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A. 1032. In this year appeared the wild fire, such as no man before remembered; and moreover on all sides it did harm, in many places. And in the same year died Elfsy, * bishop at Winchester ; and Alwyn, the king's priest, succeeded thereto.

A. 1033. This year died bishop Leofsy, and his body rests at Worcester: and Brihtege was raised to his see.f In this year died Merewith bishop of Somerset it and he is buried at Glastonbury.

A. 1034. This year died bishop Etheric, § and he lies at Ramsey. This same year died Malcolm (II.), king in Scotland.

A. 1035. This year died king Canute; and Harold, his son, succeeded to the kingdom. He departed at Shaftesbury, on the 2d before the Ides of November ; and they bore him thence to Winchester, and there they buried him. And Elfgive, Emma, the lady, then sat there within : and Harold, who said that he was son of Canute and of the other Elfgive, though it was not true; he sent thither, and caused to be taken from her all the best treasures, which she could not withhold, that king Canute had possessed ; and nevertheless she still sat there within, as long as she could.

A. 103. This year Alfred the innocent etheling, son of king Ethelred, came in hither, and would go to his mother, who sat at Winchester ; but that neither Godwin the earl, nor the other men who had much power, would allow him because the cry was then greatly in favour of Harold, though that was unjust. But Godwin him then let, since the Danes came, and him in bonds set; fed ; and here accepted peace. and his companions he dispers- Now is our trust in and some divers ways slew ; the beloved God, some they for money sold, that they are in bliss, some cruelly slaughtered, blithely with Christ, some did they bind,

The etheling still lived, some did they blind,

who were without guilt some did they mutilate, so miserably slain. some did they scalp :

every ill they him vowed, nor was a bloodier deed until it was decreed done in this land

that he should be led • Godwin and Dugdale make Elfsy or Elsinus. to be translated to Canterbury, 1038. + Worcester. Wells.


to Ely-bury,

| After that him they buried, thus bound.

as well was his due Soon as he came to land, full worthily, in the ship he was blinded ; as he worthy was, and him thus blind

at the west end, they brought to the monks : the steeple well-nigh, and he there abode

| in the south aisle. the while that he lived. His soul is with Christ.

A. 1036. This year died king Canute at Shaftesbury, and he is buried at Winchester in the Old-minster : and he was king over all England very nigh twenty years. And soon after his decease there was a meeting of all the witan at Oxford ; and Leofric the earl, and almost all the thanes north of the Thames, and the lithsmen' at London, chose Harold for chief of all England, him and his brother Hardecanute who was in Denmark. And Godwin the earl and all the chief men of Wessex withstood it as long as they could ; but they were unable to effect any thing in opposition to it. And then it was decreed that Elfgive, Hardecanute's mother, should dwell at Winchester with the king's, her son's, household, and hold all Wessex in his power; and Godwin the earl was their man. Some men said of Harold that he was son of king Canute and of Elfgive daughter of Elfelm the ealdorman, but it seemed quite incredible to many men; and he was nevertheless full king over all England.

A. 1037. This year was Harold chosen king over all, and Hardecanute forsaken, because he stayed too long in Denmark; and then they drove out his mother Elfgive, the queen, without any kind of mercy, against the stormy winter : and she came then to Bruges beyond sea ; and Baldwin the earl* there well received her, and there kept her the while she had need. And before, in this year, died Eafy the noble dean at Evesham.

A. 1037. This year was driven out Elfgive, king Canute's relict ; she was king Hardecanute's mother; and she then sought the protection of Bald. win south of the sea, and he gave her a dwelling in Bruges, and protected and kept her, the while that she there was.

A. 1038. This year died Ethelnoth the good archbishop, and bishop Ethelric in Sussex, I who desired of God that he would not let him live, any while, after his beloved father Ethelnoth; and accordingly, within seven days after, he departed, and bishop Elfric in East-Anglia, § and bishop Briteagus in Worcestershire on the 13th before the Kalends of January. And then bishop Eadsine succeeded to the arch

• Of Flanders Of Canterbury Selsey. & Elmham.

bishopric, and Grinketel to the bishopric in Sussex, and bishop Living to Worcestershire and to Gloucestershire.

A. 1038. This year died Ethelnoth, the good archbishop, on the Kalends of November, and a little after, Ethelric bishop in Sussex, and then before Christmas, Briteagus bishop in Worcestershire, and soon after, Elfric bishop in East-Anglia.

A. 1039. This year was the great wind : and bishop Brithmar died at Lichfield. And the Welsh slew Edwin brother of Leofric the earl, and Thurkil, and Elfget, and very many good men with them. And this year also came Hardecanute to Bruges, where his mother was.

A. 1039. This year king Harold died at Oxford, on the 16th before the Kalends of April, and he was buried at Westminster. And he ruled England four years and sixteen weeks; and in his days sixteen ships were retained in pay, at the rate of eight marks for each rower, in like manner as had been before done in the days of king Canute. And in this same year came king Hardecanute to Sandwich, seven days before midsummer. And he was soon acknowledged as well by English as by Danes ; though his advisers afterwards grievously requited it, when they decreed that seventy-two ships should be retained in pay, at the rate of eight marks for each rower. And in this same year the sester of wheat went up to fifty-five pence, and even further.

