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paper. Time for sowing mangel wurzel from first or second week in April to middle of May; 2 lbs. of seed in drills, 3 or 4 lbs. broad-cast. Produce at Hatfield, 60 to 75 tons an acre; roots from 20 to 30 lbs. each, including tops. Beasts should be limited for the first fortnight to half a bushel when cut, three times a day; after which they may have as much as they can eat.
October 10.–The editor, in the course of some remarks on the progress which the culture of mangel wurzel has made and is making in England, notices the work of Mr. Pinder Simpson, of Cheese Cross, in Essex, on the mode and advantages of growing it on stroug soils. The editor reports on three crops grown on Mr. Simpson's plan :—The first, a six-acre field belonging to John Heaton, Esq., of Bedfords, in Essex, the seed of which was purchased, and turned out to be of all kinds of beet,” still it was superior to a good crop of turnips. The second, a field of Mr. Laycock's, the cowkeeper, near Islington Church, which had lately been a brick-field : well worth seeing. The third, the best of the three, a field of two acres belonging to Mr. Hudson, close upon the marsh lands called Plaistow Level, about five miles from town, and will be full fifty tons an
The editor questions the propriety of pulling off the leaves whilst the plant is yet growing.
October 31.-Mr. C. Addams is clearly of opinion, that premature gathering of the leaves is injurious, being convinced, that through them a very considerable portion of nutriment is conveyed to the plant while growing.
November 14.-In reply to a query as to the number of roots necessary to reserve for seed, P. S. states, that six or eight will be enow for one acre; he has had more than a pound of seed from one root. The roots intended for seed should be transplanted in the latter end of March, or any time in April. The crop may be stored in a barn, putting a layer of straw between each layer of roots.
Mr. Henry Bell, of Wallington, estimates his crop at fifty tons an acre.
November 28.-The Rev. St. John Priest cautions the public against the use of mangel wurzel as food for cows; alleging that “it produces, within a few days, a paralysis in the hinder quarters, dries up the milk, and, if persisted in, kills a cow.
gentleman appeals for the truth of his statement to Lord Crewe, T. W. Coke, Esq., and Mr. Tollet.
This intelligence, as may well be imagined, coming from such respectable authority as that of the Secretary to the Nor
folk Agricultural Society, and supported by the testimony of three such eminent agriculturists as those just named, occasioned no little alarm to the mangel wurzel growers of that day. Its partizans, in anticipation of this alarm, were soon on the alert, for in the paper of the following week
December 5—we are presented with several letters, giving testimony of an opposite character to that adduced by Mr. Priest:
Sir Mordaunt Martin says he had used it for more than twenty-six years and never experienced any bad effects from it.
J. B. Birch, Esq., of Brandon, has been a grower since 1810, and has found it “preeminently the best root crop for the dairy.” At first, gathered the leaves from the growing plants, but discontinued the practice as injurious. Has never heard of any similar effects to those stated by Mr. Priest, and calls on that gentleman for further particulars.
Mr. Robert Ramsden, of Carlton Hall, Notts., has used it for cows for thirty years without injury; has “a large quantity this year, thirty-eight tons per acre.
An anonymous correspondent, P. S., but a person well known to the editor, keeps ten cows, to all of which he gives mangel wurzel, hay, and straw. Five years' experience have convinced, that the disease mentioned by Mr. Priest is attributable to another cause, and not to this root.
Mr. Layton Cooke, of London, has given it to between twenty and thirty cows, during the months of " March, April, and part of May,” and has found great improvement in the quality as well as quantity of the milk. He thinks paralysis in cows by no means uncommon; and that it is unfair, without more decisive proof, to attribute it to the use of mangel wurzel.
Another correspondent begs to refer Mr. Priest to a work published in the year 1797, by J. Downing, near Bromesgrove, Worcestershire, in which many similar cases are enumerated, except that no mangel wurzel was then used.
December 12.-The Rev. St. John Priest reiterates the fact, " that all Mr. Coke's cows, 25 in number, which fed upon mangel wurzel, (and for a few days only), strewed upon grass land, were affected with paralysis, and some of them lost their milk; as soon as the mangel wurzel was discontinued, the cows began to recover.” The dairies of Lord Crewe and Mr. Tollet were affected " at the same time, and, apparently, from the same cause."
Sir Mordaunt Martin wishes to know how mangel wurzel was used at Holkham, as he hears the roots with their tops on were thrown into the carts, and if so, the quantity of dirt adhering to the leaves may have done the harm. (It was then wet weather). A second letter from Sir Mordaunt confirms the above.
A Lincolnshire correspondent raises a crop, the land in high condition, plants upon an average 12 by 21 inches, which was allowing each plant, he says, plenty of room for size and weight,* and yet he obtained only 23 tons 7 cwt. an acre of clean roots.
A Gloucestershire farmer states the result of an experiment to decide between mangel wurzel and Swedish turnips; equal quantities of a field being given to cows. The former was the heaviest
but the latter maintained the stock, as nearly as could be, the same time. The leaves were given to sheep and young cattle, lest from their being partly decayed (it was in November) they might give a taste to the milk.
It will be observed that no injury was done to the cows in this instance.
December 19.—Mr. F. Sibson, of Canonby, Maryport, points to the experience of Mr. Curwen and Mr. Salkeld in his neighbourhood, as contradictory of the assertions of Mr. Priest. Their cattle and milch cows were fed with mangel wurzel and received no injury. April and May are the best months for using it. Does not consider it the best promoter of milk, probably from its astringent quality, but thinks it not only harmless, but exceedingly nutricious.
