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A. It cannot. No schoo! can be recognized in any sense as a public school, unless it is taught by “ qualified” teachers, according to law, and is under the control of the board; and no money can be paid out by the board lawfully for instruction in any other school.
Q. If a teacher dismisses school to attend an Institute in the county, is he obliged to make up the lost time?
A. He must make it up if he attends the Institute without the permission of the district board. (See section 43 of chapter 151 of Gen. eral Laws of 1869—p. 158, School Code.) A school board will usually do well to grant this permission cheerfully. It can be no loss to the school, especially if early in the term; and the teacher at all events may do much better in the next school, if not in that one, in consequence of attending the Institute.
Q. Is a district board authorized to purchase a stereoscopic apparatus for the school without any vote by the district to that effect?
A. It is not. Under section 49 it can provide any necessary appendage” for the school house, such as stove, blackboard, etc., and present its bill for allowance, but the apparatus mentioned, though it might be made useful, does not come under that head.
Query and Scrap Box.
THE PROBLEM IN INTEREST. DEAR QUERY Box:-In the September number of the JOURNAL, I find “1.21550625 +1.05+(1.05–1)=5.52563125.” Is it true? Also this language: “ The last term multiplied by the ratio and divided by the difference between the ratio and the first equals the sum of the terms.” Who is to blame? These occur in the explanation of the Problem in Interest. I have regarded such questions as annuities.
Present worth of an, of $1 for t. and r. : $500 :: $1.
1 Or if I have no annuity table, thus:
. ::1: Ans.
1.055-1 Find the sum of the progression within the parenthesis=
1.055 x .05 1.055-1
: 500 :: 1 : Ans. 1.055 x .05 1.055-1 500 x 1.2762815625 x .05=115.4874+ or 115.48.
204422500 1.055 x .05 .2762815625
2762815625 These questions are short, if we have a table of compound interest; still shorter, if we have table giving the present worth of an annuity of $1 for the time and rate.-J. B., Fond du Lac.
[For any error, the proof-reader is perhaps to blame, who was quite ill when he read proof.-Eds.]
MESSRS. EDITORS:--It seems that the solution of the interest question, given in the August number of the JOURNAL, fails to meei the entire approval of all, the solution being Algebraic and the numerical result a little too great.
In dividing the interest of the principal for one year by the compound interest of one dollar for the given time, I used only four decimals in the divisor, thus making the divisor too small, and consequently, the result too large.
While my solution cannot be understood by those who are unacquainted with Algebra, I am of the opinion that it is not an easy matter for pupils unacquainted with that branch of mathematics to fully understand the solutions given by your correspondents, N. E. Carver and Wm. B. Minaghan. Truly yours, Door CREEK, Sept. 10, 1872.
L. CAMPBELL. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS. We are indebted to D. M. for additional answers to questions 51, 53, 63 and 64 of the present series, but they seem to have been sufficiently discussed.
42.—What number is that whose square root is 100 more than its cube root?
The number has six equal factors, because it may be divided into three equal or two equal factors. The square root of it will contain three of these factors; the cube root, two of these factors. The square root will be the cube of that factor; the cube root, the square of that factor.
If the number of units in a square is taken from the number of units in a cube, their sides being equal, the remainder will be represented by the cube with a unit in thickness taken from one side; .::V100=4+4+1=56–15625=the number. :.100=a square x by one less than the root of that square- v100 to decimals +1= the square root of the square factor, or the sixth root of the number.–J. B., Fond du Lac.
04.-Is the coral an insect?
These little insects, called Zoophytes, or plant-animals, from their seeming to form a connecting link between the animal and vegetable kingdoms, are in form very like a little oblong bag of jelly, with one end closed and the other open, and surrounded by tentacles or arms, six or eight in number, set like rays of a star. The coral, or madrepore, is the secretion of these minute polypes. It forms immense reefs and islands stretching over thousands of miles; and becoming the permanent abodes of whole races of human beings. Most of the islands of the Pacific, as well as those belonging to Australia, are the creation of these tiny insects, and the number of these coral isles is constantly and rapidly increasing. Zoroaster regarded coral as possessing certain talismanic influences in driving off evil; and Pliny tells us that coral was as highly prized in India as were pearls in Rome. The historian himself, however, evidently knew little of the nature of this wondrous creation of the Zoophyte of the Mediterranean and South Seas, since he describes it as a marine plant, bearing crimson berries.-MRS. S. C. SIRRINE, East Oasis.
