ated, is carried off through a channel, with the water; the silver re

maining at the bottom. Llaves (keys). Supports of oak, with notches and circular joints, which

extend to the four corners of the pit, and support the lining or timber

covering. Also the two timbers which support the shed for draining. Lazadores (persons who use a lazo or noose). Persons employed to collect

hands for working the mines, in case of a scarcity of workinen; so

called from their remarkable dexterity in throwing a lazo. Leñador (woodman) Workman employed in carrying or supplying wood

for the smelting furnaces. Limadura (filings.). A film with which the metal becomes coated in the

small assays made for the purpose of ascertaining the state of the monton, and what additions of quicksilver or other ingredients it may re

quire. Lis. The silver is said to form lis, when the quicksilver is resolved into

almost imperceptible particles, which occasions the loss and consumption in washing and stirring the montons of ore, in the course of the reduc

tion by amalgamation. Lumbreras (sky-lights). Communication between two works, for the sake of

ventilation, and to make the lights burn.

M Malacate (whim). A machine moved by mules or horses. It consists of a

wheel, a cage or drum, and an axle (exe). It is used for winding, the ropes, so as to raise and let down the bags of ore or skins of water by

the pit. Mantas (blankets). Sacks made of the thread of the aloe, and filled with

ore or rubbish. Mantos (cloaks). Veins of ore spreading horizontally through the moun.

tain, but of no depth. Marca (mark). The royal arms, stamped on a piece of assayed silver, as

a token of its having paid the duties to the crown. Mecha (match). A twist of cotton and grease, ma le by the workman call

ed cohetero or golpeador, usually from his drawers or shirt, and used for

firing the cartridge. Medidas de mina (dimensions or boundaries of a mine). As to silver mines,

they form a parallelogram of 160 varas in length and 80 in width, in the discoverer's, and 120 and 60 in an ordinary mine. As to gold mines, the discoverer’s is 100 varas in length, and 50 in width; and an ordinary mine, 80 in length, and 40 in width. The internal dimensions

should correspond with the external ones. Metal de ayuda (assistant ore). What the words denote, that is to say,

ore used to assist the smelting of other ore, and to temper it. Metal de cebo. Very rich ore, which is smelted in refining tests.

Metal pepena. Rich picked gold or silver ore; the common ore is called

ordinario. Mina (mine). The descubridora is the first mine discovered on the vein,

or on a new vein in the same hill; all others are called ordinary mines. Mogrollo. The same as metal de cebo, being very rich. It is not smelted

in a furnace, being safer in the hollow of a test. Molonque. A piece of ore, of uniform richness, containing more silver than

extraneous matter, or at any rate, equal parts.

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Ν Natas or escorias (scum or scoriæ). Dross thrown off in the smelting furnace; in which case the furnace is said to texear well.

P Panino. A person is said to know the panino, when he possesses experience

and skill in judging from the appearance of the ground, the colour or

shade of the ore, and other signs, whether there be metal. Parcionero (partner). Part-owners of mines. Partido (share). The division of the ore amongst partners in their respec

tive shares. Also, the division made by the barmen, of the ore they raise-over and above the tequio, or quantity they have to contribute at stated hours. Also a payment made by the miners to the owner of an adit, or general work of draining, for getting out the rubbish and ore,

and for the draining. Pepe (short for Joseph). Boy who lights each barman at his work, and as

sists him in it at certain hours. Pepena. See metal pepena. Pico (pick). A kind of iron hammer, tipped with steel at both ends, of 8,

10 or 12 pounds in weight, and longer or shorter, according to the

fancy of cach barman. Piedras de mano (stone carried by hand). Ore of good quality, which the

miners usually set apart for various pious purposes, which is called, gir

ing a piedra de mano. Pilar (pillar). Part of the substance of the hill, left between the excava.

tions made cross-wise upon the vein ; in other words, a support for the
roof or back of the work, being the intermediate ground left between
the winzes, cross-cuts and levels. It ought to be lined with timber, and

should not be worked into or weakened.
Pileta (cistern). In which the waters within the mine are collected, to pre-

vent them from pouring down and inundating the lower works. In a smelting furnace, the breast-pan or vessel into which the melted metal

flows down from the bottom stone. Pina (pine apple,) or Pella (mass.) The amalgum of silver and quick

silver, before the latter is driven off.

Pinta (spot or mark.) An indication of this or that ore, by which its de

gree of richness is estimated, according to the colour, grain, weight or lightness. Amongst the good indications are the gallos, or threads of gold and silver in the ore; the ores called polvorilla, jaboncillos, ayemado, apericado, cardenillo, arenillas ; copper and lead. And amongst the bad ones, are mundic and antimony. But it is always necessary to prove the ore by an assay, as these indications are some

times fallacious. Plan. (floor.) To work de plan, is to work either perpendicularly down.

wards, or a chiflon, that is to say, extending both forward and down

wards. Planes. The floor or deepest part of the mine. Planchera. A place or float made of white earth, connected with the

smelting furnace, and in which the ingots are formed. Plomillos. Particles charged with lead, which the scum or scoria of the

metal carries off with it. See Natas. Pueble (peopling.) The actual working of a mine by labourers, for its

improvement, as regulated by the ordinance, whether in ore or dead

work. Puertas (gates.) Very firm rock concealing the vein. When this is got

through by blasting, the vein is generally discovered again, in a richer state than previously.

