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SECTION VI. The Administrators of Mines may vote instead of their principals, provided the latter do not reside in that neighbourhood (Territorio), and provided such Administrators be fully authorized by their principals for that purpose, and such Administrators shall be eligible as Deputies, if their occupations permit it, and they have the necessary qualifications.

SECTION VII. The Judge of Mines of each Mine-Town, or establishment, together with the Deputies of the preceding year, shall preside at and regulate the election, and shall have votes at the same, and in case of dispute, the vote of the Judge shall be decisive, and those persons who have the greater number of votes, qualified and computed as before determined, shall be considered as duly elected.

SECTION VIII. In each Mine-Town, or establishment, there shall be a deputation, consisting of two Deputies; and to the end that those employments may be for the duration of two years, and that one of such Deputies may be a person well qualified for the office, in the first year alone of carrying this Ordinance into effect, two Deputies shall be appointed, but in every succeeding year only one, who is to replace the Deputy then oldest in office, and as this provision cannot be complied with at the second Election (i. e. at the and of the first year), that Deputy of the two first elected shall remain in office during the second year, who at the first appointment was elected by the greatest number of votes, so that the other of the two first elected Deputies will be in office only for one year.

SECTION IX. There shall also be elected in the same manner, in each Mine Town, or establishment, four Substitutes (Substitutos), who are to supply the place of the Deputies, in the case of their refusal to serve, their death, illness, necessary absence, or other just impediment, and to assist at the several Courts of Appeal in such cases and circumstances as may occur, and which will be treated of in their proper place: but in districts where the electors themselves are to be nominated, according to the Fifth Section of this present Chapter, those four who shall have the greater number of votes are to be the Substitutes for the first year, and it is to be understood that these offices are to be also for the duration of two years, and in each successive year only two new Substitutes are to be chosen, observing, with regard to them, the same rule which has been laid down for the election of Deputies in the preceding Section; and for the sake of greater perspicuity, and to prevent all arbitrary acts in the succession, either to the said offices of Substitutes or to those of Advisers, as directed by several Sections of these Ordinances, those persons shall always be preferred, who shall have had the greater number of votes at their respective elections, when the elections have been on one and the same day; but in other cases those who have been longest in office shall be preferred.

SECTION X. The said Substitutes shall also be Recorders (Procuradores Sindicos) of their respective districts; and shall observe and procure whatever may appear necessary for the common interests of the Miners in their neighbourhood, and by virtue of this office shall have a superior claim to be elected as Deputies, or to other offices connected with the Mines.

SECTION XI. The persons elected as Deputies must accept the cffice within three days of the time of their election, under a penalty of $1000, which penalty is to go to the fund of that district, and the person refusing to accept shall be obliged to serve the office, notwithstanding the payment of such penalty ; and even though there may appear a just cause for bis refusal, he must accept the office notwithstanding, and serve it until such cause shall have been admitted by the Royal Tribunal General of the Miners, to which body it must be submitted.

SECTION XII. It is forbidden to re-elect any person to any one of the before-mentioned offices until the expiration of two years from his last serving in such office, and the person re-elected, after such interval, must accept the same office under a penalty of 500 dollars, which penalty is to be paid to the general fund of the district, and he shall be obliged to serve the office, notwithstanding the payment of such penalty ; without prejudice, however, to any sufficient cause of exemption which he may have; but this must be submitted to the Royal Tribunal General of Mexico, and he must serve the office in the mean time as directed by the preceding Section.

SECTION XIII. All the Mine-Proprietors, Mine-Suppliers, persons reducing by contract, and Owners of reducing establishments of the respective districts, shall confer on the new Deputies power to promote their interests and pretensions, and for all the usual purposes, and shall swear to obey them in all that relates to the exercise of their offices; and the Deputies themselves shall take upon them their office according to law, and swear to observe these Orrlinances (which are to be read at every election at the time of their entering into office), and to maintain secrecy in the causes which come under their cognizance.

SECTION XIV. As soon as the election is over, an account of it, and proper notice, shall be immediately transmitted to the Royal Tribunal General of the Miners, in order that if there shall appear to be no defect or irregularity in the conduct of it, it may be approved of by the Supreme Government of New Spain : and be it understood, that no charges whatever shall be made for the procuring of such approval, nor for any of the formalities which must precede it.

SECTION XV. The Territorial Deputies (Disputados Territoriales), the Inspectors, and Surveyors of Mines, shall receive no pay from my Royal Treasury, but shall be supported from the profits of the respective mines, agreeably to the laws upon that subject; for which purpose, the Royal Tribunal General of Mexico shall impose certain moderate duties, according to the conditions and circumstances of each mine district, in the manner and under the rules laid down by Section xxxvi. of Chapter III. of these Ordinances.

SECTION XVI. In the month of February in every year, the Territorial Deputations (Diputaciones territoriales) shall submit to the Royal Tribunal General of Mexico, a report upon the condition of the mincs and Miners in their respective districts, and their dependencies, suggesting such measures as may appear to them conducive to the preservation and better advancement of the same, and also upon the quantity of silver produced, and of quicksilver consumed in the preceding year : upon the number of mines which are in course of actual working, as well as such as have been abandoned, and why they have been 80 abandoned ; and upon those which have been newly discovered, or re-established; requiring for this purpose, from the Provincial Courts and Treasuries, and other offices, all certificates, attestations and other documents which may be necessary: And it is hereby ordered, that the said reports and documents be laid before the Viceroy, in order that, after acquainting himself with their contents, he may submit them to me, with a suggestion of such measures as he may deem advisable, and likely to meet with my Royal Approbation,

CHAPTER III.

