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had acted with so much zeal and by his employers, but the feeds of and success.

mischief he had fown had produced But that which principally exas- their intended effect, in the divisions perated the French government, that had embroiled the Americans, was the treaty that had been lately and destroyed that unanimity of sennegociated between England and timents from which they had derived the American states, by their envoy such internal tranquillity. in London, Mr. Jay. It was repre- To these complaints the French sented as so contrary to the treaties replied, that the treaty of commerce in force between them and France, with England had cancelled all as to amount almost to a denuncia- pretensions of amity from America tion of the amity subsisting between to France. It violated, in a positive those two powers.

and hostile manner, the treaty enThe resentment of the French tered into by the French, in favour hardly knew any bounds. The of the Americans, in the year 1778, language held at Paris portended by which the states agreed to nothing less than the most signal guarantee the possessions of France revenge

for what was termed an act in the West Indies: whereas, by the of the baseft ingratitude and per- present treaty with England,' the fidy.

Instead of that cordiality very furnishing of provisions to the which had taken place between the French islands, was allowed to be French and American governments, an illegal trade. Such a falling off a distant and suspicious intercourse from their professions of friendship succeeded; and if the public voice and attachment to France, at a time of the people of France had been when they ought to have been relistened to, a rupture could not have alised by actions, after having been so failed to ensue.

reiteratedly expressed in words, difIt was retorted, on the part of the played in glaring colours the conAmericans, that as foon as the temptible interestedness of the AmeFrench republic had been establisli- ricans, and proved them to be void ed, it began to entertain a design to of all principles but those of avarice introduce a system perfectly similar and gain, and that to these they to its own, into the United States, would facrifice all consideration of without consulting them, and in honour and magnanimity. defiance of the constitution al. Recriminations of this nature ready settled among them. To this grew louder and more rancorous end, they commiilioned their resident, than ever, on the intelligence that Genet, to use all manner of artifice the government of the united states and intrigue, in order to pervert had formally ratified this treaty. the dispositions of the commonalty, But fresh motives of inveteracy arose and to seduce them from their at- from the discoveries contained in a tachment and obedience to the ex- letter, written by the president of isting government. He had carried the congress to the American amhis misconduct so far, as personally bassador at Paris. This letter, to insult the president of the con

which was dated from Philadelphia, gress, and endeavoured to set him the 22d of December, 1795, had and that body at variance with the been dispatched in a vessel that was people. This agent, of the French wrecked on the coast of France. republic, had indeed been recalled it was preserved with other papers,

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and carried to the directory, by of France, by admonishing it to whon it was considered as indubi- place no confidence in the Ameritable proof of the inimical dispo- cans. But without the medium of sition of the American government this letter, the most judicious of the to the French republic.

French were convinced that the This letter, on a cool perusal, interest of the Americans would contained however, no hostile de- lead them to act a neutral part in signs against France. Its contents the contest between France and were chiefly complaints of the England, and that it would he arbitrary proceedings of the British highly impolitic in either of these, ministry respecting the trade of the to inlist upon their acting any other. United States. He directed Mr.Mor- The French government did not ris, who had quitted his embally at however relinquith the hope of a Paris, and acted as American agent future connection with the united at London, to lay before the Englith ftates. They grounded this expectaministry the imprudence, as well as tion on the numbers of people - the unjustifiableness of those pro- re, who testified an aversion to ceedings, at a time when Great all political ties with England, and Britain ought to be particularly fo- whose republican disposition inlicitous to retain the good will of clined them to espouse the cause of the Americans, in order to induce all who opposed the government of them to receive favourably the kings. They also relied on a change treaty of commerce just concluded, of men and measures in the Ameribut which met with a multitude of can administration. The presidency, opponents, on account of the harsh it was intimated to them by their measures that had been so unseason- American partisans, would, on a ably taken against the commerce new ele&ion, be filled by another and navigation of the united states. incumbent, less averse to an alliance It was with difficulty he had stems with France than the present, med the torrent of discontent and These and other representations of a resentment that had arisen on this similar tendency, from the same occasion, and prevented the party, quarter, induced the French gothat favoured the French, from car- vernment to dissemble the resentrying maiters to extremities. His ment it bore to the American for its own views, in which he was se- partiality to England, and to exconded by the better_sort, were tend it no farther than to treat the peace and neutrality. These would, subjects of the united ftates, emin the course of a few years, raise ployed in their commerce and navithe United States to a condition of gation, in the same manner in which prosperity and power, that would these were treated by the English. render them formidable to all the These milinderstandings, between world, and secure to them tran- France and thé ftates of America, quillity at home, and respect from had, in some degree, been suspended abroad.

by the recall of Mr. Morris from Such was the general tenour of his French embaffyx and. replacing this famous letter, the interception him by a man whole principles were of which was looked upon as so more conformable to their own, and timely an occurrence for the interest his perfon, therefore, more accepta

ble.