65.—Wanted, a list of those whose deeds have caused the people to erect mon. uments to their honor; also, to know, if possible where the monuments stand.
A monument erected to the memory of the martyred President. It stands in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia. It is inscribed: “To Abraham Lincoln, from a grateful people.” (I can give a description of it, but not now.)
The remains of President Lincoln were deposited in the public receiving vault of Oak Ridge Cemetery, Springfield, Ill., May 4, 1865. One of the first acts of “The National Lincoln Monument Association," was to take measures for building a temporary vault as a receptacle for the remains of Mr. Lincoln, until the monument could be built. The vault was erected during the summer, and on the 21st of December, the remains were removed from the receiving vault to the new one. Mr. Lincoln's son Willie, who died in Washington, was brought to Springfield on the 4th of May, and removed into the new vault on the 21st of December, and at the same time the remains of his son Eddie, who was named för Col. Edward D. Baker, and died in childhood, were exhumed at Hutchinson Cemetery, and
brought into the temporary vault. Thomas T. Lincoln (Tad), the youngest son of President Lincoln, died in Chicago July 15, 1871. The catacomb having been completed, his remains were brought on Monday, the 17th, to Springfield, and de posited in the west one of the five crypts, and on the 16th of April, the remains of Mr. Lincoln were placed in a casket, in the central crypt.
On the 17th of June, 1834, the corner stone of the Bunker Hill Monument " was laid. This was not finished till 1842.
A monument was erected to the memory of Major General Pulaski, at Savannah, Ga. He fell at that place in 1779.
A monument to the memory of Washington's mother was erected in 1833, at Mount Vernon.
Mount Vernon was purchased in 1858, as the home and grave of the “Father of his Country.” This is to be held in perpetuity as a national monument, sacred to the memory of him who was, “ first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen.”
A monument was erected to the memory of General Warren, in Boston, and one to the memory of Alexander Hamilton, in New York city, at the Trinity Church burying ground.
A monument is to be erected to Major General McPherson, of Ohio, who was killed at Decatur, July 22, 1863.
The battle-field of Gettysburg was purchased by the State of Pennsylvania as a " National Cemetery," and a monument is to be erected to the loyal soldiers who fell in the struggle.-MRS. S. C. SIRRINE.
[Mrs Sirrine has also answered 81, as to the cabinet officers of the present ad. ministration, but it is not necessary to insert the names again.]
67.-Is the word earth, meaning the world, a proper noun? Properly the word earth, when speaking of the entire world, is as much a proper noun as Mars, Venus, etc. In the Scripture, the word is used for a part of the world only. The word is, however, by common usage, considered a common noun.
The art of printing was invented about the year 1450. Rude printing from engraved blocks was done before that time; but when Peter Schæffer cast the first metal types, each letter separately, at about 1450 the art truly had its birth. John Faust erected a printing office at Mentz, in 1442. John Guttenberg invented cut metal types and used them in printing a Bible, which was commenced in 1445 and completed in 1460. The names of these three men are usually associated as the inventors of printing.-D. M.
80.-What are some of the most common terms taken from other languages, and used in our own? What is their meaning in English?
