self about 280 men, Attawas and Chippawas; part of the Attawas of L'harb Cooche had not arrived. It was a fortu. nate circumstance that the fort capitulated without firing a single gun; had they not done so, I firmly believe not a soul of m would have been saved. My son, Charles Longlade, Augustine Nolin, and Michelle Cadotte, jun. have rendered me great service in keeping the Indians in order, and executing from time to time such commands as were delivered to me by the commanding officer. I never saw so determined a set of people as the Chippawas and Attawas were.

Since the capitulation they have not drank a single drop of liquor, nor even killed a fowl belonging to any persona thing never known before; for they generally destroy every thing they meet with. I am, dear sir, your most obedient servant, (Signed)


Str. Keep. Dep. The Hon. Col. W. Claus, &c. &c. Fort George.



Copy of a letter from Col. Cass to Gen. Hull.

Sandwich, Upper Canada, July 17, 1812. Sir, in conformity with your instructions, I proceeded with a detachment of 280 men, to reconnoitre the enemy's advanced posts. We found them in possession of a bridge over the river Aux Canards, at the distance of four miles from Malden. After examining their position, I left one company of riflemen, to conceal themselves near the bridge, and upon our appearance on the oppposte side of the river, to commence firing, in order to divert their attention, and to throw them into confusion. I then proceeded with the remainder of the force about five miles, to a ford over the river Aux Canards, and down on the southern bank of the river. About sunset we arrived within sight of the enemy. Being entirely destitute of guides, we marched too near the bank of the river, and found our progress checked by a creek, which was then impassable. We were then compelled to march up a mile, in order to effect a passage over the creek. This gave

the enemy time to make their arrangements, and prepare for their defence. On coming down the creek we

found them formed; they commenced a distant fire of musquetry. The riflemen of the detachment were formed upon the wings, and the two companies of infantry in the centre. The men moved on with great spirit and alacrity. After the first discharge the British retreated—we continued advancing. Three times they formed, and as often retreated. We drove them about half a mile, when it became so dark that we were obliged to relinquish the pursuit. Two privates in the 41st regiment were wounded and taken prisoners. We learn from deserters, that nine or ten were wounded, and some killed. We could gain no precise information of the number opposed to us. It consisted of a considerable detachment from the 41st regiment, some militia, and a body of Indians. The guard at the bridge consisted of 50 men. Our riflemen stationed on this side the river Aux Canards, discovered the enemy reinforcing them during the whole afternoon. There is no doubt but their number considerably exceeded ours. Lieutenant-col. Miller conducted in the most spirited and able manner. I have every reason to be satisfied with the conduct of the whole detachment.

Very respectfully, sir, I have the honour to be your obedient servant,

(Signed) LEWIS CASS, Col. 3d Reg. O. Vol. His excellency Brig. Gen. Hull.




Montreal, September 8, 1812. Sir, the inclosed despatch was prepared on my arrival at Fort George, and it was my intention to have forwarded it from that place by major Witherell, of the Michigan volun

I made application to the commanding officer at that post, and was refused; he stating that he was not authorised, and general Brock was then at York. We were immediately embarked for this place, and major Witherell obtained liberty at Kingston to go home on parole.

This is the first opportuniiy I have had to forward the despatches.

The fourth United States' regiment is destined for Quebec, with a part of the first. The whole consist of a little over three hundred.

Sir George Prevost, without any request on my part, has

offered to take my parole, and permit me to proceed to the states.

Lieutenant Anderson, of the eighth regiment, is the bearer of my despatches. He was formerly a lieutenant in the artillery, and resigned his commission on account of being appointed marshal of the territory of Michigan. During the campaign he has had a command in the artillery ; and I recommend him to you as a valuable officer.

He is particularly acquainted with the state of things pren, vious and at the time when the capitulation took place. He will be able to give you correct information on any points about which you may think proper to enquire. I am, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

WILLIAM HULL. Hon. W. Eustis, Secretary of the Department of War.

Fort George, August 26, 1812. Sir, enclosed are the articles of capitulation by which the fort of Detroit has been surrendered to major-general Brock, commanding his Britannic majesty's forces in Upper Canada, and by which the troops have become prisoners of war. My situation at present forbids me from detailing the particular causes which have led to this unfortunate event. I will, however, generally observe, that after the surrender of Michillimackinac, almost every tribe and nation of Indians, excepting a part of the Miamies and Delawares, north from beyond Lake Superior, west from beyond the Mississippi, south from the Ohio and Wabash, and east from every part of Upper Canada, and from all the intermediate country, joined in open hostility, under the British standard, against the army I commanded, contrary to the most solemn assurances of a large portion of them to remain neutral; even the Ottawa chiefs from Arbecrotch, who formed the delegation to Washington the last summer, in whose friendship I know you had great confidence, are among the hostile tribes, and several of them distinguished leaders. Among the vast number of chiefs who led the hostile bands, Tecumseh, Marpot, Logan, Walk-in-the-water, Split Log, &c. are considered. the principals. This numerous assemblage of savages, under the entire influence and direction of the British commander, enabled him totally to obstruct the only communication which I had with my country. This communication had been opened from the settlements in the state of Ohio, 200 miles through a wilderness, by the fatigues of the army which I marched to the frontier on the river Detroit. The