ble. This was Mr. Monroe, who acts of partiality, amply justified the was received with great respect and meaļures taken by the directory. cordiality. But when this gentle- When the United States thought man was recalled, and Mr. Pinkney proper to enforce the respect due to appointed his successor, which was their flag by the English, the French in November, 1796, the directory would also treat it with the same refused to admit him in that capa- degree of respect. city, and suspended, at the same Theseremonstrances of the French time, their own ambassador in Ame- resident were answered by stating, rica, Mr. Adet, who was ordered to hiin, that according to the terms to lay before that government the of the treaty of 1778, neutral procomplaints of the republic against perty had been declared secure in its proceedings, and the determina- American vessels : but that no such tion to issue orders to the French ftipulations were contained in the ships of war to act towards the present treaty between England and trading vessels of neutral states in America. But the propriety of this the same manner that those states answer was pronounced inadmislible permitted themselves to be treated by the French. It was absurd, they by the British navy.

said, that any state should allent to In support of this determination, the continuance of a treaty, when the directory alleged the seizure of they found it was to be converted French property, by the English, on into an instrument of the deepest board of American vessels in the injury to their interests. For the very ports of the United States, and Americans to insist on the validity through the connivance of their go- of such a treaty was an insult to vernment. Such had been the re- the understanding of the French, to gard paid to America, by the con- which it could not be expected they vention, at the commencement of were either so unwise, or so pusil·lathis war, that while it declared law. nimous, to submit; nor could the ful prize all English property found Americans reconcile to any princiin neutral vesels, the shipping of ple of justice, or of honour, the the United States was excepted breach of that article in the treaty from this declaration. But the con- with France, by which they had duct of the Englis, in seizing the bound themselves to guarantee the American fhips laden with provi- French colonies, in the West Indies, fions on French account, had com- against the attempts of the Englisa. pelled the convention, through mere The reciprocal jealogsies excited necessity, to rescind this act of in- by these various transactions were dulgence and to use the right of re- greatly heightened by the motives taliation, by seizing English pro- which were understood in France perty in American vessels.

to have influenced the recall of Mr. It was farther stated by Mr. Adet, Monroe from his embally, and the that American sailors were pressed nomination of Mr. Pinkney in his into the service of the English, with- stead. These were the reputed out reclamations being made, or partiality of the one to the French, even marks of disapprobation being and the contrary difpofition of the manifested on the part of the Ame- other. When the former tock leave Tican government. These and other of the directory, they did not omit

one.

this opportunity of declaring their English and the American governa sentiments on the situation of affairs ments, that they determined to grabetween France and America. They tify.it, by treating the American assured him, that whatever differ- minister with rudeness, if not with ences had arisen between the

ruling indignity.

Not satisfied with havpowers of both countries, the French ing denied him the allumption of still retained their esteem for the that character, they would not suffer people of the United Provinces, of him to remain at Paris as a private whose warmth and good will to the Herein they were, by many republic of France they were tho- of their own people, severely cenroughly convinced, as well as offured, as having, without neceffity, their disinclination to coincide with affronted an individual, come to the measures adopted by their go-them on a respectable mission, and vernment. They were not less widened thereby the breach between careful in testifying their highest re- them and the state which he repregard for his perfonal merit, and fented. Prudence, it was said, their warmest gratitude for the at- ought to have enjoined a contrary tachment he had unvariably display- behaviour. They should have fought ed to the cause of liberty and the to have kept the door of reconciliprosperity of France.

ation open, instead of striving ta Such, however, was their resent- shut it in this arrogant and conment of the connection between the

temptuous manner.

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CH A P. XII.

The Haughtiness of the Directory towards different Nations. Particularly

towards the Dutch, whom they consider, not as Confederates, but a conquered People.--Moderation of the Republic and prepondering Party in the United Provinces.-Batavian Convention.--Its Proceedings.- Affairs of Geneva. -Meeting of the National Institute of France. Considered as an auspicious Omen of the Return of Peuce und Reign of the Arts. And Liberty of Thinking and Publishing on all Subjects. --The Alliance between the Church and Monarchy of France, in the End, ruinous to both. T ner, or confitutional, Clergy avox' their Afent to the Separation of the Church from the State.Yet venture to condemn some Things setiled, or approved, by the republican Government.--But rehich they confdered as adverse to the Dignity and Interests of the ecclefiaftical Order.--The Settlement of ecclefiaftical Affairs confidered by the Generality of the French as a Matier of great Importance.

manner.

HE irritable temper of the di- litics of Russia. The court of Swe

rectory was experienced by den gave the directory to understand, other governments beside the Ainé- that were he to be refused admifrican. The court of Stockholm, fion, the French envoy at Stockholm, which had, fince the death of the would be treated precisely in the same late king Guftavus, explicitly re

But the directory ordered nounced his projects against the him, nevertheless, to quit Paris; not, French republic, and manifested fa- however, without expresfing the vourable dispositions to it, had lately highest respect for the Swedish naundergone an evident alteration. tion, the good will of which it fitill Soine attributed this to the intrigues fought to retain, notwithsianding of Russia; others to the resentnient this variance with its government. of the Swedish government at the The French envoy at that court duplicity of the French, who had was, at the same time, directed to paid the subsidy they owed to Swe- leave it; his residence there being den, in drafts upon the Dutch re- no longer consistent with the honour public, which they were conscious of France, to the interest of which would not be honoured. Another that court was become manifestly motive of dissatisfaction to the di- inimical, by its subserviency to Rul rectory was, the recall of baron Stäel, fia, the declared enemy to the French the Swedish ambassador, a friend to republic. the republic, and the replacing him The king of Sardinia's ambassaby Mr. Renhansen, a gentleman dor had, in like manner, experinced noted for his attachment to the po- the displeasure of the directory, for 8

expressing

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