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Mr. Ingram in returning thanks, said, his farm was a most desirable one, with slated house and offices that had cost £400; and also with plenty of sea-manure, and good meadow-land. His landlord had acted with him upon the principle of “ live and let live;" and though he believed could have got a rent of 30s. per Cunningham acre, he had charged him no more than 20. He expressed his gratitude to Mr. Blacker, and his determination never to disgrace Mr. B.'s kind recommendation. John Beck then expressed a similar determination.
The chairman then gave—“Mr. Booth's health, and success to his exertions as agriculturist on Sir Thomas Staples' estate.”
Mr. Booth returned thanks, and bore testimony to the beneficial effects of the house-feeding system.
“Our friends and rivals in improvement on the Richhill and Drum. banagher estates.”
Mr. Anderson, agriculturist to the Richbill estate, hoped he might be permitted to make a few observations, with the view of possibly inducing some other persons to make similar useful and practical improvements. In the spring of 1832, cloverseed was delivered gratis to such tenants as would sow it, holding 12 acres and under, and only about 20 acres were sown that year. This system was continued the two following years; and the great utility of the clover crop then became so evident, that afterwards a large quantity of seed was delivered each spring to such tenants as would receive it, at first cost, and the payment not to be made till the following November : under this arrangement the sowing of cloverseed rapidly increased, so that in the spring of 1836 upwards of 500 acres were sown; and last spring, 600 acres or more were laid down under clover. Vetches also have been extensively cultivated, and have proved to be most useful for feeding between the first and second crops of clover. The sowing of turnip-seed also continues on the increase. There are about 300 tenants who have turnips this season, and there is about one-fifth part more land under that crop this year than last; and to enumerate the many advantages to be derived therefrom in milk, butter, fattening cattle, and making manure, would be useless to those present who know them so well. The housefeeding of cattle has also been adopted for several years past with great advantage.
Mr. Milne, agriculturist on Colonel Close's estates, and one of the judges for the premiums, handed in the following statement :
Mr. Chairman,—Having had the honour of being appointed by you as one of the judges for the premiums on the Gosford estate, for several years past, I am happy to bear testimony to the improvement in the cultivation of the turnip crop this season, and the general appearance of the housing and farms throughout the property. In regard to the Drumbanagher estate, I have been doing my utmost to promote the levelling of crooked fences, drainage of the land, and repairing of houses, and introducing green crops; and I have now prepared a list to lay before you, when at leisure, of competitors for such premiums as Colonel Close may
give, which I trust you will consider creditable to the property and the tenantry. The advantage to be obtained by house-feeding the stock has been so amply proved, both in theory and practice, that I deem.it quite unnecessary to say anything now in confirmation of it.
The remainder of the evening was spent in discussing agricultural subjects, introduced for that purpose.
GENERAL REPORT FOR ENGLAND.
It is almost unnecessary to inform our readers, as a piece of information, that the weather has been unusually changeable since our last report, because every part of the three kingdoms has experienced the same, though luckily, neither rain nor frost has been so extreme as to stop the necessary labours of the field. The wheat seed season has been got over in good time, and the plants have risen and look well. From the letters of our distant correspondents, they report it as their opinion, that a greater breadth of wheat will be sown this season, than there has been for some years past; owing to a good deal of turnip land being destined to receive this grain ; as it is considered that though turnipland wheat is almost always inferior to that of ley or fallow, yet it does very well for seed; and at any rate, its return is more than equal to that of barley at the present prices, on an average of years.
The yield of the various crops of the late harvest, is now pretty well ascertained. Wheat in the gross, is hardly an average crop; ani it is considered that the stock of old in hand, is less than there was at this time last year. A considerable quantity of the wheat of last harvest, which has already appeared in market, has been found too rough for the millers' purpose, and who have been obliged to have recourse to the perfectly dry Dantzic samples in bond, to work up with the English. It is said, that two or three hundred quarters have been taken from the foreign warehouses for this special purpose.