A. 1040. This year died king Harold. Then sent they after Hardecanute to Bruges ; thinking that they did well, And he then came hither with sixty ships before midsummer, and then imposed a very heavy tribute, so that it could hardly be levied ; that was eight marks for each rower, and all were then averse to him who before had desired him; and moreover he did nothing royal during his whole reign. He caused the dead Harold to be taken up, and had him cast into : a fen. This year archbishop Eadsine went to Rome.

A. 1040. This year was the tribute paid ; that was twenty-one thousand pounds and ninety-nine pounds. And after that they paid to thirty-two ships, eleven thousand and forty-eight pounds. And, in this same year, came Edward, son of king Ethelred, hither to land, from Weal-land; he was brother of king Hardecanute : they were both sons of Elfgive ; Emma, who was daughter of earl Richard.

A. 1041. This year Hardecanute caused all Worcestershiro to be ravaged, on account of his two household servants, who demanded the heavy impost; when the people slew them in the town within the minster. This year, soon after, came from beyond sea Edward, his brother on the mother's side, king Ethelred's son, who before for many years had been driven from his country; and yet was he sworn king: and he then abode thus in his brother's family while he lived. And in this year also Hardecanute betrayed Eadulf the earl,* while under his protection : and he became then a belier of his “wed.” And this year bishop Egelrict was ordained at York, on the 3rd before the Ides of January.

A. 104). This year died king Hardecanute at Lambeth, on the 6th before the Ides of June : and he was king over all England two years wanting ten days; and he is buried in the Old-minster at Winchester with king Canute his father. And his mother, for his soul, gave to the New-minster the head of St. Valentine the martyr. And before he was buried, all people chose Edward for king .at London : may he hold it the while that God shall grant it to him! And all that year was a very heavy time, in many things and divers, as well in respect to ill seasons as to the fruits of the earth. And so much cattle perished in the year as no man before remembered, as well through various diseases as through tempests. And in this same time died Elsinus abbat of Peterborough ; and then Arnwius the monk was chosen abbat, because he was a very good man, and of great simplicity.

A. 1042. This year died king Hardecanute as he stood at his drink, and he suddenly fell to the earth with a terrible convulsion : and then they who were there nigh took hold of him ; and he after that spake not one word : and he died on the 6th before the Ides of June. And all people then acknowledged Edward for king, as was his true natural right.

A. 1043. This year was Edward consecrated king at Winchester, on the first day of Easter, with much pomp; and then was Easter on the third before the Nones of April. Archbishop Eadsine consecrated him, and before all the people well instructed him ; and for his own need, and all the people's, well admonished him. And Stigand the priest was blessed bishop of the East-Angles.I And soon after, the king caused all the lands which his mother possessed to be seized into his hands, and took from her all that she possessed in gold, and in silver, and in things unspeakable, because she had before held it too closely with him. And soon after, Stigand was deposed from his bishopric, and all that he possessed was seized into the king's hands, because he was nearest to his mother's counsel, and she went just as be advised her, as people thought.

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A. 1043. This year was Edward consecrated king at Winchester on the first day of Easter. And this year, fourteen days before Andrew's-mass, the king was advised to ride from Gloucester, and Leofric the earl, and Godwin the earl, and Sigwarth (Siward] the earl, with their followers, to Winchester, unawares upon the lady (Emma] ; and they bereaved her of all the treasures which she possessed, they were not to be told, because before that she had been very hard with the king her son ; inasmuch as she had done less for him than he would, before he was king, and also since : and they suffered her after that to remain therein.

This year king Edward took the daughter [Edgitha] of Godwin the earl for his wife. And in this same year died bishop Brithwin, and he held the bishopric thirty-eight years, that was the bishopric of Sherborne, and Herman the king's priest succeeded to the bishopric. And in this year Wulfric was hallowed abbat of St. Augustine's at Christmas, on Stephen's mass-day, by leave of the king, and, on account of his great infirmity, of abbat Elfstan.

A. 1044. This year archbishop Eadsine* gave up the bishopric by reason of his infirmity, and he blessed thereto Siward abbat of Abingdon, as bishop, by the king's leave and counsel, and Godwin's the earl's : it was known to few men else before it was done, because the archbishop thought that some other man would obtain or buy it whom he could less trust in, and be pleased with, if more men should know of it. And in this year was a very great famine over all England, and corn was so dear as no man before remembered ; so that the sester of wheat went up to sixty pence, and even further. And in the same year the king went out to Sandwich with thirty-five ships : and Athelstan the churchwarden obtained the abbacy at Abingdon. And Stigand re-obtained his bishopric. And in the same year king Edward took Edgitha, daughter of Godwin the earl, to wife, ten days before Candlemas.

A. 1044. This year died Living bishop in Devonshire, and Leofric succeeded thereto : he was the king's priest. And in this same year died Elfstan abbat of St. Augustine's, on the third before the Nones of July. And in this same year was outlawed Osgod Clapa.

A. 1045. In this year died bishop Brithwint on the 10th before the Kalends of May; and king Edward gave the bishopric to Herman his priest. And in the same summer king Edward went out with his ships to Sandwich ; and there so great a force was gathered, that no man had.

* Of Canterbury.
+ Of Ramsbury, afterwards removed to Salisbury.


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