Abstract, scientific and technical terms; such as have come into the language with the growth of modern civilization and science. Some of the oldest terms in science are Arabic, as algebra, cypher, zero, zenith, nadir, alkali, alcohol, elixir, etc. Abstract and generic terms were continually formed from Latin, for many ages-(say from Chaucer to Dr. Johnson); for instance, influence, intelligence, passion, motion, action, creation, distinction, and thousands more. Also, many scientific terms, as attraction, ductility, solution; others are froin the Greek, as atmosphere, thermometer, geography; and for fifty years past this language has furnished most of the new scientific terms. We have gathered miscellaneous words from all sources -as lilac, azure, etc., from the Persian; tulip and turban from the Turkish; syrup, coffee, sofa, etc., from the Arabic; pantaloon and gazette are Italian; negro, musquito, alligator, Spanish; appropos, debut, depot, parvenu and a multitude more, French; sloop, yacht and boss, Dutch; tobacco, chocolate, wigwam, etc., Indian dialect; ratan, Malay; taboo, Sandwich Islandish. But the inquirer must read Trench and other writers on our language, and for the “meaning " of words, consult the dictionary,- J.B. P.
87.--Is a woman's voice fitted to teach all the general divisions of Elocution?
If perseverance and a thorough knowledge of the subject are combined, there is not a doubt in my mind but that the lady elocutionist will be quite as successful as the gentleman. A strong voice is more desirable, of course, than a weak one.-D, M.
3-[VOL. II.--- No. 10.]
88.-Will some one please inform us through the Journal of the best work on Natural Philosophy?
At our State University, Norton's work on this subject is adopted, as the best (I suppose). Steele's “ Fourteen Weeks Course combines many good qualities.D. M.
89.-Does one of the sis Constitutions of Wisconsin, furnished to each district, belong to the teacher at the end of the term?
No school district receives a separate Constitution of the State of Wisconsin. But of the six Constitutions of the United States and of the State, given to each district, it would be a great absurdity for any teacher to presume that he has the right-legal or otherwise-to possess himself of a copy, from the very fact that it would only require six different teachers, viewed from that standpoint, to demolish the entire number, and thus the district would be under the necessity of casting themselves about for a new supply.-D. M.
90.-Will some one give an explanation of the 16th example, page 84, in Robinson's Progressive Practical Arithmetic? The least common multiple of 12, 30 and 75 is 300, that of 12,30 and 90 is 180; 300:12=25;
180:-30=6; 300= 75=4;
180:-90=2; 25 +10+4=39;
16+5=80. Explanation. Since the sums expended are equal, each must be a common multiple of the prices of the different kinds of fowls; and since they are as small as possible, each must be the least common multiple of those numbers. The least common multiple of 12, 30 and 75 is 300, that of 12, 30 and 90 i8180.
By expending 300 cents for each kind of fowl he purchased 25 chickens at 12 cents; 10 ducks at 30 cents, and 4 turkeys at 75 cents; making 39 fow.s purchased. By expending 180 cents for each kind he could have bought 15 chickens at 12 cents, 6 ducks at 30 cents, and 2 turkeys at 90 cents; making 23 fowls, the number necessary to purchase to obey orders. The difference between 39 and 23 is 16. Às he forfeits 5 cents for each fowl purchased more than necessary, he must forfeit in all 16 times 5, or 80 cents.-V. U. Eagle. J. B., Fond du Lac, sends the same solution.] 92. What state produces the most lead? The most iron?
The lead of commerce is mainly obtained from Galenite or Sulphuret of lead. Wisconsin produces the most lead of any of the United States. Great Britain of any country in the world. Pennsylvania produces the most iron of any of the United States, while Great Britain produces the most of any country in the world. C., Mazomanie.
Correction.-In the second paragraph of the second answer to 63, last month, by C., Mazomainie, “ formation was misprinted“ preservation.”
Query.--How is it that every [?] teacher in teaching arithmetic says: “aught from aught leaves aught," when it perhaps is more proper to say:“naught from naught leaves naught?" The Journal will perhaps explain this.-FRANZ HERSE, Fontenoy.
[The explanation is simply ignorance, or carelessness in the use of language. Aught means something anything; naught or nought means nothing.)
NEW QUESTIONS. 96.- A blackleg purchased a hat for $10 and gave in payment a $50 bill. The hatter called on a merchant near by, who changed the note for him, and the blackleg having received his $42 change departed. The next day the merchant ascer. tained the note to be counterfeit, and called upon the hatter who was compelled immediately to borrow $50 of another friend to redeem it with. Provided the blackleg could not be found, what was the hatter's loss ?-D, M., Windsor.