Barley, in general, is also considered below an average crop, and though the best samples are sought for malting, the stained samples are
nly saleable for mealing and distilling. Oats are variously reported of: in some places they are fine and heavy, and in other districts, especially in the north, they have ripened imperfectly.
Mark Lane was abundantly supplied yesterday with all sorts of grain as well as flour. This is a natural result at this time of the year. Wheat-sowing is ended, and Christmas bills are expected, for which provision must be made. The usual consequence of such full markets is a reduction of prices, as was the case yesterday, except for the very best samples of every description. Another circumstance affecting the market in some degree, and especially in the article of oats, is an ex
pectation of many of the buyers, that much more abundant supplies will be shortly received from Scotland and Ireland, till the arrival of which, the buyers delay making purchases to any amount.
We quote the following prices, viz.
Wheat.-White new 448., 56s., 60s.; old 578. to 658.; red new, 43s., 54s., 56s.; old, 55s. to 60s.; Scotch 45s., 498., 54s.
Barley.-Malting, 28s. to 31s.; fine, 33s. to 35s.; grinding, 23s, to 27.
Oats.-English feed, 17s. to 22s.; Poland and potato, 25s. to 26s.; Irish-feed, 19s. to 20s. ; potato 20s. to 24s. ; Scotch, 24s. to 28s.
Beans.-New, 29s. to 33s. ; old, 36s. to 44s.
Rye.-Fine, 36s. ; tares new, 32s. ; rape seed, 40s. to 44s.; linseed, from 36s. to 46s. per quarter.
Flour.-Town-made, 50s. to 52s. ; north country, 40s. to 42s. per sack of 280lb.
This, (Mark-Lane) as well as the principal country markets, rules very steady as to prices; nor is there any prospect of much variation in the value of corn for many months to come.
Imperial Averages on December 1st.-Wheat, 528, 6d. ; barley, 298 5d.; oats, 21s.: rye, 30s. 4d. ; beans, 36s. 9d. ; peas, 34s. 6d.
London Averages.- Wheat, 54s. 6d. ; barley, 31s. 2d. ; oats, 21s.1d.; rye, 29s. 10d. ; beans, 34s. 7d. ; peas, 36s. 11d. : all lower by nearly 10s. per quarter, than the averages of last year.
Seeds.-English clover is not highly spoken of; some middling samples are quoted at from 55s. to 65s. ; white, 54s. to 60s. per cwt. The trade is languid, nor will there be much stir till the spring.
London Prices of Bread.-Best wheaten, from 8d. to 9d. ; household, from 6 d. to 7d. per 4lb. loaf.
Prices of Hay.—Meadow, from 80s. to 958. ; clover, from 95s. to 110s. per load; wheat straw, from 34s. to 36s. ; oat ditto, 32s. to 368.
Quantities of malt used by the London brewers for one year ending October 10, 1837.—714,488 quarters, being 39,825 quarters less than was used in 1836. This decrease on the quantity is attributed to there being more gin used than formerly. The largest quantity used is by the firm of Barclay and Co.; the least by Denman.
Smithfield Market. This happening yesterday, is always the fullest and most interesting in the whole year, not only for the number of fat cattle exhibited, but for every thing in the finest condition that can be collected within a circuit of many miles around, independent entirely of the prize cattle.
The market prices for beef ranged from 2s. 4d. to 4s. 6d ; mutton from 3s. to 4s. 60; veal from 4s. to 5s. ; pork from 3s. 4d. to 5s. per stone of 81b. The numbers were nearly equal to what are usually got together for the business of the day, and it was observable, that the whole were more equal as to condition, than ever had been seen before.
Although there were none prodigiously fat, neither were there any unfit for the butcher. The large demand for good beef, at this season, is sure to raise the price; but the number being also large, the advance was hardly perceptible; not more, perhaps, than 2d. per stone, compared with the previous rates.