Mr. L. Phillips, jun., of Vauxhall, states, that previous to introducing the roots to the cowkeepers, cattle feeders, &c. around London, he had a root carefully analysed by Mr. Hume, chemist, Longacre, to ascertain if it contained any injurious properties. Mr. H. pledges himself that it cannot possibly do harm to animals, either human or brute, and might do a great deal of good, as a highly nutricious food.
Mr. J. Lawrence says, that in 1791 his cows, feeding on carrots and hay, were seized with precisely the same disorder. He considers the symptoms described by Mr. Priest to be “perfectly autumnal, influenzal, and rheumatic.
A Fakenham correspondent (Fakenham is but a few miles from Holkham) writes, that paralysis in cows has been very prevalent in that neighbourhood for the last two months, and in cows which have neither seen nor tasted mangel wurzel.
* This was not, in my opinion, allowing sufficient“ room for size and weight.” Had the plants stood at 12 by 30 inches, in all likelihood the weight of root wo have been greater: but for sugar, perhaps the smaller roots would be preferred.
December 26.-T. W. Coke, Esq., confirms Mr. Priest's statement. He cannot conceive that dirt can have any thing to do with it, as that adheres as strongly to the Swedish turnips upon which his cows fed when they recovered their milk.
Mr. Priest (to whom Mr. Coke's letter is addressed) recapitulates his former statement, and wishes some person to try the use of mangel wurzel in the manner described by him, for three days only, and report the effect.
Sir Mordaunt Martin quotes from a letter of Mr. Lindley, of Catton Nursery, near Norwich, to him, wherein he (Mr. L.) expresses his surprize at Mr. Priest's statement, especially as it was official; and fears that it will lay aside the root completely.
Mr. Thomas Herod, of North Creak, near Holkham, has grown 603 tons of mangel wurzel an acre. He thinks the injudicious use of it for cows would certainly be injurious, so would turnips, or even corn for a horse. Mr. H. thinks highly of it.
Mr. W. Glover, of the Schoose Farm, Cumberland, relates the experience of several years on the estate of J. C. Curwen, Esq., and speaks warmly in favour of mangel wurzel as food for cows.
Each beast was allowed from six to seven stone a day of the roots, with steamed chaff and straw. The milk certainly decreased in quantity, but was evidently richer with, than without the mangel wurzel.*
January 2.-Mr. Tollett (of Staffordshire) confirms the account given of the illness of Lord Crewe's and Mr. Coke's cows, and is convinced that mangel wurzel should be used with caution, or it will produce, in other instances, the same injurious effects as those which have happened in Cheshire and in Norfolk.
Mr. Priest makes some concluding remarks on the subject, but adduces no additional fact.
Mr. G. T. Boult (of Stag Brewhouse) details the particulars of a small piece of land sown with mangel wurzel, belonging to Colonel Elliot; the whole of which was given to cows.
J. W. (of Farnborough) thinks that Mr. Coke's cows were injured by the dirt, or too great a quantity of the leaves at a time. Has long used it for cows without injury; it enriched the quality, but did not increase the quantity of the milk.
* This somewhat agrees with my own experience of the root; which, on the whole, I do not consider so advantageous when used for cows as for fatting bullocks.
January 9.-Two anonymous letters containing strictures on Mr. Priest's statement respecting the injured cows; the effects on which, it is contended, were solely owing to their being over-fed with the mangel wurzel root; and that wherever this has been used with hay or some other dry meat, it has been perfectly harmless.
January 16.—Mr. J. W. Allen (of Haynes, Beds.) has been a grower of mangel wurzel for 27 years; during which time he never experienced any bad effects from it. The proper season for giving it to cattle is April and May when other food is become scarce.
“ In the late discussion,” says Dr. Rigby in his Suggestions for an Improved and Extended Cultivation of Mangel Wurzel,
originating in a suspicion that it was injurious to cows, a greatly predominant testimony was certainly in favour of the mangel wurzel, and the increased cultivation of it this year, as before observed, is an unequivocal proof of it ; nevertheless, the facts on which these suspicions were founded, remain uncontradicted, and more particularly the fact of Mr. Coke's cow having suddenly died after eating mangel wurzel, and unless they can be explained, they must necessarily continue to excite doubt upon the subject.
“ The case of Mr. Coke's cow is certainly the strongest which has been before the public, and if it admit of satisfactory explanation, as I am disposed to think it does, the question will probably be at rest.
“When the roots are taken up in the beginning of November for winter keeping, the leaves are progressively stripped off, a certain quantity each day, and these only are given to the cows, to whom they afford a seasonable supply of green food at this time of the year, of no inconsiderable value; and this is, unquestionably, the most judicious and economical way of consuming them; but the leaves and roots, as just taken out of the ground, were thrown to Mr. Coke's cows and eaten, together with the earth which adhered to them, and of which, at that time, there was an unusual quantity, and if swallowed, I have no doubt must have been materially detrimental to them.
“ The circumstance of a more than ordinary quantity of earth adhering to the roots, at this time, can be accounted for ; it was owing to a peculiar process which affected many biennial plants late in the summer. There had been a very severe drought almost six weeks, under which the process of growth was suspended in many vegetables, and particularly in that which is