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AMERICAN AND BRITISH ACCOUNTS OF THE CAPTURE OF
Detroit, 4th August, 1812. Sir, I take the earliest opportunity to acquaint your excellency of the surrender of the garrison of Michillimackinac, under my command, to his Britannic majesty's forces under the command of captain Charles Roberts, on the 17th ult. The particulars of which are as follow:
On the 16th, I was informed by the Indian interpreter, that he had discovered from an Indian that the several nations of Indians then at St. Joseph, (a British garrison, distant forty miles,) intended to make an immediate attack on Michillimackinac. I was inclined, from the coolness I had discovered in some of the principal chiefs of the Ottawa and Chippawa nations, who had but a few days before professed the greatest friendship for the United States, to place confidence in this report. I immediately called a meeting of the American gentlemen at that time on the island, in which it was thought proper to despatch a confidential person to St. Joseph to watch the motions of the Indians. Captain Daurman, of the militia, was thought the most suitable for this service. He embarked about sun-set and met the British forces within ten or fifteen miles of the island, by whom he was made prisoner, and put on his parole of honour. He was landed on the island at day break, with positive directions to give me no intelligence whatever, He was also instructed to take the inhabitants of the village indiscriminately to a place on the west side of the island, where their persons and property should be protected by a British guard; but should they go to the fort, they would be subject to a general massacre by the savages, which would be inevitable if the garrison fired a gun. This information I received
I from Dr. Day, who was passing through the village when every person was flying for refuge to the enemy. Immediately on being informed of the approach of the enemy, I placed ammunition, &c. on the block houses; ordered every gun charged, and made every preparation for action. About 9 o'clock I could discover that the enemy
possession of the heights that commanded the fort, and one piece of their artillery directed to the most defenceless part of the garrison. The Indians at this time were to be seen in great numbers in the edge of the woods. At half past 11 o'clock the enemy sent in a flag of truce, demanding a surrender of the fort and island to his Britannic majesty's forces. This,
sir, was the first information I had of the declaration of war; I, however, had anticipated it, and was as well prepared to meet such an event as I possibly could have been with the force under my command, amounting to fifty-seven effective men, including officers. Three American gentlemen, who were prisoners, were permitted to accompany the flag: from them I ascertained the strength of the enemy to be from nine hundred to one thousand strong, consisting of regular troops, Canadians, and savages; that they had two pieces of artillery, and were provided with ladders and ropes for the purpose of scaling the works if necessary. After I had obtained this information, I consulted my officers and also the American gentlemen present, who were very intelligent men; the result of which was, that it was impossible for the garrison to hold out against such a superior force. In this opinion I fully concurred, from conviction that it was the only measure that could prevent a general massacre.
The fort and garrison were accordingly surrendered.
The enclosed papers exhibit copies of the correspondence between the officer commanding the British forces and myslf, and of the articles of capitulation. This subject involved questions of a peculiar nature ; and I hope, sir, that my demands and protests will meet the approbation of my government. I cannot allow this opportunity to escape without expressing my obligation to Dr. Day, for the service he rendered me in conducting this correspondence.
In consequence of this unfortunate affair, I beg leave, sir, to demand that a court of enquiry may be ordered to investigate all the facts connected with it; and I do further request, that the court may be speedily directed to express their opinion on the merits of the case. I have the honour to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
P. HANKS, Lieutenant of Artillery. His Excellency Gen. Hull, commanding the N. W. Army, P.S. The following particulars relative to the British force were obtained after the capitulation, from a source that admits of no doubt: Regular troops, 46, (including 4 officers), Canadian militia, 260. Total, 306.
Savages-Sioux, 56; Winnebagoes, 48 ; Tallesawains, 39; Chippawas avd Ottawas, 572.
Savages, 715; Whites, 306. Total, 1021.
It may also be remarked, that one hundred and fifty Chippawas and Ottawas oined the British two days after the capitulation.
P. HANKS. Heights above Michillimackinack, 17th July, 1812.
CAPITULATION, Agreed upon between Captain Charles Roberts, commanding his Britannic majesty's forces on the one part, and Lieutenant Porter Hanks, commanding the forces of the United States, on the other part.
1st, The fort of Michillimackinac shall immediately be surrendered to the British forces.
2d, The garrison shall march out with the honours of war, lay down their arms, and become prisoners of war; and shall be sent to the United States of America by his Britannic majesty, not to serve this war, until regularly exchanged: and for the due performance of this article, the officers pledge their word and honour.
3d, All the merchant vessels in the harbour, with their cargoes, shall be in possessiun of their respective owners.
4th, Private property shall be held sacred as far as it is in my power.