The chronicles of this market show that there is a steady annual in. crease in the numbers of oxen, sheep, and pigs, brought forward on this day; and, indeed, the same result is evident in every provision market in the kingdom. This is not only a proof of an increased popu. lation, but it is also a proof that grazing and the fatting of live stock is much more an object of profit among farmers than it has been for many past. And while corn keeps at so low a price, feeding in all its branches must of course be extended.
The Club Dinner took place yesterday at the Free Masons' Tavern, and was attended by above three hundred gentlemen interested in agricultural affairs. Earl Spencer was in the chair, attended by the Duke of Richmond, and other noblemen; and much discussion took place respecting the objects of the club and the effects produced in the pursuit of these objects. The prizes were distributed, new members admitted, and future proceedings arranged.
The wool trade has been steady for some time past; but there are some signs of an increased briskness in the northern markets, and a prospect of more business being done after Christmas. The best des cription of Down wool fetches from ls. 4d. to ls. 6d.
Ib. ; inferior sorts from 8d. to ls.
Upon taking a general glance at the present condition of agriculturists at this time, we may venture to assert that in many respects they are upon the improve. They can now see pretty clearly what steps to take, and what to avoid ; and under the present settled state of national affairs, may trust to the results of well-laid schemes, without fear of disappointment, or dread of sudden changes.
12th December, 1837.
SMYTH AND SONS' DRILL.
FROM A CORRESPONDENT.
As drilling the seed engrosses much attention of the farmer, we bring the subject immediately under our readers' notice;
and to show their growing repute, we give a brief history of drills. The source of invention cannot be ascertained : it is most probable it originated with the farmers themselves thus, from simplicity has sprung perfection. Drilling was first adopted in Suffolk, which county is now noted for the manufactory of drills. At the commencement of the present century, drills were only remarkable for their difficulty to use, none but the most active and intrepid could do it, as they were continually exposed to contingencies; and, after great fatigue, the work was not only slovenly but very slowly done.
About the year 1800, Mr. Smyth commenced business at Peasenhall, as a wheelwright. To make a drill was one of his first commands. We may fathom his difficulty, when he was reluctantly obliged to make a thing which was but little known, and of which he knew nothing. “ The smallest stream has its beginning—a mighty torrent has no more.” He made a drill similar to one in the neighbourhood; of its merits we are silent; but it seems to have been a “lucky hit” for him. A wide field was immediately opened for his talents; he turned his whole attention to the subject; and, by his assiduous exertions, realized that success of which genius is too often deprived. His plans were immediately appreciated in his own county, and a thriving trade was the consequence. He introduced them into the adjoining counties with the same success. In 1819, Mr. Smyth. attended a meeting of the Agricultural Society of Hampshire, where drills were almost unknown, and where their practicability was instantly disputed; but he had too much experience to be daunted by theory; he gave the society a convincing proof of its practicability, by drilling a piece of corn before them; the crop was observed with interest, and proved highly satisfactory. The society, as a mark of their approbation, rewarded him with a piece of plate. Since that period, Mr. Smyth has a flourishing trade, with but little prospect of being rivalled.
Drills are now being introduced into the most distant parts from Suffolk, and are taken by those who make a trade of drilling, at from two to three shillings per acre-nearly one thousand of which class branch off into different counties during the season, and return to Suffolk when it is over.
Seeding the land requires to be performed in the most regular manner, as regards depth and distance, and must be done at the most suitable
To accomplish this, some system must be resorted to. That a satisfactory crop can be sown broadcast, we admit; but much of the seed lies on the surface, and is devoured by birds; this contingency, however, is provided for, by sowing a surplus. The drill dispenses with this, as eight pecks deposited by it are equal to twelve sown by the hand. It is not merely the saving of seed to be observed, but it is a proof that the drill, by depositing a small quantity, and realizing a good crop, plants the seed properly; and thus the probability of the crop is more certain. The seed is placed under the surface at one depth, and regularly distributed. A drill will do from eight to twelve acres per day ; thus, advantage may be taken of the varying wea