97.-An old man married a young woman; their united ages amounted to C. The man's age multiplied by 4 and divided by 9 gives the woman's age. What were their respective ages ?-Ib.
98.-If a wolf can devour a sheep in % of an hour, and a bear in 4 of an hour, how long would it take them together to devour what remained of a sheep after the wolf had been eating 72 an hour?-Ib.
99.—Is it the true policy of a university to employ its own alumni?-Ib.
100.- Are there any high schools in the state where the teachers are required to teach 22 days per month?
CONTRIBUTED BY PEN. A Public Benefactor.-It is a well-known fact that the fearful scourge of Eastern countries, leprosy, was transferred to Europe dnring the times of the Crusades, the warriors and pilgrims bringing the disease with them on their return. It became so universal a plague that every town and large village had special hospitals devoted, not to the cure, but to the total isolation of these unfortunates. But after a while the disease began to disappear, and this happy riddance was owing to the general introduction of a very simple but potent agency. Soap was this public benefactor. Before the use of soap for cleaning soiled garments was generally known, people, especially of the lower classes, wore woolen garments throughout the year, thus promoting filth, and, by irritating and heating the skin, skin diseases of all kinds. The introduction of soap brought linen and light-colored fabrics into general use. The ease with which garments could be cleaned by the aid of soap induced frequent changes of underclothing, promoted cleanliness and thus put an end to leprosy in Europe.
A Remarkable Man.-Among the famous men of our time the celebrated Cardinal Antonelli is a striking example of a self-made man. He was born in the hovel of a herdsman in a village notorious for being the home of robbers and smugglers. At thirty he held important offices in the Church under Gregory XVI., at forty-one he received the rank of a cardinal, and has been ever since the favorite and right hand man of the Pope.
Statistics of Berlin.—The capital of Germauy has many features in common with our large American, çities. Of its population, about 76 per cent. may be considered citizens, while 24 per cent. form the “ drifting" element. There are 25,000 persons who live in rented rooms, and 44,000 who have no rooms, but content themselves with a bed wherever they can get one. Of servants, there are 46,500; still 79 per cent. of the entire population do without help (not an American feature!) 77 per cent. are Protestants; 5 are Catholics; 792 per cent. consist of government officials and soldiers, while various branches of industry claim the busy hands of 67 per cent.
An Ignorant Nobility.-Among the most ignorant nobles are the aristocratic ladies of Spain, whose general education is very much neglected. To cite one instance out of many, when a certain prince whose name was well known in political circles, visited the Duke of Montpensier, a few years ago, the fair Duchess had not even heard his name, or that of his country before, and had to be instructed in the leading points concerni:ig her guest, in order to avoid making blunders. Even Spanish writers complain of the deplorable ignorance of their nobles, especially the women, and see in this retrogression, comparatively speaking, the source of Spain's decadence.
Dormancy of Marmots.- In the coldest regions of the Alps where marmots still are found, these animals sleep nearly ten months of the year, thus passing five years out of six in a state of unconsciousness. During this torpor, the lungs of the marmot scarcely respire, and the circulation of the blood amounts in sixty hours to as much as that of half an hour when fully roused.
“ Dust and Disease."--Since Tyndall's lecture on this subject, popular atten. tion is somewhat aroused and more precaution is being taken to obtain pure air. Still many forget that personal cleanliness is just as necessary as fure air. Our teeth, especially when decayed, may be made literally to swarm with animalculae; the skin, hair and nails produce at least eight different kinds of fungi; our ears and the corners of the eyes are frequently infested with similar organic or semi. organic matter. Dead flies and other insects left to rot in rooms and garrets behind furniture difficult to move; or swept out and left lying near doors and windows, may poison the air and produce diseases of the eyes, nose, and lungs. Teachersi speak of this in the school-room where dust is often so plentiful; where