Quemazon. (effect of heat.) Light metallic dross, vesicular and scorched,

which is one of the indications of a vein. Quita-pepena. He who attends to the entrance of the mine and the getting

out the ore, to guard against theft.

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Rebolturon or Reboltura (from revolver, to mix.) A mixture of ground

ore with assistant ore, litharge, impregnated cupels, plomillos and slag,

preparatory to smelting. Rebotalleros. Persons who search for ore amongst the heaps of refuse or

rubbish, which generally contain a little ore. It would be much better

if these persons would work, being generally idle. Recogedores. See Lazadores. Registro (registry.) A description of the mine and its situation, and an

exhibition of the ore before the justice; which, after the depth of three estados has been sunk, possession judicially given, and the boundaries defined, serves as an evidence of title. Upon every change of ownership, and upon the making of a new pit or contramina,

there should be a new registry. Repasar (to stir.) To stir the montons of ore, in which magistral and Quicksilver are mixed, from time to time, in the process of reduc

tion. Reposadero (from reposar, to rest. A black, soft and vesicular (hoyoso)

stone, placed at the bottom of the smelting furnace. Rescatadores - (purchasers.) Persons who purchase ore from the mine-own

ers, or who buy the partido or share of ore alloted to the workmen. Riscos. A substance partly crystalline (though not transparent) and part

ly granular, like a cauliflower; the colour being yellow or white.

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Saca (sack; also, a substance raised or extracted.) Is a sack of ore ; and

it is also said that the mine gives a good saca, when the vein being

soft, or of great width, plenty of ore is raised. Socabon (adit.) One or more narrow subterraneous passages driven from

the skirt of a hill, and communicating with the pit; its use being to drain the mine, and for getting out ore, barren ground and rubbish. It ought therefore, to be driven from a point situated lower than the bottom of the workings of the mine.

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Tanates. Baskets made of hide, or of the thread of the aloe (called Me

cate,) in which the ore and rubbish is carried out by the workmen call

ed Tanateros. Tanda. (turn.) Is a cessation of working on certain days. Tapextle. A small wooden platform for working upwards, in the back of

the work. Likewise the timber lining with which the roof is propped up, to prevent its giving way, and resembling the centering of an arch, or a palisading. Most commonly a landing place, made where there is no pillar of support, both to make the ladders more secure, and to give

the labourers an opportunity of taking breath. Temescuitate. The earthy part of the ground ore. Tentadura (from tentar, to try.) An assay of the mixture of quicksilver

and ore, made in a cup, for the purpose of ascertaining what addition the monton may require to bring it to the proper point. It is performed by washing a small portion of the ore, by which means the earthy parts being removed, the sediment, which contains the quicksilver and

silver, is examined. Tepetate. All the ground in the mine which is destitute of ore. Tequio (duty). A certain portion of ore, which the barman, according to

the hardness or softness of the ground, has to deliver to his employer in working hours. The remainder of what the barman raises is divided between him and his employer, and is called partido.

Terrero (rubbish heap). The place where the earth, barren ground and

rubbish is thrown out. Texear bien el horno. Is said when the furnace throws off fine and brittle

dross or scoriæ. Tiro (pit). A perpendicular shaft of three varas, more or less, in diame

ter, either square, octagonal or hexagonal. Its use is to raise the ore in bags and the water in buckets, by means of whims. A perpendicular pit, is one which descends vertically. An inclined pit, has an underlay, and the bags and skins are therefore dragged along the side in re

moving them. Trompa (trumpet) of the smelting furnace. Applied when the blast from

the bellows makes no noise, and does not disperse the cinders. It is said to entromparse, because the ore collects into the form of a trumpet, at the orifice of the twer, through which the blast enters.


Vapor (vapor). Rather worse than bochorno ; for besides putting out the

lights, it is noxious. It proceeds from something in the nature of the ground, combined with the want of ventilation in the cavities of the

mine. Vena (vein.) Is applied to the branches or small veins, of three, two, or

one finger in breadth, or not wider than the back of a knife. Veta (lode or vein). A vein of metallic ore intersecting the ground. It is

called a manto (bed), when it spreads horizontally through the hill ; clavadar (perpendicular), when it proceeds perpendicularly downwards ; echada (underlying or inclined), when it extends sideways in length and depth ; obliqua (oblique), when it crosses the hill ; serpenteada (tortuous), when it winds ; socia (combined) when it unites with an

other; rama (branch), when it branches off from the primary lode. Vuelta (turn). The silver in the refining furnaces is said to dar vuelta

(turn over), when, after all the dross is driven off, the ingot remains of a red color.

Xacal. A hut, either covered with straw, or roofed with shingles or squares

of deal, in which the tools are kept, and likewise the ore, until removed to the amalgamation or smelting works. The places where the ore is kept are also called galeras or despansas. A zacal, that is to say, a hut or covering, is also erected over the pits, to keep off the rain and to shelter the workmen.

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