseminate a fpistore tranquillity to the departments rit of disobedience through all the in question.
civil and military departments in the The jacobins were highly offend- metropolis. They had seduced into ed by the moderate councils which open rebellion a body of the latter, they now perceived the directory known by the appellation of legion of was resolved to pursue. They ac
the police. It consisted of men selectcused it of having abandoned thofe ed from various corps of the army, democratical principles on which and ordered to Paris for the fupport the republic was founded, and base of the convention when the Parisians ly betrayed those from whom it de- opposed that article of the constiturived its power in the state. But tion, which ordained a re-election the directory unintimidated by their of two-thirds of its members to the threats, steadily adhered to its deter- new legislature. minations, and gradually introduced As they amounted to ten thouinto office individuals of their own sand men, such a force appeared too opinions, in preference to the jaco- formidable to be left in the hands of bins, who had hitherto enjoyed al- the jacobins, who had fo perverted most exclusively the first places un- theni, that they were no longer to der government.
be trusted. They were directed to This defertion of the jacobin in- repair to their respective regiments.. tereft fubjected the directory to the Upon their refusal to obey, a power
ful body of troops were sent for, rigid democrats at this time, had which brought them to submislion. affumed the name of a famous reThe legion was disbanded, and dif- publican of old, Gracchus, thereby persed into the communes to which to denote his inflexible adherence the men belonged.
to the popular cause. He was a This proved a measure of the most man of parts, in the exercise of fortunate policy. Incensed at the which nothing was able to daunt proceedings of government againft him. The other chief actor in this them, the jacobins had formed one of conspiracy was the celebrated the most daring and deeply-planned Drouet, the post-master of Varenconspiracies that had yet taken place nes, who stopped the unfortunate among the many, which had marked Lewis XVI. in his flight; ard, as a this eventful revolution.
reward of his fidelity to the nation, conducted with the profoundeft fe- was elected a member of the con-crecy. The conspirators never met vention. Having fallen into the twice in the same place; and it was hands of the Austrians, and suffered hardly possible to trace their mo- a long and severe imprisonment in tions, though their leaders consiant- Germany, he had acquired a populy assembled every day, and govern- larity which recommended him so ment was apprised of the existence strongly to the people of his own of a plot.
district, that they elected him a deThe minister of police, Merlin, of puty to the legislative body, when Douay, a name well known, being the new constitution was formed. either inactive or lukewarm in this The other principal authors of this affair, another man was placed in conspiracy were general Rossignol, his office, of more activity and zeal. notorious for his cruelties in La This was Cochon, who exerted him- Vendée; Julian, a confidential agent self with so much care and dili- of Roberspierre; Amar, a noted gence, that the haunts of the con- associate of that tyrant; Laignelot, spirators were at length discovered, a man of abilities and a member of and most of the principal ones ár
the late convention. rested.
The plan of the conspirators, as The conspiracy was to have been laid by the directory before the two carried into execution upon the ele- councils, was to massacre these three venth of May, and the discovery of bodies, the field-officers of the Pathis design was not made till the rifian military, and the constituted ninth. On the morning of the authorities of Paris, and to give up tenth, the directory informed the the citizens to plunder and Naughter. two councils of the particulars of From the papers that were seized, this conspiracy, which was in every it appeared that they had formed respect a most dreadful and danger- a complete scheme of government.
Two men were at the The legislature was to have confisthead of it, equally noted for their ed of about seventy of those memboldness and resolution.
bers of the late convention, who was Babeuf, from whom it took its had not been re-elected; of a deputy
This man, conformably to from each of the provincial departthe custom prevailing among the ments; and of some of the deputies