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means of enjoyment superior to what were possessed by their
This unequalled prosperity could not have been attained by the utmost liberality of the government or the persevering industry of the people, had not the maritime power of the mother country secured to its colonies a safe access to every market where the produce of their labour was in demand.
The unavoidable and immediate consequence of a separation from Great Britain must be the loss of this inestimable advantage ; and what is offered you in exchange to become a territory of the United States, and share with them that seclusion from the ocean, which the policy of their present government enforces--you are not even flattered with a participation of their boasted independence, and it is but too obvious that, once exchanged from the powerful protection of the United Kingdom, you must be re-annexed to the dominion of France, from which the provinces of Canada were wrested by the arms of Great Britain, at a vast expense of blood and treasure, from no other motive but to relieve her ungrateful children from the oppression of a cruel neighbour this restitution of Canada to the empire of France was the stipulated reward for the aid afforded to the revolted colonies, now the United States--the debt is still due, and there can be no doubt but the pledge has been renewed as a consideration for commercial advantages, or rather for an expected relaxation in the tyranny of France over the commercial world. Are you prepared, inhabitants of Upper Canada, to become willing subjects or rather slaves to the despot who rules the nations of Europe with a rod of iron? If not, arise in a body, exert your energies, co-operate cordially with the king's regular forces, to repel the invader, and do not give cause to your children, when groaning under the oppression of a foreign master, to reproach you with having too easily parted with the richest inheritance of this earth-a participation in the name, character, and freedom of Britons.
The same spirit of justice, which will make every reasonable allowance for the unsuccessful efforts of zeal and loyalty, will not fail to punish the defalcation of principle; every Canadian freeholder is by deliberate choice bound by the most solemn oaths to defend the monarchy as well as his own property ; to shrink from that engagement is a treason not to be forgiven; let no man suppose that if in this unexpected struggle his majesty's arms should be compelled to yield to an overwhelming force, the province will be eventually abandoned; the endeared relation of its first settlers, the intrinsic value of its commerce, and the pretensions of its powerful rival to repossess the Canadas, are pledges that no peace will be established by the United States and Great Britain and Ireland, of which the restoration of these provinces does not make the most prominent condition.
Be not dismayed at the unjustifiable threat of the commander of the enemy's forces, to refuse quarter should an Indian appear in the ranks. The brave band of natives which inhabit this colony were, like his majesty's subjects, punished for their zeal and fidelity by the loss of their possessions in the late colonies, and rewarded by his majesty with lands of superior value in this province: the faith of the British government has never yet been violated; they feel that the soil they inherit is to them and their posterity protected from the base arts so frequently devised to overreach their simplicity. By what new principles are they to be prevented from defending their property? If their warfare, from being different to that of the white people, is more terrific to the enemy, let him retrace his steps--they seek him not-and cannot expect to find women and children in an invading army; but they are men, and have equal rights with other men to defend themselves and their property when invaded, more especially when they find in the enemy's camp, a ferocious and mortal foe using the same warfare which the American commander affects to reprobate.
This inconsistent and unjustifiable threat of refusing quarter for such a cause as being found in arms with a brother sufferer in defence of invaded rights, must be exercised with the certain assurance of retaliation, not only in the limited operations of war in this part of the king's dominions, but in every quarter of the globe : for the national character of Britain is not less distinguished for humanity than strict retributive justice, which will consider the execution of this inhuman threat as deliberate murder, for which every subject of the offending power must make expiation.
ISAAC BROCK, Maj. Gen. and Pres. Head Quarters, Fort George, 22d July, 1812. By order of his honour the president.
