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site side was immediately stopt, and a parley was held, when articles of capitulation were agreed upon, by which fort Detroit, with all the troops, regulars as well as militia, with all the public stores, arms, and every thing else of a public nature, were surrendered to the British. The militia and volunteers were to be permitted to go home, on condition of not serving again till exchanged. The detachment with the provisions at the river Raisin, and that under colonel M'Arthur, which had been sent to meet it, were included in the surrender. It was stipulated that private persons and property of every description should be respected.
Shortly after this capitulation took place, colonel M Arthur's detachment returned to Detroit, their attempt to penetrate to the river Raisin having proved equally unsuccessful with the former ones. When they arrived within a mile of that place, they learnt its surrender, on which a council was held, when it was determined to send an officer to the fort with a flag of truce. In the evening he returned with two British officers, who informed them that they were prisoners of war. The detachment then marched to Detroit, where they stacked their arms on the citadel.
The day following the surrender of the army, a British officer arrived at the river Raisin, and delivered to captain Brush, the commander of the detachment from Ohio, copies of the ca. pitulation, and of a letter from colonel M'Arthur, stating that his force was included in the surrender. At first these papers were considered forgeries, and the officer and his party were put into confinement; but their truth being confirmed by several soldiers who had made their escape from the garrison at Detroit, a council of the officers was held to consider what was proper to be done. This council decided that general Hull had no right to capitulate for them, and that they were not bound by his acts ; and they accordingly contluded instantly to return to Ohio, and to carry with them all the public property that was possible. It was determined, however, that it would be improper to destroy those public stores that could not be carried off
, as there were a number of American families who had taken refuge in the fort, and some soldiers, who were too sick to be removed, had to be left behind. It was likewise conceived, that the destruction of the stores might induce the enemy to deal more rigidly with the garrison at Detroit. These resolutions of the council were immediately carried into effect, and the detachment returned to the settlements.
Twenty-five pieces of iron, and 8 of brass ordnance fell into the hands of the British at Detroit; several of the latter being pieces which had been surrendered by Burgoyne on the same
day, 35 years before, viz. the 16th of August, 1777. Twentyfive hundred muskets and rifles, and a considerable quantity of ammunition, likewise fell into their hands.
The reasons stated by general Hull for this unfortunate surrender, were, the great inferiority of his force to that of the enemy, joined to the numerous band of Indians, who were daily increasing in number; the hazardous situation in which the detachment under colonels M'Arthur and Cass was placed ; and the impossibility of furnishing his army with the necessary supplies of provisions, military stores, clothing, and comforts for the sick, on pack horses, through a wilderness of 200 miles, filled with hostile savages. The contest, he observes, could not have been sustained more than a day for the want of powder, and but a very few days for the want of provisions. “A large portion, continues he, "of the brave and gallant officers and men I commanded, would cheerfully have contested until the last cartridge had been expended, and the bayonets worn to the sockets. I could not consent to the useless sacrifice of such brave men, when I knew it was impossible for me to sustain my situation."
15. The disasters accompanying this expedition did not end here. On the change of prospects in general Hull's army in Canada, a messenger was despatched to Chicago, or fort Dearborn, situated near the south-west corner of lake Michigan, with orders to captain Heald, to evacuate that post, and proceed with his command, which consisted of 66 men, to Detroit, leaving it to his discretion to dispose of the public property as he thought proper. The neighbouring Indians, hearing that the goods in the factory were to be given to them, crowded into the fort from all quarters. On the 13th of August, captain Wells arrived from fort Wayne, with 30 Miamies, whom he had brought by request of general Hull, for the purpose of escorting the garrison to Detroit. The following day all the goods in the factory store were delivered to the Indians. The surplus arms and ammunition, however, and the spirituous liquors, were destroyed, lest the Indians should make a bad use of them if put into their possession.
On the 15th the garrison commenced their march for Detroit, a part of the Miamies being detached in front, and the remainder in the rear, as guards, under the direction of captain Wells. Their course lay along the beach of lake Michigan, the lake on their left, and a high sand bank on their right, distant about 100 yards. They had not proceeded two miles before they were fired or by the Indians from behind the bank, and an action immediately commenced; but the Miamies giving the garrison no assistance, in fifteen minutes thirty-eight soldiers, two women,
and twelve children were killed, and the Indians had gained possession of all their horses, provisions, and baggage. The remainder were surrounded, and made prisoners. They were then carried back to the fort, and distributed among the different tribes. Next morning the Indians burnt the fort, and carried off their prisoners. The number of Indian warriors in the action was between four and five hundred; their loss about fifteen. Captain Heald and his lady were carried to the mouth of the river St. Joseph, and being both badly wounded, were permitted to reside there with an Indian trader, whence they took an opportunity of going to Michillimackinac, where the captain surrendered himself to the British as a prisoner of war. А lieutenant, twenty-five non-commissioned officers and soldiers, and eleven women and children, were prisoners when the captain separated from them.
