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“But what Spencer thinks of these great questions, or what one teacher thinks of his thinking, is of small moment compared with what we find in the last paragraph of the following page. First line-The object of all living is happiress.'(?)

“I thought that was what the catechisms taught when I was a child-say one hundred years ago. Still, this, in itself, is not so bad as that which is made to follow, where it, happiness, is correlated with that success which is made the end of education.

“Let who will open the eyes, that need but be opened, to see this amazing falsity stand in the front of heresies prolific in devices to advance backward all true ideals of manhood and womanhood-the source of rot in all the social sphere.

“Success, indeed, the end! The public prints have lately been filled with the record of a life whom here I need not name—so well did he succeed.

Question. If James was educated, what theory did his teacher hold on that subject; or was it his mother?

"I beg pardon for having said more than I intended; perhaps more than the occasion merrited. But teaching is so vast a responsibility, and the stuff of which young intellect is made so impressible, that a mother could hardly turn from the article just read, and, looking in to the face of a child, fail to think some sort of thoughts.”

Educational Intelligence.

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WISCONSIN. MANITOWOC is building two fine school-houses, one at a cost of $12,000, which is nearly completed; the other at a cost of $20,000, which will be finished next summer.

WAUSAU.—A large and elegant brick school-house is to be erected in Wausau early in the spring.

WAUWATOSA.-A new brick school-house has been erected in Wauwatosa, at a cost of $8,000. It will seat about 200 pupils.

ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY school children were buried to death by the terrible fires in the northern part of the state.

MINERAL POINT.-The public schools, after a recess of six months, opened on Monday last. All the departments except the primary, are full, as usual. Mr. Wm. Martin has been engaged as principal. He bears a high reputation as a teacher; has received his education at some of the best schools in the state, and has a character above reproach. We hope the public will accord to him the same liberal support that they have heretofore to the principals of the public schools.National Democrat.

MONROE.—The corps of teachers at present employed are R. W. Burton, principal, Mrs. R. W. Burton principal of the grammar school, and Misses F. A. Dwight, L. Rathbun, J. Galusha, F. Bloom, E. Van Wagenen, M. Blair, M. White, C. King, C. Williarns, A. West and F. Miner. Mr. Burton has resigned his place to take charge of the Soldiers' Orphans' Home, in this city. A successor of the right stamp is wanted.

PRAIRIE DU CHIEN.—The schools at Prairie du Chien are in a prosperous condition. Prof. Lovewell and Miss M. E. Brown and Miss Hattie E. Campbell are teaching in Upper Town, and Mr. Wallin and Miss S. Oram in Lower Town.

WAUKESHA COUNTY.—The Superintendent of this county, who means work, has issued an excellent circular, containing these among other good suggestions and proposed requiremenis:

No teacher, especially if new to the work, who is earnestly endeavoring by the diligent use of all the means within reach, to fulfil the duties of his profession,

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shall lack my best sympathies, and I may add, my aid, when it can be of service. On the other hand, the best interests of the pupils shall not be imperiled by any encouragement that I shall give to idle or incompetent teachers.

“ As the Constitution ’has been made a branch on which you have to be examined, and as few of you have had an opportuniùy of studying it formally, the questions on this branch will be of a general nature, and the questions on history will chiefly relate to the circumstances which led to and accompanied its adoption.

“ The very excellent historical notes accompanying the Constitutions provided by the Superintendent of Public Instruction, with occasional reference to any school history, will furnish what information you will require. The younger teachers will see that this study occupy some of their spare time this winter, and if there be a desire on the part of any considerable number to have a week previous to the examinations employed in its formal study, I shall be glad, if a place can be secured to accommodate such a class, to take charge of it.

“ In looking over the examination questions used in this county during the last ten years, I see no necessity for submitting any of a higher grade, even than those used during the first year of the county system. While it is desirable that teachers be conversant with all the branches required to be taught in our common schools (and certainly they should never cease until this is attained,) it is of greater im. portance that they have such a thorough comprehension of the fundamental and elementary principles, and of the best methods of presenting them that they can make the first steps in the paths of knowledge, and of course all subsequent steps,) invigorating, pleasant and profitable. The third grade questions in written arithmetic, at the spring examinations, will not go beyond percentage and its applications, as developed in Robinson's and Ray's higher arithmetics. To this extent, it will be thorough.