J. B. GLEGG, Capt. 4. D. C. GOD SAVE THE KING.
AMERICAN AND BRITISH ACCOUNTS OF THE CAPTURE OF
Detroit, 4th August, 1812. Sir, I take the earliest opportunity to acquaint your excellency of the surrender of the garrison of Michillimackinac, under my command, to his Britannic majesty's forces under the command of captain Charles Roberts, on the 17th ult. The particulars of which are as follow:
On the 16th, I was informed by the Indian interpreter, that he had discovered from an Indian that the several nations of Indians then at St. Joseph, (a British garrison, distant forty miles,) intended to make an immediate attack on Michillimackinac. I was inclined, from the coolness I had discovered in some of the principal chiefs of the Ottawa and Chippawa nations, who had but a few days before professed the greatest friendship for the United States, to place confidence in this report. I immediately called a meeting of the American gentlemen at that time on the island, in which it was thought proper to despatch a confidential person to St. Joseph to watch the motions of the Indians. Captain Daurman, of the militia, was thought the most suitable for this service. He embarked about sun-set and met the British forces within ten or fifteen miles of the island, by whom he was made prisoner, and put on his parole of honour. He was landed on the island at day break, with positive directions to give me no intelligence whatever, He was also instructed to take the inhabitants of the village indiscriminately to a place on the west side of the island, where their persons and property should be protected by a British guard ; but should they go to the fort, they would be subject to a general massacre by the savages, which would be inevitable if the garrison fired a gun. This information I received from Dr. Daý, who was passing through the village when every person was flying for refuge to the enemy. Inmediately on being informed of the approach of the enemy,
I placed ammunition, &c, on the block houses; ordered every gun charged, and made every preparation for action. About 9 o'clock I could discover that the enemy were in possession of the heights that commanded the fort, and one piece of their artillery directed to the most defenceless part of the garrison. The Indians at this time were to be seen in great numbers in the edge of the woods. At half past 11 o'clock the enemy sent in a flag of truce, demanding a surrender of the fort and island to his Britannic majesty's forces. This, sir, was the first information I had of the declaration of war; I, however, had anticipated it, and was as well prepared to meet such an event as I possibly could have been with the force under my command, amounting to fifty-seven effective men, including officers. Three American gentlemen, who were prisoners, were permitted to accompany the flag: from them I ascertained the strength of the enemy to be from nine hundred to one thousand strong, consisting of regular troops, Canadians, and savages; that they had two pieces of artillery, and were provided with ladders and ropes for the purpose of scaling the works if necessary. After I had obtained this information, I consulted my officers and also the American gentlemen present, who were very intelligent men; the result of which was, that it was impossible for the garrison to hold out against such a superior force. In this opinion I fully concurred, from conviction that it was the only measure that could prevent a general massacre.
The fort and garrison were accordingly surrendered.
The enclosed papers exhibit copies of the correspondence between the officer commanding the British forces and myslf, and of the articles of capitulation. This subject involved questions of a peculiar nature ; and I hope, sir, that my demands and protests will meet the approbation of my government. I cannot allow this opportunity to escape without expressing my obligation to Dr. Day, for the service he rendered me in conducting this correspondence.
In consequence of this unfortunate affair, I beg leave, sir, to demand that a court of enquiry may be ordered to investigate all the facts connected with it; and I do further request, that the court may be speedily directed to express their opinion on the merits of the case. I have the honour to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
P. HANKS, Lieutenant of Artillery. His Excellency Gen. Hull, commanding the N. W. Army, P.S. The following particulars relative to the British force were obtained after the capitulation, from a source that admits of no doubt: Regular troops, 46, (including 4 officers), Canadian militia, 260. Total, 306.
Savages-Sioux, 56; Winnebagoes, 48 ; Tallesawains, 39; Chippawas avd Ottawas, 572.
Savages, 715; Whites, 306. Total, 1021.
It may also be remarked, that one hundred and fifty Chippawas and Ottawas oined the British two days after the capitulation.
P. HANKS. Heights above Michillimackinack, 17th July, 1812.
CAPITULATION, Agreed upon between Captain Charles Roberts, commanding his Britannic majesty's forces on the one part, and Lieutenant Porter Hanks, commanding the forces of the United States, on the other part.
1st, The fort of Michillimackinac shall immediately be surrendered to the British forces.
2d, The garrison shall march out with the honours of war, lay down their arms, and become prisoners of war; and shall be sent to the United States of America by his Britannic majesty, not to serve this war, until regularly exchanged: and for the due performance of this article, the officers pledge their word and honour.
3d, All the merchant vessels in the harbour, with their cargoes, shall be in possessiun of their respective owners.
4th, Private property shall be held sacred as far as it is in my power.
5th, All citizens of the United States, who shall not take the oath of allegiance to his Britannic majesty, shall depart with their property from the island in one month from the date hereof. (Signed)
CHARLES ROBERTS, Capt. commanding the forces of his Britannic majesty.
P. HANKS, Lieut. commanding the United States troops. Supplement to the articles of capitulation signed on the 17th July:
The captains and crews of the vessels Erie and Freegoodwill shall be included under the second article not to serve until regularly exchanged, for which the officers shall pledge their word and honour. Fort Michillimackinac, 17th July, 1812.
CHARLES ROBERTS, Capt. commanding the forces of his Britanic majesty, GRANTED,
P. HANKS, Lieut. commanding the United States' forces.
Makina, July 18, 1812. Dear sir, I am happy to have it in my power to announce to you, that fort Makina capitulated to us on the 17th inst. at 11 o'clock, A. M. capt. Roberts at our head, with part of the 10th regiment, 5th battalion: Mr. Crawford had the command of the Canadians which consisted of about 200 men ; Mr. Dickson, 113 Sioux, Forlavoins, and Winebagoes ; my