By the disastrous issue of this unfortunate expedition of general Hull, besides the loss of men and arms at Detroit, a weak frontier of vast extent was expossed to the brutality of Indian warfare, which continued for twelve months to harass the western settlements, and the territory of Michigan was occupied as a British province.
$1. Character of the American navy. § 2. Cruise of the squadron un
der commodore Rodgers. $ 3. Pursuit of the Belvidera. $ 4. Escape of the Constitution. 5 5. Capture of the Guerriere. $ 6. Cruise of the Essex. $ 7. Rodgers' second cruise. $ 8. The Argus. $ 9. Capture of the Macedonian. S 10. Capture of the Frolick and Wasp. 5 11. Affairs on the lakes. $ 12. Capture of the Caledonia and Detroit. § 13. Battle of Queenstown. s 14. Smyth's abortive expedition.
01. From the disastrous scenes which followed the first efforts of our arms in the north-west, we turn with pleasure to record the glorious events that have taken place on the ocean. There our gallant tars, strong in spirit, though weak in number, in despite of the thousand ships of the self-styled mistress of the ocean, have triumphantly borne the flag of America through every sea, from the rude and inclement shores of Greenland, to the rich and temperate regions of Chili and Peru. The enemy, with his immense disparity of force, has to boast of but two triumphs over us, whilst we can claim almost as many as we have ships.
But the courage of our tars, though it has achieved victories which have thrown a halo of glory around our little navy, forms by no means the most conspicuous or lovely trait in their charac
Their modesty and disinterestedness, their humanity and liberality to the conquered, have been such as uniformly to extort the grateful acknowledgments of the enemy that they have thus doubly vanquished, and have convinced the world, that the character of bravery which they have acquired does not rest merely on the exertion of physical strength and technical skill.
Nor has the naval glory of America suffered by the few reverses that have taken place. On no occasion has its honour been in the slightest degree tarnished; it has been equally sustained in defeat as in victory; and the clouds of adversity have served but to display its character in a new light, and to show that it is adequate to every emergency.
These remarks do not solely apply to national vessels. The commanders and crews of our privateers have not been outshone either in courage or magnanimity, as has been amply proved by their valorous deeds, and by the numerous public testimonies
which have been borne to their worth by the unflattering tongue of those who have suffered by their enterprize*.
2. A few days previous to the declaration of war the frigates United States and Congress, and the brig Argus, received orders to rendezvous off Sandy Hook. On their arrival there on the 21st of June, they were joined by the brig Hornet and the President, from New York, and the same day commodore Rodgers, who commanded the squadron, having received official intelligence of the declaration of war, they put to sea in search of a British convoy which had sailed from Jamaica in the preceding month. The following night information was received of the convoy from an American brig, which had passed them four days before, and the squadron crowded sail in pursuit.
• We are favoured with the following anecdote by a gentleman who was present when the circumstance related took place, he having been captured by the British squadron in a merchant vessel which sailed from England before the knowledge of the war.
In July, 1812, the privateer Dolphin, captain Endicot, of Salem, was cap. tured by a British squadron under commodore Broke, and the captain and crew were put on board the Eolus, lord James Townshend. Endicot, during the short space of time that had elapsed from the declaration of war to his capture, had taken fifteen vessels, and by his enterprize, activity, and courage, had excited a considerable degree of asperity against him in the minds of the officers of the squadron, who had almost daily heard of his exploits. On the arrival of the crew on board the Eolus, they were treated with much haughtiness, and suffered some indignities. Captain Endicot, in particular, was treated with such haughty reserve, that for several days not a word was exchanged with him.
This treatment, however, was but of short duration. On board the Dolphin the British found more of their own countrymen prisoners than there were men in the privateer, and on examining them, they were equally surprised and mortified to hear the conduct of the Americans spoken of in the highest terms of approbation, to find that every thing had been done to render their situation comfortable, and that all on board had shared equally in every luxury that the vessel afforded. It was also discovered, that in a former cruize Endicot had captured off Nova Scotia a vessel in which there was an old woman passenger, who had $ 800 in cash on board, and who appeared in great distress at the prospect of losing her property. Endicot had with difficulty soothed her, as she could hardly be persuaded that her little all was not irrecoverably gone. The crew, on hearing of the woman's fears, unanimously declared that not a cent of it should be touched. In the warmth of her gratitude for this liberality, she made the circumstance publicly known through the newspapers on her arrival in the United States,
The British officers, ashamed now of their past conduct, and mortified at be. ing outdone in magnanimity by a privateersman, changed their conduct towards Endicot, and invited him to mess in the gun-room, where his frank, manly be. haviour quickly secured him their highest respect. In speaking of privateers, he remarked to the British officers, that they were under the same regulations as national vessels, and that American privateering naturally differed from that of other nations, as it was generally considered in the United States as a na. tional mode of carrying on the war, and hastening peace, by operating on the enemy in her most vulnerable point.