“I shall require a composition containing not fewer than 150 words, nor occupy, ing more than one page of legal cap, on a certain subject which may be selected by the teacher from six familier subjects, which will then be presented. From this paper I shall judge of your practical knowledge of the English language as seen in your spelling, syntax and the use of capitals, and also of your ability to teach your scholars how to write a letter at which they need not blush.

“In order to induce practice in map drawing, and to secure an acquaintance with our own state, I shall require an outline map of Wisconsin, upon a scale to be then given, to be drawn by each applicant for a certificate. A LEX. F. NORTH,

County Superintendent,

OUR COLLEGES, BELOIT COLLEGE, established twenty-five years ago by a convention of Congregational and Presbyterian pioneers, sends out this year an elegantly printed catalogue, which gives the names of ten instructors, one hundred and ninety-three pupils for the year, and seventeen graduates from the institution, who are found in all departments of prominent service and influence-teachers, professors,

vyers, clergymen, college presidents, missionaries, etc., etc. RIPON COLLEGE.—This is a younger institution, having graduated its first class in 1867. It is under Congregational auspices. Its catalogue, covering a year and one term, gives the names of 440 students, seven professors and four female in structors. The right of women to receive a classical education is fully recognized in this institution, which numbers twelve ladies among its twenty-six graduates.

CARROLL COLLEGE. It was our privilege, last Friday, to attend some of the examinations in “ Carroll College and Young Ladies' Seminary,” now under the direction of Professor and Mrs. Lummis, and we take pleasure in “making a minute” of our impressions. Both the Professor and his accomplished lady evidently bring to the great work before them a spirit of conscientious faithfulness, which is in itself a powerful pledge of success; and the testimony of faithful scholars, during the past term, shows that the promise is already, to a very encouraging extent, fulfilled. There were sixty-one pupils, we understand, during the term just closed, and we trust that the number may steadily increase hereafter.Waukesha Freeman.

LAWRENCE UNIVERSITY.—Dr. G. M. Steele, President of the University, has favored us with a copy of the catalogue for the current scholastic year, which affords much cause for gratulation. It will also be gratifying to the public generally to know that the movement to raise an endowmeut furd of $100,000 is meeting with

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flattering success, $15,000 of the amount being already secured by the energetic endowment agent, Rev. J. H. Roe. Now let the remainder be made up before commencement day.

A state exchange gives the following exhibit:

"From the catalogue we learn that the institution has now in attendance 294 students, about one-third of whom are ladies. The next graduating class contains nine. One hundred and thirty students have graduated from the institution, forty-five of whom are ladies. The winter term begins on Wednesday, the 3d of January next, and closes Tuesday, March the 20th. `In admitting ladies to all the privileges of the institution from the beginning, the officers took a step in advance of other similar institutions, which displayed as much practical good sense as it did Christian spirit. In this, Lawrence University is at least half a score of years in advance of a large majority of the colleges of the country, and for this liberality we tally one to the credit of the institution.”- Appleton Crescent.

MILTON COLLGE.—This institution is at work with its usual energy and success. It has 140 students in'attendance this winter term. In both the academic and collegiate classes are young men and young ladies of superior abilities. Good feeling and earnest attention to the studies prevail in all the departments. The faculty are laboring with vigor and in a most cheerful spirit. Prof. Searing, thu author of a popular text book on Virg:1, is cosely engaged, what time he can find, in preparing for the press a work on the first six books of Homer's Iliad. He expects to have it issued in time for the next fall term of the schools. The friends of the College are moving hopefully in an effort to raise more funds for the benefit of the institution.

RACINE COLLEGE.-The Advocate says this college opened last Wednesday after a vacation of four weeks with an attendance of more than 200 students. This is a larger number of students than it has ever before accommodated; during the vacation various improvements have been made in the buildings, among which is a new gallery in the chapel, by which its capacity is greatly increased.

WAYLAND UNIVERSITY.—The winter term opened on Tuesday, January 9th, with flattering prospects. First-class instructors now occupy its various chairs, and fina opportunities are offered to persons of limited means for obtaining an education. It is now in charge of E. F. Stearns, as principal.-Beaver Dam Argus.

These flourishing institutions are honorable to the state and to the enterprise of the Christian denominations that have established them.