OF THE JURISDICTION IN MINING CAUSES, AND THE MODE OF TAKING COGNI

ZANCE, OF PROCEEDING, AND PASSING JUDGMENT AND SENTENCE IN THE SAME IN THE 1ST, 2ND, AND 3RD INSTANCES.

SECTION I. I GRANT to the Royal Tribunal General of the Miners the power of hearing and deciding all concerns relating to the administration, direction, and management of the body of Miners, and I therefore declare that the territorial deputations of all the mining districts shall be fully and entirely subordinate to it in all such matters of administration.

SECTION II. The Royal Tribunal General shall, moreover, take cognizance of all causes, arising out of the discovery, denunciation," right of property, extent, draining, desertion, and (despilaramientos) destruction of the supports or pillars of the mines, and of all that may occur in the same to the prejudice of the operations therein, and in contravention of these Ordinances, and also of what‘ever relates to the supply of mines, the sale or exchange of ores, or silver and gold, of copper, lead, and other mineral substances, instruments for reducing, (Maquilas), and of other things of the same nature ; but I declare, that such power of deciding causes shall only be exercised by the said Royal Tribunal General within twenty-five leagues of the capital of Mexico.

SECTION III. Without detracting from the peculiar jurisdiction of administration granted to the Royal Tribunal by the First Article of this Section, the same power shall be exercised by the territorial deputations in their respective territories, in causes which may occur, but only by the two Deputies jointly, for the support and encouragement of the mining operations in their particular district, the interest and advantage of the Proprietors of mines, the preservation and increase of the population, the due administration of justice, the welfare of the inhabitants, and the relief of the poor : be it, however, understood, that the same shall be done in immediate subordination to the Royal Tribunal General, as directed in the said first article ; with this proviso, that they are not to exercise any formal acts of jurisdiction, except in such causes as are expressly referred to them by these Ordinances.

SECTION IV. The territorial deputations shall, in their respective districts, have the peculiar power, or jurisdiction, of deciding causes, which I have in the Second Article of this Section granted to the Royal Tribunal General in all such

* Denunciacion, Denunciar, Denunciante. These words deserve particular attention, as they denote the mode of acquiring mines, and are constantly occurring throughout the ordinances, Denunciar relates as well to original mines, i. e, mines which have never before been worked, as to mines which have once been worked, but have fallen into a ruinous state ; in the former case it means, " to give notice that a certain mine exists, and that the person so giving notice, intends to work it.” Whereupon, after complying with certain conditions required by the Ordinances the mine is allotted to such person. In the latter it means," to give notice that some mine owner has either neglected the working of his mine, so that it is reduced to a state of decay, or that he has acted in contravention of these Ordinances, which points being proved, the person so giving notice himself acquires the mine.” The word has generally been rendered “to inform of,” or “ to acquire by informing of,” but as it implies a great deal more than this, and as it has a peculiar technical signification in the Spanish, I have preferred translating it by the word " denounce,"

matters as are there expressed, proceeding in, and deciding the same in a manner wholly independent of the said Royal Tribunal General; since, in the exercise of such jurisdiction, they are not to act subordinately to the said Tribunal, which is hereby prohibited from taking cognizance of, or interfering with any such causes and proceedings out of their own jurisdiction.

SECTION V. Since all the foregoing causes and disputes are to be determined between the parties in the shortest and most summary manner, according to justice, and the customary good faith of commercial transactions, without any of the usual delays and written declarations, or petitions of lawyers, it is my Will, that wbenever any person shall appear before the Royal Tribunal, or before the Territorial Deputation of any of the mining districts to commence an action or suit, they shall not allow any complaint or proceedings to be presented in writing, until after they shall have cited before them both parties, where it is practicable to do so, and heard orally their several causes of actions, and replies or objections, and endeavoured to compromise and settle the matter in dispute between them, with the utmost possible dispatch ; but if they should not succeed in bringing about the arrangement between the parties, and if the subject in question shall exceed the sum or value of $200 (for all causes relating to sums not exceeding that amount are to be decided orally, whether the parties consent to it or not), then the petitions or claims in writing, may be received, provided the same have neither been drawn up, arranged, or signed by lawyers; and whenever it shall be necessary to proceed in any cause, in consequence of not having been able to arrange and settle the same orally between the parties, then the demands or requests of the complainant shall all be received and attended to, previously to the hearing of any on the part of the defendant.

SECTION VI. In consideration of the object above expressed, of procuring a decision in allo causes and disputes in the shortest and most summary manner, according to justice and good faith, I thereby ordain and command, for the better attainment of that end, that in actions before the said Royal Tribunal and Territorial Deputations in the first instance, as also in causes of appeal and in the judgments to be pronounced therein, they shall pay no regard to any defect in the proceedings, or want of attention to the minute formalities of the law, or any irregularity of diction, but shall, in all causes, decide and judge with a strict regard to the merits of the case, and for that. purpose, they shall officially examine the necessary witnesses, provided they do not exceed the number of ten, and take the depositions of parties where it may be thought requisite, and shall thereupon give and pronounce their determination, and judgment or sentence.

SECTION VII. to avoid all useless and malicious appeals, which are made for

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