5th, All citizens of the United States, who shall not take the oath of allegiance to his Britannic majesty, shall depart with their property from the island in one month from the date hereof. (Signed)
CHARLES ROBERTS, Capt. commanding the forces of his Britannic majesty.
P. HANKS, Lieut. commanding the United States troops. Supplement to the articles of capitulation signed on the 17th July:
The captains and crews of the vessels Erie and Freegoodwill shall be included under the second article not to serve until regularly exchanged, for which the officers shall pledge their word and honour. Fort Michillimackinac, 17th July, 1812.
CHARLES ROBERTS, Capt. commanding the forces of his Britanic majesty, GRANTED,
P. HANKS, Lieut. commanding the United States' forces.
Makina, July 18, 1812. Dear sir, I am happy to have it in my power to announce to you, that fort Makina capitulated to us on the 17th inst. at 11 o'clock, A. M. capt. Roberts at our head, with part of the 10th regiment, 5th battalion: Mr. Crawford had the command of the Canadians which consisted of about 200 men ; Mr. Dickson, 113 Sioux, Forlavoins, and Winebagoes ; my
self about 280 men, Attawas and Chippawas; part of the Attawas of L'harb Cooche had not arrived. It was a fortunate circumstance that the fort capitulated without firing a single gun; had they not done so, I firmly believe not a soul of them would have been saved. My son, Charles Longlade, Augustine Nolin, and Michelle Cadotte, jun. have rendered me great service in keeping the Indians in order, and executing from time to time such commands as were delivered to me by the commanding officer. I never saw so determined a set of people as the Chippawas and Attawas were.
Since the capitulation they have not drank a single drop of liquor, nor even killed a fowl belonging to any persona thing never known before; for they generally destroy every thing they meet with. I am, dear sir, your most obedient servant, (Signed)
JOHN ASKIN, Jun.
Str. Keep. Dep. The Hon. Col. W. Claus, &c. &c. Fort George.
ATTACK ON THE BRITISH ADVANCED POSTS AT THE
RIVER AUX CANARDS.
Copy of a letter from Col. Cass to Gen. Hull.
Sandwich, Upper Canada, July 17, 1812. Sir, in conformity with your instructions, I proceeded with a detachment of 280 men, to reconnoitre the enemy's advanced posts. We found them in possession of a bridge over the river Aux Canards, at the distance of four miles from Malden. After examining their position, I left one company of riflemen, to conceal themselves near the bridge, and upon our appearance on the oppposte side of the river, to commence firing, in order to divert their attention, and to throw them into confusion. I then proceeded with the remain. der of the force about five miles, to a ford over the river Aux Canards, and down on the southern bank of the river. About sunset we arrived within sight of the enemy. Being entirely destitute of guides, we marched too near the bank of the river, and found our progress checked by a creek, which was then impassable. We were then compelled to march up a mile, in order to effect a passage over the creek. This gave
the enemy time to make their arrangements, and prepare for their defence. On coming down the creek we
found them formed; they commenced a distant fire of musquetry. The riflemen of the detachment were formed upon the wings, and the two companies of infantry in the centre. The men moved on with great spirit and alacrity. After the first discharge the British retreated—we continued advancing. Three times they formed, and as often retreated. We drove them about half a mile, when it became so dark that we were obliged to relinquish the pursuit. Two privates in the 41st regiment were wounded and taken prisoners. We learn from deserters, that nine or ten were wounded, and some killed. We could gain no precise information of the number opposed to us. It consisted of a considerable detachment from the 41st regiment, some militia, and a body of Indians. The guard at the bridge consisted of 50 men. Our riflemen stationed on this side the river Aux Canards, discovered the enemy reinforcing them during the whole afternoon. There is no doubt but their number considerably exceeded ours. Lieutenant-col. Miller conducted in the most spirited and able manner. I have every reason to be satisfied with the conduct of the whole detachment.
Very respectfully, sir, I have the honour to be your obedient servant,
(Signed) LEWIS CASS, Col. 3d Reg. O. Vol. His excellency Brig. Gen. Hull.
AMERICAN AND BRITISH ACCOUNTS OF THE SURRENDER
OF THE ARMY UNDER GENERAL HULL.
Montreal, September 8, 1812. Sir, the inclosed despatch was prepared on my arrival at Fort George, and it was my intention to have forwarded it from that place by major Witherell, of the Michigan volun
I made application to the commanding officer at that post, and was refused; he stating that he was not authorised, and general Brock was then at York. We were immediately embarked for this place, and major Witherell obtained liberty at Kingston to go home on parole.
This is the first opportuniiy I have had to forward the despatches.
The fourth United States' regiment is destined for Quebec, with a part of the first. The whole consist of a little over three hundred.
Sir George Prevost, without any request on my part, has