OTHER STATES.

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We are indebted for many of the gleanings which follow, to the School Advocate, an excellent Educational Journal published at Indianapolis, (Ind.,) which has entered upon its second volume. Several notes of the southern states are taken from Morton's Monthly, a new journal elsewhere noticed:

MASSACHUSETTS has four State Normal schools. The male principals of these schools each receive a salary of $3,000, and the female principal at Framingham receives $2,500. We learn that another Normal school is soon to be established at Worcester.

THE Boston School Committee has refused to prohibit corporal pranishment in the schools of that city. The best teachers are said to testify that it is not often necessary, and the right to inflict it is seldom abused.

IOWA.-Mr. JAMES M. Ross, the managing editor of the Iowa Instructor and School Journal, has retired, and leaves it in the hands of Mr. JAMES ELLIS, who has been for some time associated with him. The Journal always contains lively and instructive matter:

ARKANSAS.-A law passed at the last session of the general assembly of this state has had a tendency to somewhat cripple or retard the progress of the free school system which had been so successfully inaugurated. We refer to the law providing for the issuing of interest bearing certificates, and making them receivable for school taxes. A large proportion of the tax collected under this law was paid in this state scrip.” It is reported that in many counties where taxes were paid in United States currency, the conscientious (?) collectors have converted it

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scrip,” thus pocketing about 40 per cent. of the proceeds. This state scrip is really worth but about 50 cents on the dollar, and teachers, whose nominal salaries, if paid sin full, would require them to possess the faith of a Muhler to live, are compelled to receive their pay in this depreciated paper. But with all these discouraging surroundings, the friends of the free school system are making commendable progress.

ALABAMA.—The State University opened in October with sixty students. Lieutenant Maury was for some time advertised as the president; but although he had signified his acceptance of the nomination, in the eleventh hour he tendered his resignation. Prof. Lupton has been elected president.

The public schools are fairly in operation under the superintendency of Hon. Jos. Hodgson, who devotes himself with ability and fidelity to the discharge of his duties. From the American Educational Monthly we gather tke following statistics: During the scholastic year 1871 the cost of administering the department of education has been less than that for the year 1870 by $42,335. There has been a corresponding increase in the number of pupils and the length of the school term. Whereas in 1870 the average number of pupils was 52,060, the number in 1871, is 107,666, an increase of more than one hundred per cent. The school term, which in 1870 averaged two months and nine days, has increased in length of session thirty-five and a quarter per cent. This remarkable increase in number of pupils, both white and colored, and increased length of school term, have resulted in but small part from an increase of the school fund. With but 171 per cent. increase of the tuition fund, we find 906 per cent. increase of pupils, and 354 per cent, increase in length of school session.

GEORGIA.—Popular education is here in its infancy. In the country districts and minor towns private schools flourish; but the public school has had to struggle against the rapacity of the aliens, who until lately occupied all places of trust and responsibility. The late absconding governor, Bullock, borrowed from the treasury all the educational funds, placing in their stead state bonds, which now are not marketable. This has proved a serious blow to educational progress; but the prospect now is more hopeful: the best citizens are again getting control of the affairs of the state.

Much of the odium that naturally attached to those who heretofore have mismanaged all the departments of government has been sometimes unjustly turned against inncocent parties. Commissioner Lewis, who, we are informed, stands high in the estimation of the people of Atlanta, has had to suffer because of the company in which he has been thrown. By a large vote the present legislature has requested him to resign. We are not advised of the reasons for this request, nor do we know what response, if any, the commissioner has made.

The friends of the free schools in this state have been laboring under many difficulties, some of which will doubtless soon be remedied. The present legislature seems inclined to improve the very defective school law, and the people are beginning to appreciate the necessity of better school houses and the necessary appliances. Three new school houses of eight rooms each are nearly completed at Atlanta.. The school board is thoroughly organized and we shall expect soon to see this thriving city on the high road to success in educational enterprise.

KENTUCKY.--In his initial report to the legislature, the State Superintendent recommends that all the taxes paid by the negro race should be given to them for the education of their children. He suggests that the whole amount of revenue derived from them be thus applied for five years, each county having the benefit of the taxes collected within its borders.

THE Louisville Courier-Journal says: “Up with the school-house and down with the Ku-klux, is the word; and if it be spoken in time, and with proper spirit and emphasis, it will prove a word of enchantment."