body of the lake being commanded by the British armed ships, and the shores and rivers by gun boats, the army was totally deprived of all communication by water. On this extensive road it depended for transportation of provisions, military stores, medicine, clothing, and every other supply, on pack horses—all its operations were successful until its arrival at Detroit, and in a few days it passed into the enemy's country, and all opposition seemed to fall before it. One month it remained in possession of this country, and was fed from its resources. In different directions, detachments penetrated sixty miles in the settled part of the province, and the inhabitants seemed satisfied with the change of situation, which appeared to be taking place—the militia from Amherstburg were daily deserting, and the whole country then under the controul of the army was asking for protection. The Indians generally, in the first instance, appeared to be neutralized, and determined to take no part in the contest. The fort of Amherstburg was eighteen miles below my encampment. Not a single cannon or mortar was on wheels suitable to carry before that place. I consulted my officers, whether it was expedient to make an attempt on it with the bayonet alone, without cannon to make a break in the first instance. The council I called was of the opinion it was not. The greatest industry was exerted in making preparation, and it was not until the 7th of August that two 24 pounders and three howitzers were prepared. It was then my intention to have proceeded on the enterprize. While the operations of the army were delayed by these preparations, the clouds of adversity had been for some time and seemed still thickly to be gathering around me. The surrender of Michillimackinac opened the northern hive of Indians, and they were swarming down in every direction. Reinforcements from Niagara had arrived at Amherstburg under the command of colonel Proctor. The desertion of the militia ceased. Besides the reinforcements that came by water, I received information of a very considerable force under the command of major Chambers, on the river Le Trench, with four field-pieces, and collecting the militia on his route, evidently destined for Amherstburg; and in addition to this combination and increase of force, contrary to all my expectations, the Wyandots, Chippawas, Ottawas, Pottawatamies, Munsees, Delawares, &c. with whom I had the most friendly intercourse, at once passed over to Amherstburg, and accepted the tomahawk and scalping knife. There being now a vast number of Indians at the British post, they

were sent to the river Huron, Brownstown, and Maguago to intercept my communication. To open this communication, I detached major Vanhorn of the Ohio volunteers with two hundred men to proceed as far as the river Raisin, under an expectation he would meet captain Brush with one hundred and fifty men, volunteers from the state of Ohio, and a quantity of provision for the army. An ambuscade was formed at Brownstown, and major Vanhorn's detachment defeated and returned to camp without effecting the object of the expedition.

In my letter of the 7th inst. you have the particulars of that transaction with a return of the killed and wounded. Under this sudden and unexpected change of things, and having received an express from general Hall, commanding opposite the British shore on the Niagara river, by which it appeared that there was no prospect of any co-operation from that quarter, and the two senior officers of the artillery having stated to me an opinion that it would be extremely difficult, if not impossible to pass the Turkey river and river Aux Canards with the 24 pounders, and that they could not be transported hy water, as the Queen Charlotte, which carried eighteen 24 pounders, lay in the river Detroit above the mouth of the river Aux Canards; and as it appeared indis

nsably necessary to open the communication to the river Raisin and the Miami, I found myself compelled to suspend the operation against Amherstburg, and concentrate the main force of the army at Detroit. Fully intending, at that time, after the communication was opened, to re-cross the river, and pursue the object at Amherstburg, and strongly desirous of continuing protection to a very large number of the inhabitants of Upper Canada, who had voluntarily accepted it under my proclamation, I established a fortress on the banks of the river, a little below Detroit, calculated for a garrison of three hundred men. On the evening of the 7th, and morning of the 8th inst. the army, excepting the garrison of 250 infantry, and a corps of artillerists, all under the command of major Denny of the Ohio volunteers, re-crossed the river, and encamped at Detroit. In pursuance of the object of opening the communication, on which I considered the existence of the army depending, a detachment of six hundred men, under the command of lieutenant-colonel Miller, was immediately ordered. For a particular account of the proceedings of this detachment, and the memorable battle which was fought at Maguago, which reflects the highest honour on the American arms, I refer you to my letter of the 13th

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