LOUISIANA.-Tne Rev. Thos. W. Conway, who is a prominent member of that band of adventurers who for some years past have usurped the offices of this state, still mismanages the educational bureau. Superintendent Conway had a severe attack of yellow fever last summer, but recovered.

MISSISSIPPI.—The salaries of teachers range higher than in most other states, being fifty, seventy, and ninety dollars, according to clar. The schools are graded, and are under county control as to organization and management. The State Superintendent, who politically is not in sympathy with the citizens, has materially

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impaired the usefulness of his administration by involving himself in peculiar contracts with certain manufacturers of school furniture.

SUPT. W. T. HARRIS of St. Louis, has suggested to his Board of Education the adoption of a regulation prohibiting the use of the text-book in the recitation by the teacher whenever the pupil is expected to recite without the book, and that the teacher be recommended to use a syllabus of topics or questions, either written or printed, in the conduct of such recitations. He thinks that the greater bulk of the evils complained of by intelligent parents, who find their children becoming mere cramming machines instead of intelligent investigators, results from the practice of many teachers using the text-book during the recitation as of information from which to draw a supply for their own use on the occasion, thus making up for their own lack of preparation.” “ That the teacher should know as much of the lesson as the pupil, does not need statement.” We have often expressed the wish that there might be a self-executing law which would forbid any teacher to attempt to conduct a recitation before he has so thoroughly mastered the lesson as to be able to recite it—to change places with the pupil with credit. The slavish use of text-books in conducting recitations is “evil and only evil and that continually.” It degrades the teacher, deadens the recitation, and kills the interest of the pupil. The teacher should stand before his class so full of the lesson that he may have a free hand and a free eye.-National Teacher.

St. Louis has forty-eight public school buildings, which all together are valued Bt $1,730,005. There are 466 teachers, and nearly 27,000 pupils.

TENNESSEE.-The public school system of Tennessee, since it has been relieved from the superintendency of Commissioner Eaton, has no longer a state department. Each county collects and disburses its own school tax through the hands of a board of trustees elected by the people. The plan has been in operation too short a time to estimate the results by comparison with different systems. A resolution is pending before the legislature to reorganize the State Bureau of Educacation. Schools are being organized in all the counties, and much earnestness prevails. There are many excellent private schools and colleges of a high order.

TEXAS.—All the public lands are set apart for school purposes. The sale of these lands will realize a large fund. There is a compulsory feature in the school system. The local papers, with singular unanimity, charge that the educational fund does not reach the teachers, but is appropriated by the trustees. So far the public school system has proved a failure-due to the compulsion attempted or to the diversion of the public money, or both.

NEVADA pays the highest salaries to her teachers of any State or Territory in the Union. Male teachers receive in that State an average monthly salary of $118.75 in coin, and female teachers $92.16. Louisiana ranks next in appreciation of the teacher's work, paying her men $112, and her wonen $76 per month. New York State averages to all her teachers $63.36 monthly salary. The lowest salaries are paid in North Carolina, where the males receive per month $20.50, and the women $18.50. A female teacher in Nebraska receives a larger salary than any male teacher in that State, and the average salary paid to women in Nebraska is nearly equal to that paid to the other sex—the males receiving $34.32, and the females $33.66 per month.

WASHINGTON.—The “United States Commissioner of Education” is making great reputation as a statistician. In his last report he sets forth, tabularly, the relation of poverty to crime as shown in the New England States. • Eighty per cent. of the criminals in those states have no education, or not enough for any useful purpose. Eighty to ninety per cent. have not learned any trade” The Commissioner's report is voluminous, and shows great labor; but his statements would possess greater value if in all cases he mentioned ihe source from which he' obtained them. In the matter of statistics, having exhausted this country, he now turns his attention to foreign parts. He has lately published a volume of Norway and Sweden school statistics, which he thinks will be useful. He is a man of sanguine temperament.

DARTMOUTH COLLEGE.-The total number of students at Dartmouth this year, as appears from the catalogue just issued, is 400. Of these, 43 are in the Professional Departments, viz: 46 in Medicine, and 3 in Civil Engineezing; 357 in the undergraduate Departments, viz: 282 in the Classical, 63 in the Scientific, and 12 in

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